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Johann Hermann von Fersen (died 1801) was a Saxon-born infantry general who served from 1770 in the Imperial Russian Army.
The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars.
He was involved in the battles at Larga and Kagul in the military operations against Yemelyan Pugachev. He won the battle in Upper Kuban against Seraskier Batal-Bey and his 18,000 Turks and 15,000 Highlanders, capturing Batal-Bey and his whole camp. In 1792 he was appointed quartermaster-general under Mikhaïl Kretchetnikov in Lithuania and in 1794 he commanded a special corps in Poland. Under Paul I of Russia he served first as quartermaster-general then commanded the Russian contingent in the failed 1799 Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland. He was defeated at the Battle of Bergen and went into exile. Before news of his defeat reached Saint Petersburg he was an infantry general, but he was later excluded from service by Tsar Paul. On his return from exile he returned to Russian army service but received no further appointments.
The Battle of Larga was fought between 65,000 Crimean Tatars cavalry and 15,000 Ottoman infantry under Kaplan Girey against 38,000 Russians under Field-Marshal Rumyantsev on the banks of the Larga River, a tributary of the Prut River, in Moldavia, for eight hours on 7 July 1770. It was fought on the same day as Battle of Chesma, a key naval engagement of the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774.
The Battle of Cahul was the most important land battle of the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 and one of the largest battles of the 18th century. It was fought on 1 August 1770, in Moldavia, near the village of Frumoasa, just a fortnight after the Russian victory at Larga.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence. Though the victories accrued by the Russian Empire were substantial, they gained far less territory than otherwise would be expected. The reason for this was the complex struggle within the European diplomatic system for a balance of power that was acceptable to other European leading states, rather than Russian hegemony. Russia was able to take advantage of the weakened Ottoman Empire, the end of the Seven Years' War, and the withdrawal of France as the continent's primary military power. This left the Russian Empire in a strengthened position to expand its territory but also lose temporary hegemony over the decentralized Poland. The greater Turkish losses were diplomatic in nature seeing its full decline as a threat to Christian Europe, and the beginning of the Eastern Question that would plague the continent until the end of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century.
The Russian Biographical Dictionary is a Russian-language biographical dictionary published by the Russian Historian Society edited by a collective with Alexander Polovtsov as the editor-in-chief. The dictionary was published in 25 volumes from 1896 to 1918 and considered as one of the most comprehensive Russian biographical sources for the 19th and early 20th century period.
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The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony. The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, led by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops, as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine. The battle was the culmination of the German campaign of 1813 and involved 600,000 soldiers, 2,200 artillery pieces, the expenditure of 200,000 rounds of artillery ammunition and 127,000 casualties, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.
The Hundred Days marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815. This period saw the War of the Seventh Coalition, and includes the Waterloo Campaign, the Neapolitan War as well as several other minor campaigns. The phrase les Cent Jours was first used by the prefect of Paris, Gaspard, comte de Chabrol, in his speech welcoming the king back to Paris on 8 July.
Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars: Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. His military career was closely associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov is considered to have been one of the best Russian generals.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.
Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Sydney Beckwith was an English officer of the British army who served as quartermaster general of the British forces in Canada during the War of 1812, and a commander-in-chief of the Bombay Army during the British Raj. He is most notable for his distinguished service during the Peninsular War and for his contributions to the development and command of the 95th Rifles.
Baron Paul Kray of Krajova and Topolya, was a soldier, and general in Habsburg service during the Seven Years' War, the War of Bavarian Succession, the Austro–Turkish War (1787–1791), and the French Revolutionary Wars. He was born in Késmárk, Upper Hungary.
Count Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld was a Swedish Field Marshal (Fältmarskalk) and Royal Councilor. He was King Charles XII's mentor and chief military advisor, and served as deputy commander-in-chief of the Carolean Army, an army he assisted both in its education and development.
Count Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron, born in Paris, was a French soldier in the service of, first, the Kingdom of France, and then the Russian Empire.
Fabian Gottlieb Fürst von der Osten-Sacken was a Baltic-German Field Marshal who led the Russian army against the Duchy of Warsaw and later governed Paris during the city's brief occupation by the anti-French coalition.
The Battle of Dürenstein, on 11 November 1805, was an engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of the Third Coalition. Dürenstein is located in the Wachau valley, on the river Danube, 73 kilometers (45 mi) upstream from Vienna, Austria. The river makes a crescent-shaped curve between Dürnstein and nearby Krems an der Donau, and the battle was fought in the flood plain between the river and the mountains.
The Battle of the Great Plains, also known as the Battle of the Bagrades, was a battle fought between Scipio Africanus of Rome and a combined Carthaginian and Numidian army late in the Second Punic War. It occurred on the plains south of Bulla Regia around the upper Bagradas River. The attack was designed as diversionary tactic by Rome to disrupt Hannibal's attack on Italy. By defeating the Carthaginians, Scipio Africanus caused Hannibal to leave Italy and return to Africa, where he was later defeated at Zama.
The Persian Campaign or Invasion of Persia also known as Invasion of Iran was a series of engagements in Iranian Azerbaijan and western Iran (Persia) involving the forces of the Ottoman Empire against those of the British Empire and Russian Empire, and also involving local population elements, beginning in December 1914 and ending with the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918 as part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I.
Alexander Mikhailovich Rimsky-Korsakov was a Russian general remembered as an unlucky assistant to Alexander Suvorov during his Swiss expedition of 1799–1800.
The Allied leaders of World War II listed below comprise the important political and military figures who fought for or supported the Allies during World War II. Engaged in total war, they had to adapt to new types of modern warfare, on the military, psychological and economic fronts.
William McEntyre Dye was a soldier from the United States who served in military capacities around the world. He became a brevet general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, a colonel in the Egyptian army and military adviser to the King of Korea.
Paul Grenier joined the French royal army and rapidly rose to general officer rank during the French Revolutionary Wars. He led a division in the 1796-1797 campaign in southern Germany. During the 1800 campaign in the Electorate of Bavaria he was a wing commander. Beginning in 1809, in the Napoleonic Wars, Emperor Napoleon I entrusted him with corps commands in the Italian theater. A skilled tactician, he was one of the veteran generals who made the Napoleonic armies such a formidable foe to the other European powers. After the Bourbon Restoration he retired from the army and later went into politics. Grenier is one of the Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe.
Major General Paul J. Vanderploog, USA is a retired American Quartermaster officer who served as the 41st Quartermaster General of the United States Army from 1989 to 1991. He was inducted into the U.S. Army Quartermaster Foundation's Hall of Fame in 2010.
Viscount Nicolas-François Roussel d'Hurbal (1763–1849), was a French soldier during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
Sir Arthur Wellesley Torrens (1809–1855) was a British Army officer and colonial administrator. He reached the rank of major-general.