Johann Joseph Christian

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Angel in Zwiefalten Abbey Zwiefalten Engel.jpg
Angel in Zwiefalten Abbey
Nebuchadnezzar fighting King Zedekiah, who holds a plan of Jerusalem, in Zwiefalten Abbey Germany Zwiefalten Munster Nebuchadnezzer and Zedekiah.jpg
Nebuchadnezzar fighting King Zedekiah, who holds a plan of Jerusalem, in Zwiefalten Abbey
The high altar in Zwiefalten Abbey, combining a Gothic statue of Mary (1430) with Baroque additions by Christian (ca. 1750) Germany Zwiefalten Munster High Altar.jpg
The high altar in Zwiefalten Abbey, combining a Gothic statue of Mary (1430) with Baroque additions by Christian (ca. 1750)

Johann Joseph Christian (12 February 1706 22 June 1777) was a German Baroque sculptor and woodcarver. His masterworks are considered to be the choir stalls in Zwiefalten Abbey and Ottobeuren Abbey.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Baroque sculpture sculpture of the Baroque movement

Baroque sculpture is the sculpture associated with the Baroque style of the period between the early 17th and mid 18th centuries. In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms—they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles, and reflected a general continuation of the Renaissance move away from the relief to sculpture created in the round, and designed to be placed in the middle of a large space—elaborate fountains such as Bernini's Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi, or those in the Gardens of Versailles were a Baroque speciality. The Baroque style was perfectly suited to sculpture, with Gian Lorenzo Bernini the dominating figure of the age in works such as The Ecstasy of St Theresa (1647–1652). Much Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains, or fused sculpture and architecture to create a transformative experience for the viewer. Artists saw themselves as in the classical tradition, but admired Hellenistic and later Roman sculpture, rather than that of the more "Classical" periods as they are seen today.

Sculpture Branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions

Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving and modelling, in stone, metal, ceramics, wood and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an almost complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast.

Christian was born in Riedlingen, in Further Austria (present-day Baden-Württemberg). His rare double gift as a woodworker and stucco sculptor was equalled only by Joseph Anton Feuchtmayer. In 1744 Christian received a commission to work in Zwiefalten Abbey, where until 1755 he created the choir stalls and numerous stucco figures for the high altar and nave and side chapels, working alongside the painter Franz Joseph Spiegler and the stucco master Johann Michael Feuchtmayer and under the direction of the architect Johann Michael Fischer.

Riedlingen Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Riedlingen is a town in the district (Kreis) of Biberach, Baden-Württemberg, in the south-west of Germany. It is one of the destinations of the Upper Swabian Baroque Route. Riedlingen has approximately 10,000 inhabitants.

Further Austria historical provinces of the House of Habsburg

Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria was the collective name for the early possessions of the House of Habsburg in the former Swabian stem duchy of south-western Germany, including territories in the Alsace region west of the Rhine and in Vorarlberg.

Baden-Württemberg State in Germany

Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany’s third-largest state, with an area of 35,751 km2 (13,804 sq mi) and 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and partly sovereign, federated state which was formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Reutlingen and Ulm.

Subsequently, Christian was commissioned to work on the abbatial church of the Holy Trinity in Ottobeuren Abbey, for which the architect was once again Fischer and for which Christian created the choir stalls, with gilded reliefs, and the organ reliefs. Once again he worked with Spiegler and J. M. Feuchtmayer.

Ottobeuren Abbey abbey

Ottobeuren is a Benedictine abbey, located in Ottobeuren, near Memmingen in the Bavarian Allgäu, Germany.

Besides these two major works, he also worked on various smaller projects, including the parish church in Unlingen and the abbey church in Buchau.

Unlingen Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Unlingen is a town in the district of Biberach in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.

Buchau Abbey

The Imperial Abbey of Buchau was initially a monastery of canonesses regular, and later a collegiate foundation, in Buchau in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The abbey was a self-ruling Imperial Estate and its abbess had seat and vote at the Imperial Diet.

Bad Buchau Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Bad Buchau is a small town in the district of Biberach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany with about 4,000 inhabitants. It is situated near Lake Federsee, which is separated from the town by a wide reed belt.

Christian and his wife had 10 children, of whom five survived infancy. His son Karl Anton Christian (17311810) became abbot of St. Trudpert's Abbey near Münstertal in the Black Forest, and for this church J. J. Christian created a relief painting using a stucco technique for the high altar that is considered unparalleled. [1] Christian died in Riedlingen. Another son, Franz Joseph Christian (17391798), became a sculptor and took over his father's workshop in Riedlingen.

St. Trudperts Abbey former Benedictine abbey in Germany

St. Trudpert's Abbey is a former Benedictine monastery in Münstertal in the southern Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, now the principal house of the Sisters of St. Joseph of St. Trudpert.

Münstertal, Black Forest Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

The Münstertal is a municipality in the southern Black Forest, which belongs to the district of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is 3 miles east from Staufen.

Black Forest mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany

The Black Forest is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany. It is bounded by the Rhine valley to the west and south. Its highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres (4,898 ft). The region is roughly oblong in shape with a length of 160 km (99 mi) and breadth of up to 50 km (31 mi).

Major works

Wiblingen Abbey abbey

Wiblingen Abbey was a former Benedictine abbey which was later used as barracks. Today its buildings house several departments of the medical faculty of the University of Ulm. The former abbey is located south of the confluence of the rivers Danube and Iller, south of the city of Ulm in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Administratively, the former independent village of Wiblingen now belongs to the city of Ulm. The abbey is part of the Upper Swabian Baroque Route.

Zwiefalten Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Zwiefalten is a municipality in the district of Reutlingen, located halfway between Stuttgart and Lake Constance. The former Zwiefalten Abbey dominates the town. The former monastery is considered one of the finest examples of late Baroque art.

Zwiefalten Abbey abbey

Zwiefalten Abbey was a Benedictine monastery situated at Zwiefalten near Reutlingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.

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References

  1. Germany: A Phaidon Cultural Guide. Oxford: Phaidon, 1985. p. 648. ISBN   0-7148-2354-6.