**Johannes Stabius** (**Johann Stab**) (1450–1522) was an Austrian cartographer of Vienna who developed, around 1500, the heart-shape (cordiform) projection map later developed further by Johannes Werner. It is called the * Werner map projection *, but also the **Stabius-Werner** or the **Stab-Werner** projection.

After its introduction by Werner in his 1514 book, *Nova translatio primi libri geographiaae C. Ptolemaei*, the *Werner projection* was commonly used for world maps and some continental maps through the 16th century and into the 17th century. It was used by Mercator, Oronce Fine, and Ortelius in the late 16th century for maps of Asia and Africa. By the 18th century, it was replaced by the * Bonne projection * for continental maps. The *Werner projection* is only used today for instructional purposes and as a novelty.

In 1512, Stabius published a work called the *Horoscopion*. He also devised a card dial.

Stabius was a member of a circle of humanists based in Vienna. This circle included the scholars Georg Tannstetter, Stiborius, Thomas Resch, Stefan Rosinus, Johannes Cuspinianus, and the reformer Joachim Vadianus. These humanists were associated with the court of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

**Cartography** is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.

The **Gall–Peters projection** is a rectangular map projection that maps all areas such that they have the correct sizes relative to each other. Like any equal-area projection, it achieves this goal by distorting most shapes. The projection is a particular example of the cylindrical equal-area projection with latitudes 45° north and south as the regions on the map that have no distortion.

The **Mercator projection** is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. It became the standard map projection for navigation because of its unique property of representing any course of constant bearing as a straight segment. Such a course, known as a rhumb or, mathematically, a loxodrome, is preferred by navigators because the ship can sail in a constant compass direction to reach its destination, eliminating difficult and error-prone course corrections. Linear scale is constant on the Mercator in every direction around any point, thus preserving the angles and the shapes of small objects and fulfilling the conditions of a conformal map projection. As a side effect, the Mercator projection inflates the size of objects away from the equator. This inflation starts infinitesimally, but accelerates with latitude to become infinite at the poles. So, for example, landmasses such as Greenland and Antarctica appear far larger than they actually are relative to landmasses near the equator, such as Central Africa.

A **map projection** is a way to flatten a globe's surface into a plane in order to make a map. This requires a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of the globe into locations on a plane. All projections of a sphere on a plane necessarily distort the surface in some way and to some extent. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties. Every distinct map projection distorts in a distinct way, by definition. The study of map projections is the characterization of these distortions. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections. Projections are a subject of several pure mathematical fields, including differential geometry, projective geometry, and manifolds. However, "map projection" refers specifically to a cartographic projection.

**Petrus Apianus**, also known as **Peter Apian**, **Peter Bennewitz**, and **Peter Bienewitz**, was a German humanist, known for his works in mathematics, astronomy and cartography. His work on "cosmography", the field that dealt with the earth and its position in the universe and presented in his most famous works, *Astronomicum Caesareum* (1540) and *Cosmographicus liber* (1524) which were extremely influential in his time with the numerous editions in multiple languages being published until 1609. The lunar crater *Apianus* and asteroid 19139 Apian are named in his honour.

The use of **orthographic projection in cartography** dates back to antiquity. Like the stereographic projection and gnomonic projection, orthographic projection is a perspective projection, in which the sphere is projected onto a tangent plane or secant plane. The *point of perspective* for the orthographic projection is at infinite distance. It depicts a hemisphere of the globe as it appears from outer space, where the horizon is a great circle. The shapes and areas are distorted, particularly near the edges.

A **gnomonic map projection** displays all great circles as straight lines, resulting in any straight line segment on a gnomonic map showing a geodesic, the shortest route between the segment's two endpoints. This is achieved by casting surface points of the sphere onto a tangent plane, each landing where a ray from the center of the sphere passes through the point on the surface and then on to the plane. No distortion occurs at the tangent point, but distortion increases rapidly away from it. Less than half of the sphere can be projected onto a finite map. Consequently, a rectilinear photographic lens, which is based on the gnomonic principle, cannot image more than 180 degrees.

**Nicolas Auguste Tissot** was a 19th-century French cartographer, who in 1859 and 1881 published an analysis of the distortion that occurs on map projections. He devised Tissot's indicatrix, or *distortion circle*, which when plotted on a map will appear as an ellipse whose elongation depends on the amount of distortion by the map at that point. The angle and extent of the elongation represents the amount of angular distortion of the map. The size of the ellipse indicates the amount that the area is distorted.

**Johannes Honter** was a Transylvanian Saxon, renaissance humanist, Protestant reformer and theologian. Honter is best known for his geographic and cartographic publishing activity, as well as for implementing the Lutheran reform in Transylvania and founding the Evangelical Church of Augustan Confession in Romania.

**Johann(es) Werner** was a German mathematician. He was born in Nuremberg, Germany, where he became a parish priest. His primary work was in astronomy, mathematics, and geography, although he was also considered a skilled instrument maker.

The **Werner projection** is a pseudoconic equal-area map projection sometimes called the **Stab-Werner** or **Stabius-Werner** projection. Like other heart-shaped projections, it is also categorized as **cordiform**. *Stab-Werner* refers to two originators: Johannes Werner (1466–1528), a parish priest in Nuremberg, refined and promoted this projection that had been developed earlier by Johannes Stabius (Stab) of Vienna around 1500.

**Georg Tannstetter**, also called **Georgius Collimitius**, was a humanist teaching at the University of Vienna. He was a medical doctor, mathematician, astronomer, cartographer, and the personal physician of the emperors Maximilian I and Ferdinand I. He also wrote under the pseudonym of **"Lycoripensis"**. His Latin name "Collimitius" is derived from *limes* meaning "border" and is a reference to his birth town: "Rain" is a German word for border or boundary.

**Andreas Stöberl**, better known by his latinised name Andreas **Stiborius** (**Boius**), was a German humanist astronomer, mathematician, and theologian working mainly at the University of Vienna.

The year **1500 AD in science** and technology included many events, some of which are listed here.

**Thomas Resch (1460-1520)** was an Austrian Renaissance humanist. He went by the Latin name of **Thomas Velocianus**. He was a member of a circle of humanists based in Vienna. This circle included the scholars Georg Tannstetter, Johannes Stabius, Stiborius, Stefan Rosinus (1470-1548), Johannes Cuspinianus, and the reformer Joachim Vadianus. These humanists were associated with the court of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

**Johannes Cuspinianus**, born **Johan Spießhaymer**, was an Austrian humanist, scientist, diplomat, and historian. Born in Spießheim near Schweinfurt in Franconia, of which *Cuspinianus* is a Latinization, he studied in Leipzig and Würzburg. He went to Vienna in 1492 and became a professor of medicine at the University of Vienna. He became Rector of the university in 1500 and also served as Royal Superintendent until his death.

The term "**chancery hand**" can refer to either of two very different styles of historical handwriting.

**János Zsámboky** or **János Zsámboki** or **János Sámboki**, was a Hungarian humanist scholar: physician, philologist and historian.

**Hacı Ahmet** was a purported Muslim cartographer linked to a 16th-century map of the world. Ahmet appended a commentary to the map, outlining his own life and an explanation for the creation of the map. But it is not clear whether Ahmet created the map, or whether he simply translated it into Turkish for use in the Ottoman world.

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