John Adam (5 March 1721 – 25 June 1792) was a Scottish architect, building contractor and supervisor.
Born in Linktown of Abbotshall, now part of Kirkcaldy, Fife, he was the eldest son of architect and entrepreneur William Adam and his wife Mary Robertson (1698–1761). His younger brothers Robert and James Adam also became architects.
The Adam family moved to Edinburgh in 1728, as William Adam's career as a designer of country houses began to take off. John attended Dalkeith Grammar School, outside the city, although he did not proceed to university as he was already being involved in the family businesses. However, the family home became a hub of the Scottish Enlightenment, with numerous Edinburgh virtuosi visiting.
It is believed his father allowed him to do some work on Montrose Mausoleum in Aberuthven, Perthshire, in 1736, for his name is in an inscription in the northern wall.
During the 1740s, William was gradually handing over control to his eldest son. Upon William's death in June 1748, John took over the family businesses, which besides designing and building houses, included interests in quarrying, mining and other industries. Additionally, John inherited his father's position as Master Mason to the Board of Ordnance in North Britain. John also became Laird of Blair Adam, the estate in Kinross-shire which his father had built up. At Kinross-shire, John created a large personal library.
John took his younger brother Robert into partnership, and the two profited greatly from the lucrative Board of Ordnance contracts which were had been initiated following the Jacobite rising of 1745. These included the building of Fort George near Inverness, to the designs of military engineer Colonel Skinner.
The brothers also continued to execute their late father's designs, including the pavilions and interiors of Hopetoun House. Their first major new commission came in 1754 from William Dalrymple, Earl of Dumfries. The new Dumfries House in Ayrshire was probably mostly to the design of Robert Adam, the more talented architect of the two. Robert oversaw the construction of the house until late summer 1754, when he left on his Grand Tour to Italy. Even when abroad, Robert continued to send home designs. John concentrated on the business side of the practice, although he was a competent, if formulaic, architect.
John did win a competition to design a new Royal Exchange in Edinburgh, but he was not appointed as contractor. The successful contractor then appointed another architect, who made changes to the design. However, the building, which now serves as the City Chambers, is still often attributed to John Adam.
On Robert's return to Britain, he established himself in London, where he was joined by the younger brothers James and William. John continued to look after the family's Scottish interests, investing in further quarrying ventures, and the Carron Iron Works. He supplied his London-based brothers with capital from the Blair Adam estate, at least until the collapse of a stock market venture by his friend Andrew Fairholme in 1764 left him out of pocket.Further losses occurred after the failure of Robert's speculative Adelphi development in 1772, and John was forced to mortgage Blair Adam.
John Adam designed other houses in Edinburgh and the surrounding area, including Milton House in the Old Town, Hawkhill House, near Leith Links, for Lord Alemoor and Kerse Housenr. Falkirk for Sir Lawrence Dundas (all now demolished). In the Annandale town of Moffat he designed Moffat House for the Earl of Hopetoun. Among his more significant work was Adam Square, a speculative development of three houses on his own property in the city. The development, although not a true "square", represents one of the first terraces of townhouses in Edinburgh. Construction began in 1761, and despite the financial troubles, Lord President Robert Dundas was able to move in by 1768. Adam himself also lived there until 1772, as well as having a villa at Merchiston. Adam Square was demolished in the 1870s, and the site is now occupied by Adam House, a building of the University of Edinburgh.
In Edinburgh he lived at Niddry's Wynd (now known as Niddry Street.)
Upon his death in 1792, he was succeeded as laird of Blair Adam by his only surviving son, the politician and judge William Adam.
He is buried in his father's mausoleum in Greyfriars Kirkyard in Edinburgh. It is the largest monument in the graveyard and stands just south-west of the church.
He was married to Jean Ramsay of Abbotshall in Fife (d.1795).
Robert Adam was a British neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer. He was the son of William Adam (1689–1748), Scotland's foremost architect of the time, and trained under him. With his older brother John, Robert took on the family business, which included lucrative work for the Board of Ordnance, after William's death.
Sir William Chambers was a Swedish-Scottish architect, based in London. Among his best-known works are Somerset House, and the pagoda at Kew. Chambers was a founder member of the Royal Academy.
Thomas Chippendale (1718–1779) was a cabinet-maker in London, designing furniture in the mid-Georgian, English Rococo, and Neoclassical styles. In 1754 he published a book of his designs in a trade catalogue titled The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's Director—the most important collection of furniture designs published in England to that point which created a mass market for furniture—upon which success he became renowned. According to the Victoria and Albert Museum, "so influential were his designs, in Britain and throughout Europe and America, that 'Chippendale' became a shorthand description for any furniture similar to his Director designs".
Robert Mylne was a Scottish architect and civil engineer, particularly remembered for his design for Blackfriars Bridge in London. Born and raised in Edinburgh, he travelled to Europe as a young man, studying architecture in Rome under Piranesi. In 1758, he became the first Briton to win the triennial architecture competition at the Accademia di San Luca. This made his name known in London, and won him the rivalry of fellow Scot Robert Adam.
Thomas Hamilton was a Scottish architect, based in Edinburgh where he designed many of that city's prominent buildings. Born in Glasgow, his works include: the Burns Monument in Alloway; the Royal High School on the south side of Calton Hill ; the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh; the George IV Bridge, which spans the Cowgate; the Dean Orphan Hospital, now the Dean Gallery; the New North Road Free Church, now the Bedlam Theatre; Cumstoun, a private house in Dumfries and Galloway; and the Scottish Political Martyrs' Monument in Old Calton Cemetery, Edinburgh.
James Adam was a Scottish architect and furniture designer, but was often overshadowed by his older brother and business partner, Robert Adam. They were sons of architect William Adam.
William Adam was a Scottish architect, mason, and entrepreneur. He was the foremost architect of his time in Scotland, designing and building numerous country houses and public buildings, and often acting as contractor as well as architect. Among his best known works are Hopetoun House near Edinburgh, and Duff House in Banff. His individual, exuberant style built on the Palladian style, but with Baroque details inspired by Vanbrugh and Continental architecture.
Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet, known as William Johnstone until 1767, was a Scottish advocate, landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1768 and 1805. He was reputedly the wealthiest man in Great Britain. He profited from slave plantations in North America, and invested in building developments in Great Britain, including the Pulteney Bridge and other buildings in Bath, buildings on the sea-front at Weymouth in Dorset, and roads in his native Scotland.
Sir Lawrence Dundas, 1st Baronet was a Scottish businessman, landowner and politician.
Dumfries House is a Palladian country house in Ayrshire, Scotland. It is located within a large estate, around two miles (3 km) west of Cumnock. Noted for being one of the few such houses with much of its original 18th-century furniture still present, including specially commissioned Thomas Chippendale pieces, the house and estate is now owned by The Prince's Foundation, a charity which maintains it as a visitor attraction and hospitality and wedding venue. Both the house and the gardens are listed as significant aspects of Scottish heritage.
General John Hope, 4th Earl of Hopetoun,, known as The Honourable John Hope from 1781 to 1814 and as Lord Niddry from 1814 to 1816, was a Scottish politician and British Army officer.
The Hon. Charles Hope-Weir was a Scottish politician.
William Mylne (1734–1790) was a Scottish architect and engineer. He is best known as the builder of the North Bridge, which links the Old and New Towns of Edinburgh, Scotland. He was the younger brother of Robert Mylne, architect and designer of Blackfriars Bridge in London.
William Dalrymple-Crichton, 5th Earl of Dumfries KT was a Scottish peer. He inherited the title of Earl of Dumfries in 1742, upon the death of his mother Penelope Crichton, 4th Countess of Dumfries. He also held the heritable position of the Sheriff of Clackmannan from 1742 until heritable sheriffdoms were abolished in 1747.
The architecture of Scotland includes all human building within the modern borders of Scotland, from the Neolithic era to the present day. The earliest surviving houses go back around 9500 years, and the first villages 6000 years: Skara Brae on the Mainland of Orkney being the earliest preserved example in Europe. Crannogs, roundhouses, each built on an artificial island, date from the Bronze Age and stone buildings called Atlantic roundhouses and larger earthwork hill forts from the Iron Age. The arrival of the Romans from about 71 AD led to the creation of forts like that at Trimontium, and a continuous fortification between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde known as the Antonine Wall, built in the second century AD. Beyond Roman influence, there is evidence of wheelhouses and underground souterrains. After the departure of the Romans there were a series of nucleated hill forts, often utilising major geographical features, as at Dunadd and Dunbarton.
Greyfriars Kirkyard is the graveyard surrounding Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is located at the southern edge of the Old Town, adjacent to George Heriot's School. Burials have been taking place since the late 16th century, and a number of notable Edinburgh residents are interred at Greyfriars. The Kirkyard is operated by City of Edinburgh Council in liaison with a charitable trust, which is linked to but separate from the church. The Kirkyard and its monuments are protected as a category A listed building.
St Cecilia's Hall is a small concert hall and museum in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, in the United Kingdom. It is on the corner of Niddry Street and the Cowgate, about 168 metres (551 ft) south of the Royal Mile. The hall dates from 1763 and was the first purpose-built concert hall in Scotland. It is a Category A listed building.
John Douglas of Pinkerton was a Scottish architect who designed and reformed several country houses in the Scottish Lowlands. His work deserves to be noted for what the 2002 history of Scottish architecture remarks as an approach "of relentless surgery or concealment.". His most notable works are Killin and Ardeonaig Church, Stirlingshire (1744); Archerfield House, East Lothian (1745); Finlaystone House, Renfewshire (1746–47), Wardhouse (Gordonhall), Insch, Aberdeenshire (1757); and Campbeltown Town Hall, Argyll and Bute (1758–60). Several of these are listed buildings.
Events from the year 1682 in the Kingdom of Scotland.
Gilbert Hamilton (1715–1772) was a Scottish minister of the Church of Scotland who served as Moderator of the General Assembly in 1768, the highest position in the Scottish Church.