John Ashby (Royal Navy officer)

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Sir John Ashby
Born 1646
Italy
Died 12 June 1693
Portsmouth
Buried Lowestoft
AllegianceFlag of England.svg  Kingdom of England
Service/branchEnglish Red Ensign 1620.svg  Royal Navy
Years of service - 1693
Rank Admiral
Commands held HMS Advice
HMS Rainbow
HMS Pearl
HMS Lion
HMS Rose
HMS Dunkirk
HMS Constant Warwick
HMS Mary Rose
HMS Montague
HMS Henrietta
HMS Mordaunt
HMS Defiance
Battles/wars

Sir John Ashby (1646 – 12 June 1693) was an officer of the Royal Navy, who rose to the rank of Admiral. Ashby was the fourth son of Robert Ashby and his wife Alice, who was a sister of Sir Thomas Allin. He grew up in Suffolk where his father was involved in business. [1]

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

Admiral (Royal Navy) senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom

Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-9, outranked only by the rank of admiral of the fleet. Royal Navy officers holding the ranks of rear admiral, vice admiral and admiral of the fleet are sometimes considered generically to be admirals. The rank of admiral is currently the highest rank to which a serving officer in the Royal Navy can be promoted, admiral of the fleet being in abeyance except for honorary promotions of retired officers and members of the Royal Family.

Sir Thomas Allin, 1st Baronet Royal Navy officer

Admiral Sir Thomas Allin, 1st Baronet (1612–1685) was an officer of the Royal Navy who saw service in the English Civil War, and the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars. A Royalist during the Civil War, he returned to service after the Restoration and eventually rose to the rank of Admiral of the White after serving under some of the most distinguished military figures of the era, including Prince Rupert of the Rhine.

Contents

Early career

After Ashby entered the navy he was promoted quickly to lieutenant of HMS Adventure from November 1665 to June 1666. He was subsequently a lieutenant aboard HMS Princess in 1668 [2] before being promoted to first comment on the ketch HMS Deptford in October that year. [3]

Adventure was a 34-gun fourth-rate frigate of the English Royal Navy, built by Peter Pett II at Woolwich and launched in 1646. The term 'frigate' during the period of this ship referred to a method of construction, rather than a role which did not develop until the following century.

Ketch type of sailing boat

A ketch is a two-masted sailing craft whose mainmast is taller than the mizzen mast. The name "ketch" is derived from "catch" or fishing boat.

Later career

In June 1669 he was given command of HMS Advice, followed by HMS Rainbow between 1670-1672. Ashby then was given command of HMS Pearl in January 1672 and remained there for only a year. [3] Once aboard Pearl he fought his first battle at Schooneveld. His second battle was also at Schooneveld, but this time in HMS Lion, serving in Prince Rupert's division of the Red Squadron. [3] His third battle was the Battle of Texel on 11 August 1673, where he fought again in HMS Lion. [3]

HMS Advice was a 40-gun fourth-rate frigate, built for the Commonwealth of England and transferring to the Royal Navy upon Britain's restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

Rainbow was a galleon of the English Tudor navy, built at Deptford Dockyard by Peter Pett, and launched in 1586. Commanded by Lord Henry Seymour, a younger son of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset by his second wife Anne Stanhope, she fought against the Spanish during the Singeing the King of Spain's Beard and the Spanish Armada, including the Battle of Gravelines in 1588.

HMS Pearl may refer to:

From 1674 to 1679 he commanded four more ships in American waters, [4] and played a part in numerous battles concerning the Virginian Revolution. From 1681 to 1684 he commanded HMS Mary Rose escorting the Levant trade. [3] In May 1685 Ashby became the governor of Sandgate Castle. [3]

Bacons Rebellion 1676 Virginia rebellion against the colonial government

Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. The colony's dismissive policy as it related to the political challenges of its western frontier, along with other challenges including leaving Bacon out of his inner circle, refusing to allow Bacon to be a part of his fur trade with Native Americans, and attacks by the Doeg people, helped to motivate a popular uprising against Berkeley, who had failed to address the demands of the colonists regarding their safety.

HMS <i>Mary Rose</i> (1654)

The Maidstone was a 40-gun fourth-rate frigate of the English Royal Navy, originally built for the navy of the Commonwealth of England at Woodbridge, and launched in 1654.

Levant Geographic and cultural region consisting of the eastern Mediterranean between Anatolia and Egypt

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean, primarily in Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands; that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica.

Sir John also commanded HMS Montague as she was mobilized to counter the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth followed by the guardship HMS Henrietta, and then HMS Mordaunt, the latter in response to the threatened invasion by William of Orange. [3] Ashby was eventually convinced to command HMS Defiance for William of Orange, as he was persuaded of the need to fight the 'popish oppression' of the current king, James II. After William III was crowned, he knighted Ashby on-board his flagship on 16 May 1689 and made him rear admiral of the Red Squadron soon after. He also presented Ashby with a diamond watch. [1]

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth English nobleman and soldier

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch, KG, PC was a Dutch-born English nobleman. Originally called James Crofts or James Fitzroy, he was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his mistress Lucy Walter.

Langport was a 50-gun third rate Speaker-class frigate built for the navy of the Commonwealth of England at Horsleydown, and launched in 1654.

William III of England 17th-century Stadtholder, Prince of Orange and King of England, Scotland and Ireland

William III, also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".

Admiralty

In the battle of Beachy Head Ashby served as vice-admiral of the red, flying his flag on HMS Berwick. [5] His conduct was praised by Queen Mary. After the battle he was named joint admiral of the fleet with Sir Richard Haddock and Sir Henry Killigrew. [6]

Battle of Beachy Head (1690) naval engagement fought on 10 July 1690

The Battle of Beachy Head was a naval engagement fought on 10 July 1690 during the Nine Years' War. The battle was the greatest French tactical naval victory over their English and Dutch opponents during the war. The Dutch lost six ships of the line and three fireships; their English allies also lost one ship of the line, whereas the French did not lose a vessel. Control of the English Channel temporarily fell into French hands but Vice-Admiral Tourville failed to pursue the Allied fleet with sufficient vigour, allowing it to escape to the River Thames.

HMS Berwick was a 70-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built by Phineas Pett II at Chatham Dockyard and launched in 1679.

Mary II of England joint Sovereign of England, Scotland, and Ireland

Mary II was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary. William and Mary, both Protestants, became king and queen regnant following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the adoption of the English Bill of Rights and the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII. William became sole ruler upon her death in 1694. He reigned as such until his own death in 1702, when he was succeeded by Mary's sister Anne.

At the battles of Battle of Barfleur and La Hogue he commanded HMS Victory as Admiral of the Blue. [3] He was called before the House of Commons of England after Barfleur to give an account of why he had not done more to annihilate the French fleet. He was pardoned after he gained the support of Admiral Edward Russell. [5]

From 1690 until his death three years later Ashby served on the Navy Board as Controller of Storekeepers Accounts. [3] Ashby died on 12 June 1693 in Portsmouth and was buried at Lowestoft. In his will he left most of his possessions to his brother, and the rest to cousins and naval colleagues. [3]

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References

  1. 1 2 Harding, Edward (1805). Naval biography; or, The history and lives of distinguished characters in the British Navy: from the earliest period of history to the present time, Volume 2. Printed for John Scott. pp. 36–37.
  2. Campbell, John; John Joseph Stockdale (1818). The naval history of Great Britain:commencing with the earliest period of history, and continued to the expedition against Algiers, under the command of Lord Exmouth, in 1816. Including the history and lives of British admirals, Volume 3. Baldwyn & Co. pp. 148–149.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Davies, JD (2004). "Ashby, Sir John (bap. 1646, d. 1693), naval officer". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.The first edition of this text is available at Wikisource: Wikisource-logo.svg "Ashby, John". Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  4. Tanner, JR. "The Administration of the Navy from the Restoration to the Revolution. Part III.-1679-1688 (Continued)". The English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 14 (54): 261–289. JSTOR   547657.
  5. 1 2 Stewart, William (2009). Admirals of the world: a biographical dictionary, 1500 to the present. McFarland. p. 12. ISBN   978-0-7864-3809-9.
  6. Charnock, John (1794). Biographia navalis; or, Impartial memoirs of the lives ... of officers of the navy of Great Britain from ... 1660. pp. 308–309.