John Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan

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The Right Honourable
The Earl of Lucan
Lord and Lady Lucan.jpg
With his wife in 1963
BornRichard John Bingham
(1934-12-18)18 December 1934
Marylebone, London, England
Other titles
Disappeared8 November 1974 (aged 39)
England
StatusDeclared dead 3 February 2016
Residence Belgravia, London
Other namesLucky Lucan
Occupation
  • Banker
  • Professional gambler
Title7th Earl of Lucan
Predecessor George Bingham, 6th Earl of Lucan
Successor George Bingham, 8th Earl of Lucan
Spouse(s)
Veronica Mary Duncan
(m. 1963;died 2017)
Children3, including:
George Bingham, 8th Earl of Lucan
Lady Camilla Bloch
Parents
  • George Bingham, 6th Earl of Lucan (father)
  • Kaitlin Elizabeth Anne Dawson (mother)
Military career
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Service/branchBritish Army
Years of service1953–55
RankSecond lieutenant
Unit Coldstream Guards

Richard John Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan (18 December 1934 – disappeared 8 November 1974), commonly known as Lord Lucan, was a British peer who disappeared after being suspected of murder. He was an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, the eldest son of George Bingham, 6th Earl of Lucan by his mother Kaitlin Dawson. He was an evacuee during the Second World War but returned to attend Eton College, and he served with the Coldstream Guards in West Germany from 1953 to 1955. He developed a taste for gambling and became skilled at backgammon and bridge, and he was an early member of the Clermont Club. His losses often exceeded his winnings, yet he left his job at a London-based merchant bank and became a professional gambler. He was known as Lord Bingham from April 1949 until January 1964, during his father's lifetime.

George Charles Patrick Bingham, 6th Earl of Lucan MC, known as Lord Bingham from 1914 to 1949, was an Irish peer, British soldier and Labour politician.

Eton College Independent boarding school in Windsor and Maidenhead, UK

Eton College is a 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire, England. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as Kynge's College of Our Ladye of Eton besyde Windesore , as a sister institution to King's College, Cambridge, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton's history and influence have made Eton one of the most prestigious schools in the world.

Coldstream Guards Unit of the British Army

The Coldstream Guards is a part of the Guards Division, Foot Guards regiments of the British Army.

Contents

Lucan was considered for the role of James Bond in the cinematic adaptations of Ian Fleming's novels. He was known for his expensive tastes; he raced power boats and drove an Aston Martin. In 1963, he married Veronica Duncan with whom he had three children. The marriage collapsed late in 1972, and he moved out of the family home at 46 Lower Belgrave Street in London's Belgravia to a property nearby. A bitter custody battle ensued which Lucan lost, and he began to spy on his wife and record their telephone conversations, apparently obsessed with regaining custody of the children. This fixation and his gambling losses had a dramatic effect on his life and personal finances.

Ian Fleming English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer

Ian Lancaster Fleming was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his James Bond series of spy novels. Fleming came from a wealthy family connected to the merchant bank Robert Fleming & Co., and his father was the Member of Parliament for Henley from 1910 until his death on the Western Front in 1917. Educated at Eton, Sandhurst and, briefly, the universities of Munich and Geneva, Fleming moved through several jobs before he started writing.

Aston Martin English manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers

Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc is a British independent manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. Steered from 1947 by David Brown, it became associated with expensive grand touring cars in the 1950s and 1960s, and with the fictional character James Bond following his use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger. Their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to the Prince of Wales since 1982. It has over 150 car dealerships in over 50 countries on six continents, making them a global automobile brand. The company is traded at the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. In 2003 it received the Queen's Award for Enterprise for outstanding contribution to international trade.

Lower Belgrave Street street in City of Westminster, United Kingdom

Lower Belgrave Street is a street in London's Belgravia district.

On the evening of 7 November 1974, the children's nanny Sandra Rivett was bludgeoned to death in the basement of the Lucan family home. Lady Lucan was also attacked; she later identified Lucan as her assailant. As the police began their homicide investigation, Lucan telephoned his mother, asking her to collect the children, and then drove a borrowed Ford Corsair to a friend's house in Uckfield, East Sussex. Hours later, he left the property and disappeared. The car was found abandoned in Newhaven, its interior stained with blood and its boot containing a piece of bandaged lead pipe similar to one found at the crime scene. The police issued a warrant for Lucan's arrest a few days later, and the inquest into Rivett's death named him as her murderer.

The name Ford Corsair was used both for a car produced by Ford of Britain between 1963 and 1970 and for an unrelated Nissan based automobile marketed by Ford Australia between 1989 and 1992.

Uckfield town in East Sussex, England

Uckfield is a town in the Wealden District of East Sussex in South East England. The town is on the River Uck, one of the tributaries of the River Ouse, on the southern edge of the Weald.

Newhaven, East Sussex town in East Sussex, England

Newhaven is a channel ferry port in East Sussex in England, with regular passenger services to Dieppe.

There has been continuing interest in Lucan's fate, and hundreds of alleged sightings have been reported in various countries around the world, none of which have been substantiated. Lucan has not been found, despite a police investigation and widespread press coverage. He was presumed dead in chambers on 11 December 1992 [1] and declared legally dead in October 1999. [2] A death certificate was issued in 2016.

Early life and education

Richard John Bingham was born on 18 December 1934 at 19 Bentinck Street, Marylebone, London, the second child and elder son of George Bingham, 6th Earl of Lucan, an Anglo-Irish peer, and his wife Kaitlin Elizabeth Anne Dawson. A blood clot found in his mother's lung forced her to remain in a nursing home, so John, as he became known, was initially cared for by the family's nurserymaid. Aged three years, he attended a pre-prep school in Tite Street with his elder sister Jane, but in 1939, with war approaching, the two were taken to the relative safety of Wales. The following year, joined by their younger siblings Sally and Hugh, the Lucan children travelled to Toronto, moving shortly thereafter to Mount Kisco, New York. They stayed for five years with multi-millionairess Marcia Brady Tucker. John was enrolled at The Harvey School and spent summer holidays away from his siblings at a summer camp in the Adirondack Mountains. [3] [4]

Marylebone inner-city area of central London

Marylebone is an area in the West End of London, England, which is part of the City of Westminster.

Anglo-Irish people ethnic group in Ireland

Anglo-Irish is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify a social class in Ireland, whose members are mostly the descendants and successors of the English Protestant Ascendancy. They mostly belong to the Anglican Church of Ireland, which was the established church of Ireland until 1871, or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church, though some were Roman Catholics. Its members tended to follow English practices in matters of culture, science, law, agriculture and politics, but often defined themselves as simply "British", and less frequently "Anglo-Irish", "Irish" or "English". Many became eminent as administrators in the British Empire and as senior army and naval officers.

Thrombus blood clot

A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. There are two components to a thrombus: aggregated platelets and red blood cells that form a plug, and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin protein. The substance making up a thrombus is sometimes called cruor. A thrombus is a healthy response to injury intended to prevent bleeding, but can be harmful in thrombosis, when clots obstruct blood flow through healthy blood vessels.

While in the US, John and his siblings lived in grandeur and wanted for nothing, but on their return to England in February 1945 they were faced with the stark realities of wartime Britain. Rationing was still in force, their former home at Cheyne Walk had been bombed, and the house at 22 Eaton Square had had its windows blown out. Despite the family's noble ancestry, [nb 1] the 6th Earl and his wife were agnostics and socialists and preferred a more austere existence than that offered by Tucker, an extremely wealthy Christian. For a time, John suffered nightmares and was taken to a psychotherapist. As an adult he remained an agnostic, but ensured that his children attended Sunday school, preferring to give them a traditional childhood. [4] [6]

Timeline of the United Kingdom home front during World War II List of activities of the civilian population of the United Kingdom during World War II

This is a Timeline of the United Kingdom home front during World War II covering Britain 1939–45. For a brief narrative see United Kingdom home front during World War II, as well as History of Scotland#Second World War 1939-45 and History of Northern Ireland#Second World War. For the military story see Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II for foreign affairs, Diplomatic history of World War II,. For the government see Timeline of the first premiership of Winston Churchill. For a narrative history and bibliography of the home front see United Kingdom home front during World War II.

Cheyne Walk historic street, in Chelsea, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea

Cheyne Walk is a historic road, in Chelsea, London, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. It runs parallel with the River Thames. Before the construction of the Chelsea Embankment reduced the width of the river, it fronted the river along its whole length.

Eaton Square residential garden square in Londons Belgravia district

Eaton Square is a residential garden square in London's Belgravia district. It is one of the three garden squares built by the Grosvenor family when they developed the main part of Belgravia in the 19th century, and is named after Eaton Hall, the Grosvenor country house in Cheshire. Eaton Square is larger but less grand than the central feature of the district, Belgrave Square, and both larger and grander than Chester Square. The first block was laid out by Thomas Cubitt from 1827. In 2016 it was named as the "Most Expensive Place to Buy Property in Britain", with a home costing on average 17 million pounds.

At Eton College, [7] John developed a taste for gambling. He supplemented his pocket money with income from bookmaking, placing his earnings into a "secret" bank account, and regularly left the school's grounds to attend horse races. According to his mother his academic record was "far from creditable", [8] but he became Captain of Roe's House, before leaving in 1953 to undertake his National Service. He became a second lieutenant in his father's regiment, the Coldstream Guards, and was stationed mainly in Krefeld, West Germany. While there, he also became a keen poker player. [4] [9]

Career

On leaving the army in 1954, Lucan joined a London-based merchant bank, William Brandt's Sons and Co., on an annual salary of £500. [4] In 1960 he met Stephen Raphael, a rich stockbroker who was a skilled backgammon player. [nb 2] They holidayed together in the Bahamas, went water-skiing, and played golf, backgammon and poker. [10] Lucan became a regular gambler and an early member of John Aspinall's Clermont gaming club, located in Berkeley Square. He often won at games of skill like bridge and backgammon, but he also accumulated huge losses. On one occasion he lost £8,000, or about two-thirds of the money he received annually from various family trusts. On another disastrous night at a casino he lost £10,000. That time his stockbroker uncle by marriage, John Bevan, helped him to pay the debt, and Lucan repaid his uncle two years later. [11]

Lucan left Brandt's in about 1960, shortly after he had won £26,000 playing chemin de fer. [4] [12] A colleague had been promoted before him, and he protested and then gave up his job, saying "why should I work in a bank, when I can earn a year's money in one single night at the tables?" [13] He travelled to the United States, where he played golf, raced powerboats, and drove his Aston Martin around the West Coast. He also visited his elder sister Jane, and his former guardian, Marcia Tucker. On his return to England he moved out of his parents' home in St John's Wood and into a flat in Park Crescent. [14]

Personal life

Marriage

Lucan met his future wife, Veronica Duncan, early in 1963. [15] She was born in 1937 to Major Charles Moorhouse Duncan and his wife, Thelma. Her father had died in a car accident when she was young, after which the family moved to South Africa. Her mother remarried, and her family returned to England where her new step-father became manager of a hotel in Guildford. With her sister, Christina, she was educated at St Swithun's School, Winchester. After displaying a talent for art she went on to study at an art college in Bournemouth. The two sisters later shared a flat in London, where Veronica worked as a model and later as a secretary. Christina's marriage to the wealthy William Shand Kydd (half-brother to Peter Shand Kydd, stepfather to Diana Spencer, later Princess of Wales) introduced her to London high society, and it was at a golf-club function in the country that Veronica and Lucan first met. [16]

46 Lower Belgrave Street in London's Belgravia district Lower and upper levels of 46 Lower Belgrave Street (June 2012).jpg
46 Lower Belgrave Street in London's Belgravia district

News of their engagement appeared in The Times and The Daily Telegraph newspapers on 14 October 1963, [17] and the two were married at Holy Trinity Church, Brompton, on 20 November. After a ceremony attended by Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone (one of whose ladies-in-waiting had been a relative of Lady Lucan), but by few other prominent members of high society, [18] the couple honeymooned in Europe, travelling first class on the Orient Express. Lucan's already embattled finances were given a welcome boost by his father, who provided him with a marriage settlement designed to finance a larger family home and any future additions to the Lucan family. Lucan repaid some of his creditors and purchased 46 Lower Belgrave Street, Belgravia, redecorating it to suit Veronica's tastes. [19] Two months after the wedding, on 21 January 1964, the 6th Earl of Lucan died of a stroke. [20] In addition to a reputed £250,000 inheritance, [nb 3] Lucan acquired his father's titles: Earl of Lucan; Baron Lucan of Castlebar; Baron Lucan of Melcombe Lucan and Baronet Bingham of Castlebar. [22] His wife became the Countess of Lucan. Their first child, Frances, was born on 24 October 1964, and early the next year they employed a nanny, Lillian Jenkins, to look after her. Lucan tried to teach Veronica about gambling and traditional pursuits like hunting, shooting, and fishing. He bought her golf lessons; she later gave up the sport. [23]

Lucan's daily routine consisted of breakfast at 9:00 am, coffee, dealing with the morning's letters, reading the newspapers, and playing the piano. He sometimes jogged in the park and took his Doberman Pinscher for walks. Lunch at the Clermont Club was followed by afternoon games of backgammon. Returning home to change into evening dress, the earl typically spent the remainder of the day at the Clermont, gambling into the early hours, watched sometimes by Veronica. [24] In 1956, while still working at Brandt's, he had written of his desire to have "£2m in the bank", claiming that "motor-cars, yachts, expensive holidays, and security for the future would give myself and a lot of other people a lot of pleasure". [25] He was described by his friends as a shy and taciturn man, but with his tall stature, "luxuriant guardsman's moustache," and masculine pursuits, his exploits made him popular. [4] His profligacy extended to hiring private aircraft to take his friends to the races, asking a car dealer he knew to source an Aston Martin drophead coupé, drinking expensive Russian vodka and racing powerboats. [26] In September 1966 he unsuccessfully screen tested for a part in Woman Times Seven , prompting him to decline a later offer from film producer Cubby Broccoli to screen test him for the role of James Bond. [27]

As a professional gambler [14] he was a skilled player, once rated amongst the world's top ten backgammon competitors. He won the St James's Club tournament and was Champion of the West Coast of America. He gained the moniker "Lucky" Lucan, but his losses easily outweighed his winnings, and in reality he was anything but lucky. [28] He had interests in thoroughbred horses; in 1968 he paid more in race entry fees than he received in winnings. [23] Despite some arguments over money, his wife remained largely ignorant of his losses, retaining the use of accounts at Savile Row tailors and various Knightsbridge shops. [29] Following the births of George (1967) and Camilla (1970), she suffered post-natal depression. Lucan became increasingly involved in her mental well-being, and in 1971 took her for treatment at a psychiatric clinic in Hampstead, where she refused to be admitted. [30] Instead, she agreed to home visits from a psychiatrist and a course of anti-depressants. In July 1972 the family holidayed in Monte Carlo, but Veronica quickly returned to England, leaving Lucan with their two elder children. [31] [32] The combined pressures of maintaining their finances, paying for Lucan's gambling addiction, and Veronica's weakened mental condition took their toll on the marriage; two weeks after a strained family Christmas in 1972, Lucan moved into a small property in Eaton Row. [33]

Separation

Some months later Lucan moved again, to a larger rented flat in nearby Elizabeth Street. Despite an early attempt by his wife at reconciliation, by that point all Lucan wanted from the marriage was custody of his children. In an effort to demonstrate that Veronica was unfit to look after them, he began to spy on his family (his car was regularly seen parked in Lower Belgrave Street), later employing private investigators to perform the same task. Lucan also canvassed doctors, who explained that his wife had not "gone mad", but was suffering from depression and anxiety. [34] Lucan told his friends that nobody would work for Veronica (she sacked the children's long-term nanny, Lillian Jenkins, in December 1972). [35] Of the series of nannies employed in the house, one, 26-year-old Stefanja Sawicka, was told by Veronica that Lucan had hit her with a cane and had, on one occasion, pushed her down the stairs. The countess apparently feared for her safety and told Sawicka not to be surprised "if he kills me one day." [36]

Sawicka's time at the Lucan household ended late in March 1973. While with two of the children near Grosvenor Place, she was confronted by Lucan and two private detectives. They told her that the children had been made wards of court and that she must release them into his custody, which she did. Frances was collected from school later in the day. [36] [37] Lady Lucan applied to the court to have the children returned, but concerned about the case's complexity, the judge set a date for the hearing three months ahead, for June 1973. To defend herself against Lucan's claims about her mental state, Veronica booked herself a four-day stay at the Priory Clinic in Roehampton. While it was acknowledged that she still required some psychiatric support, the doctors reported that there was no indication that she was mentally ill. Lucan's case depended upon Veronica being unable to care for the children, but at the hearing, he was instead forced to defend his own behaviour toward her. After several weeks of witnesses and protracted arguments in camera , on the advice of his lawyers he conceded the case. Unimpressed by Lucan's character, Mr Justice Rees awarded custody to Veronica. The earl was allowed access every other weekend. [38] [39] [40]

Thus began a bitter dispute between the two, involving many of their friends and Veronica's own sister. [41] Lucan again began to watch his wife's movements. He recorded some of their telephone conversations with a small Sony tape recorder and played excerpts to any friends prepared to listen; he also told them—and his bank manager—that Lady Lucan had been "spending money like water". [42] He continued to pay her £40 a week and may have cancelled their regular food order with Harrods. [43] He delayed payment to the milkman and—knowing that Veronica was required by the court to employ a live-in nanny—the childcare agency. With no income of her own, Veronica took a part-time job in a local hospital. [44] A temporary nanny, Elizabeth Murphy, was befriended by Lucan, who bought her drinks and asked her for information on his wife. He instructed his detective agency to investigate Murphy, looking for evidence that she was failing in her duty of care to his children. This they found; he dispensed with the detective agency's services when they presented him with bills amounting to several hundred pounds. Murphy was later hospitalised with cancer. Another temporary nanny, Christabel Martin, reported strange telephone calls to the house, some with heavy breathing and some from a man asking for non-existent people. Following a series of temporary nannies, Sandra Rivett started work in late 1974. [45]

Gambling

Losing the court case proved devastating for Lucan. It had cost him an estimated £20,000, and by late 1974 his financial position was dire. As he drank more heavily and started chain-smoking, his friends began to worry. [46] In drunken conversations with some of them, including Aspinall's mother, Lady Osborne, and her son, Lucan discussed murdering his wife. Greville Howard later gave a statement to the police describing how Lucan had talked of how killing his wife might save him from bankruptcy, how her body might be disposed of in the Solent and how he "would never be caught". [47] [48] [49] [nb 4] Lucan borrowed £4,000 from his mother and asked Marcia Tucker for a loan of £100,000. Having no luck there, he wrote to Tucker's son, explaining how he wished to "buy" his children from Veronica; the money was not forthcoming. He turned to his friends and acquaintances, asking anyone plausible to loan him money to fund his gambling addiction. The financier James Goldsmith guaranteed a £5,000 overdraft for him, which for years remained unpaid. Lucan also applied to the discreet Edgware Trust. On request, he supplied details of his income, which was apparently around £12,000 a year from various family trusts. He was required to provide a surety and received only £3,000 of the £5,000 he asked for. Much to their managers' consternation, his four bank accounts were overdrawn; Coutts, £2,841; Lloyds, £4,379; National Westminster, £1,290; Midland, £5,667. Even though by then he was playing for much lower stakes than had previously been the case, Lucan's gambling remained completely out of control. [50] Ranson (1994) estimates that between September and October 1974 alone, the earl ran up debts of around £50,000. [51] Taki Theodoracopulos, who recalled Lucan as a close friend for more than a decade, lent him £3,000 in cash three nights before the murder. [52]

Despite these problems, from late October 1974 his demeanour appeared to change for the better. His best man, John Wilbraham, remarked that Lucan's apparent obsession over regaining his children had diminished. While having dinner with his mother he cast aside talk of his family problems and turned instead to politics. On 6 November he met his uncle John Bevan, apparently in good spirits. [53] Later that day he met 21-year-old Charlotte Andrina Colquhoun, [54] who said that "he seemed very happy, just his usual self, and there was nothing to suggest that he was worried or depressed". [55] He also dined at the Clermont with racing driver Graham Hill. [56] At the time, casinos could open only between 2:00 pm and 4:00 am, so Lucan often gambled into the early hours of the morning. He took tablets to deal with his insomnia and therefore usually awoke around lunchtime. On 7 November though, he broke routine and called his solicitor early that morning, and at 10:30 am took a call from Colquhoun. They arranged to eat at the Clermont at about 3:00 pm, but Lucan failed to appear. Colquhoun drove past the Clermont and Ladbroke clubs, and past Elizabeth Street, but could not find his car anywhere. Lucan also failed to arrive for his 1:00 pm lunch appointment with artist Dominic Elwes and banker Daniel Meinertzhagen, again at the Clermont. [57]

At 4:00 pm Lucan called at a chemist's on Lower Belgrave Street, close to Veronica's home, and asked the pharmacist there to identify a small capsule. It turned out to be Limbitrol  5, a drug for the treatment of anxiety and depression. Lucan had apparently made several similar visits since he separated from his wife; he never told the pharmacist where he got the drugs. At 4:45 pm he called a friend, literary agent Michael Hicks-Beach, and between 6:30 pm and 7:00 pm met with him at his flat on Elizabeth Street. Lucan wanted his help with an article on gambling he had been asked to write for an Oxford University magazine. He drove Hicks-Beach home at about 8:00 pm, not in his Mercedes-Benz, but in "an old, dark, and scruffy Ford", possibly the Ford Corsair he borrowed from Michael Stoop several weeks earlier. At 8:30 pm he called the Clermont to check on a reservation for dinner with Greville Howard and friends. Howard had called him at 5:15 pm and asked if he wished to come to the theatre, but Lucan had declined and made the alternative suggestion to meet at the Clermont at 11:00 pm. He failed to arrive and did not answer his telephone when called. [58] [59]

Murder

Sandra Rivett

Sandra Eleanor Rivett Sandra Rivett Daily Mail.jpg
Sandra Eleanor Rivett

Sandra Eleanor Rivett was born on 16 September 1945, the third child of Albert and Eunice Hensby. The family moved to Australia when she was two years old, but returned in 1955. Sandra was a popular child, described at school as "intelligent, although she does not excel academically". [60] She worked for six months as an apprentice hairdresser before taking a job as a secretary in Croydon. After a failed romance she became a voluntary patient at a mental hospital near Redhill, Surrey, where she was treated for depression. She became engaged to a builder named John and took a job as a children's nanny for a doctor in Croydon. On 13 March 1964, she gave birth to a boy named Stephen, but, as her relationship with John was failing, she returned home to live with her parents and considered giving the baby up for adoption. Her parents took on the responsibility and adopted him in May 1965. Sandra later worked at a home for the elderly, before moving to Portsmouth to stay with her older sister. While there she met Roger Rivett; the two married on 10 June 1967 in Croydon. Roger was serving as a Royal Navy able seaman and later worked as a loader for British Road Services, while Sandra worked part-time at Reedham Orphanage in Purley. In mid-1973 he took a job on an Esso tanker, returning to their flat in Kenley a few months later by which time Sandra was employed by a cigarette company in Croydon. Their marriage collapsed in May 1974 when, suspicious of Sandra's movements while he was away, Roger went to live with his parents. She was by then listed on the books of a Belgravia domestic agency and had been caring for an elderly couple in that district. A few weeks later she began to work for the Lucans. [61]

Sandra normally went out with her boyfriend, John Hankins, on Thursday nights, but had changed her night off and had seen him the previous day. The two last spoke on the telephone at about 8:00 pm on 7 November. [62] [63] After putting the younger children to bed, at about 8:55 pm she asked Veronica if she would like a cup of tea, before heading downstairs to the basement kitchen to make one. As she entered the room, she was bludgeoned to death with a piece of bandaged lead pipe. Her killer then placed her body into a canvas mailbag. Meanwhile, wondering what had delayed her nanny, Lady Lucan descended from the first floor to see what had happened. She called to Rivett from the top of the basement stairs and was herself attacked. As she screamed for her life, her attacker told her to "shut up." [64] Lady Lucan later claimed at that moment to have recognised her husband's voice. The two apparently continued to fight; she bit his fingers, and when he threw her face down to the carpet, managed to turn around and squeeze his testicles, causing him to release his grip on her throat and give up the fight. When she asked where Rivett was, Lucan was at first evasive, but eventually admitted to having killed her. Terrified, Lady Lucan told him she could help him escape if only he would remain at the house for a few days, to allow her injuries to heal. Lucan walked upstairs and sent his daughter to bed, then went into one of the bedrooms. When Veronica entered, to lie on the bed, he told her to put towels down first to avoid staining the bedding. Lucan asked her if she had any barbiturates and went to the bathroom to get a wet towel, supposedly to clean Veronica's face. Lady Lucan realised her husband would be unable to hear her from the bathroom, and made her escape, running outside to a nearby public house, the Plumbers Arms. [65]

Lucan may have arrived at the Chester Square home of Madelaine Florman (mother of one of Frances's school friends) sometime between 10:00 pm and 10:30 pm. Alone in the house, Florman ignored the door, but shortly afterwards she received an incoherent telephone call and put the receiver down. [66] Blood stains, which after forensic examination were found to be a mixture of blood groups A and B, were later discovered on her doorstep. Lucan certainly called his mother between 10:30 pm and 11:00 pm and asked her to collect the children from Lower Belgrave Street. According to the Dowager Countess, he spoke of a "terrible catastrophe" [67] at his wife's home. He told her that he had been driving past the house when he saw Veronica fighting with a man, in the basement. He had entered the property and found his wife screaming. [68] The location from which he made this, and possibly the call to Florman, remains unknown. The police forced their way into Lady Lucan's home and discovered Sandra Rivett's body before his wife was taken by ambulance to St George's Hospital. Lucan drove the Ford Corsair 42 miles (68 km) to Uckfield, in East Sussex, to visit his friends, the Maxwell-Scotts. Susan Maxwell-Scott's meeting with Lucan was his last confirmed sighting. [69]

Investigation

The front entrance to 46 Lower Belgrave Street Ground floor of 46 Lower Belgrave Street (June 2012).jpg
The front entrance to 46 Lower Belgrave Street

By the time Detective Chief Superintendent Roy Ranson arrived at Lower Belgrave Street early on Friday 8 November, the divisional surgeon had pronounced Sandra Rivett dead and forensic officers and photographers had been called to the property. Other than the front door, which the first two officers on the scene had kicked in, there was no sign of a forced entry. A bloodstained towel was found in Veronica's first-floor bedroom. The area around the top of the basement staircase was heavily bloodstained. A bloodstained lead pipe lay on the floor. Pictures hanging from the staircase walls were askew and a metal banister rail was damaged. At the foot of the stairs, two cups and saucers lay in a pool of blood. Rivett's arm protruded from the canvas sack, which lay in a slowly expanding pool of blood. The light fitting at the bottom of the stairs was missing its bulb; one was noted nearby, on a chair. Blood was also found on various leaves in the adjoining rear garden. [70] [71]

Officers also searched 5 Eaton Row, into which Lucan had moved early in 1973, and after interviewing his mother (who had called to take the children to her home in St John's Wood), his last address at 72a Elizabeth Street. Nothing untoward was found; on the bed, a suit and shirt lay alongside a book on Greek shipping millionaires, and Lucan's wallet, car keys, money, driving licence, handkerchief and spectacles were on a bedside table. [72] His passport was in a drawer and his blue Mercedes-Benz parked outside, its engine cold and its battery flat. [73] [74] Ranson then visited Veronica Lucan at St George's Hospital. Although heavily sedated, she was able to describe what had happened to her. A police officer was left to guard her, should her assailant return. Rivett's body was taken to the mortuary, and a search was undertaken of all local basement areas and gardens, skips and open spaces. [75]

After removing her corpse from the canvas sack and beginning the post mortem examination, pathologist Keith Simpson told Ranson he was certain that Rivett had been killed before her body was placed in the sack, and that in his opinion the lead pipe found at the scene could be the murder weapon. [76] Her estranged husband, Roger, had an alibi for the night concerned, and was eliminated from police inquiries. Other male friends and boyfriends were questioned and discounted as suspects. Her parents confirmed that Sandra had a good working relationship with Lady Lucan, and was extremely fond of the children. Meanwhile, Lucan had yet to make an appearance, and so his description was circulated to police forces across the country. Newspapers and television stations were told only that Lucan was wanted by the police for questioning. [77]

Hours earlier, Lucan had again called his mother, at about 12:30 am. He told her that he would be in touch later that day, but declined to speak with the police constable who had accompanied her to her flat; instead, he said he would call the police later that morning. [78] Ranson discovered that Lucan had travelled to Uckfield when he was called by Ian Maxwell-Scott, who told him that Lucan had arrived at his home a few hours after the murder, and spoken with his wife, Susan. While there, the earl had written two letters to his brother-in-law, Bill Shand Kydd, and posted them to his London address. Maxwell-Scott also called Shand Kydd at his country house near Leighton Buzzard and told him about the letters, prompting the latter to immediately drive to London to collect them. [79] After reading them, and noting that they were bloodstained, he took them to Ranson. [80]

When asked why she did not immediately inform the police of Lucan's presence, Susan Maxwell-Scott said she had not seen any newspapers or television news, or listened to any radio broadcasts that might have warned her of the importance of his visit. [81] Meanwhile, Lucan's children were taken by their aunt, Lady Sarah Gibbs, to her home in Guilsborough, Northamptonshire, where they would remain for several weeks. [82] On the day Veronica Lucan was discharged from hospital, a High Court hearing confirmed that the children could return to live with her. Repeated press intrusions later forced the family to move to a friend's home in Plymouth. [83]

The Ford Corsair that Lucan had been seen driving and whose details had the previous day been circulated across the country was found on Sunday in Norman Road, Newhaven, about 16 miles (26 km) from Uckfield. In its boot was a piece of lead pipe covered in surgical tape, and a full bottle of vodka. The car was removed for forensic examination. [84] Later statements from two witnesses suggest that it was parked there sometime between 5:00 am and 8:00 am on the morning of Friday 8 November. [85] Its owner, Michael Stoop, also received a letter from Lucan, delivered to his club, the St James's. However, Stoop threw the envelope away and it was therefore not possible to check its postmark to see where it had been sent from. [86]

My Dear Michael,
I have had a traumatic night of unbelievable coincidence. However I won't bore you with anything or involve you except to say that when you come across my children, which I hope you will, please tell them that you knew me and that all I cared about was them. The fact that a crooked solicitor and a rotten psychiatrist destroyed me between them will be of no importance to the children. I gave Bill Shand Kydd an account of what actually happened but judging by my last effort in court no-one, let alone a 67 year old judge would believe and I no longer care except that my children should be protected.
  Yours ever,
  John

Ranson suspected a suicide, but a thorough search of Newhaven Downs was judged impossible. A partial search was made, using tracker dogs, but all that was found were the skeletal remains of a judge who had disappeared years earlier. Police divers searched the harbour, [87] and a partial search using infrared photography was undertaken the following year, to no avail. [88] A warrant for Lucan's arrest, to answer charges of murdering Sandra Rivett, and attempting to murder his wife, was issued on Tuesday 12 November 1974. Descriptions of his appearance, already issued to police forces across the UK, were then issued to Interpol. [85]

Forensics

Lucan was last seen driving a Ford Corsair similar to this. Ford Consul Corsair1965.jpg
Lucan was last seen driving a Ford Corsair similar to this.

The forensic examination of the lead pipes found at the murder scene and in the Corsair's boot revealed traces of blood on the pipe from 46 Lower Belgrave Street. This proved to be a mixture of Lady Lucan's (blood group A) and Sandra Rivett's (B) blood. Hair belonging to Veronica Lucan was also found on that pipe, but none belonging to Sandra Rivett. The pipe found inside the car had neither blood nor hair on it. Home Office scientists were unable to prove conclusively that both pipes were cut from the same, longer, piece of piping, although they thought it likely. The tape wrapped around both was similar, but those too could not be conclusively linked. The letters written to Bill Shand Kydd were stained with blood considered to be from both women. The letter to Michael Stoop had no blood on it, but it was later proven that the paper it was written on had been torn from a writing pad found in the Corsair's boot. [89]

An examination of the blood stains found inside 46 Lower Belgrave Street demonstrated that Rivett had been attacked in the basement kitchen, while Lady Lucan had been attacked at the top of the basement stairs. The blood stains found inside the Ford Corsair were of the AB blood group; the report concluded that this might have been a mixture of blood from both women. Hair similar to Lady Lucan's was also found inside the car. [89]

Media reaction

By the afternoon of Friday 8 November, the newspapers' early editions carried photographs of the Lucans across their front pages, accompanied by headlines like "Body in sack ... countess runs out screaming", and "Belgravia murder – earl sought". [90] A meeting that day at the Clermont, between John Aspinall, Daniel Meinertzhagen, Charles Benson, Stephen Raphael, Bill Shand Kydd, and Dominick Elwes, became the cause of much press speculation. Meinertzhagen and Raphael later insisted that the gathering was just a rational discussion between concerned friends, keen to share anything they knew about what had happened, but the relationship between the police and Lucan's social circle was strained; some officers complained that an "Eton mafia" worked against them. [91] Susan Maxwell-Scott refused to add to her statement, and when Aspinall's mother, Lady Osborne, was asked if she could help locate Lucan's body, she replied "The last I heard of him, he was being fed to the tigers at my son's zoo", [92] prompting the police to search the house and the animal cages there. They searched fourteen country houses and estates, including Holkham Hall and Warwick Castle, to no avail. [93] Amidst concerns expressed by the Labour MP Marcus Lipton that some people were "being a bit snooty" with the police, Benson wrote a letter to The Times asking him to either identify those people or "kindly withdraw his remarks". [94] To their cost, Private Eye accused James Goldsmith of being at the Clermont meeting, when he was actually in Ireland. [95] Dominic Elwes went to see Lady Lucan in hospital and was reportedly deeply shocked both by her appearance and her statement "Who's the mad one now?" [96] Elwes was apparently unhappy at some of the negative press coverage of the countess, and was later ostracised by his friends for his part in an article critical of Lucan, which appeared in the Sunday Times Magazine. He committed suicide in September 1975. [97]

Rivett's case made headlines around the world. [98] Within days of the murder, newspapers reported on Veronica Lucan's statement to the police, with claims that she had pretended to collude with her husband to ensure her safety. In January 1975 Veronica gave an exclusive interview to the Daily Express . She also appeared in a murder reconstruction, in the same newspaper, complete with posed photographs taken inside the house. [99]

Inquest

The Plumbers Arms public house Plumbers Arms in Lower Belgrave Street (June 2012).jpg
The Plumbers Arms public house

The inquest into Sandra Rivett's death opened on 13 November 1974 and was led by the Coroner for Inner West London, Gavin Thurston. Two witnesses were called to the courtroom, which was packed with reporters; Roger Rivett, who confirmed that he had identified his wife's body, and the pathologist, Keith Simpson, who confirmed that Rivett had died from being hit on the head with a blunt instrument. At Ranson's request, the hearing was then adjourned. Further adjournments were made on 11 December 1974 and 10 March 1975, before a full inquest was scheduled for 16 June 1975. [100] [nb 5]

The hearing began with introductions from various legal representatives, including a lawyer hired for Lucan by his mother. Thurston introduced the jury to the case and explained their duties. [102] He had selected 33 witnesses to be called over the following few days, including Veronica Lucan, who each day wore a dark coat and white headscarf. [103] Thurston questioned her on her relationship with Lucan, her marriage, her financial affairs, her employment of Rivett and what had happened on the night of the attack. The Dowager Countess's Queen's Counsel attempted to ask Lady Lucan about the nature of their relationship, if she hated her husband, but Thurston ruled his line of questioning inadmissible. [104] Woman Detective Constable Sally Blower, who had taken a statement from Frances on 20 November 1974, read the young girl's words to the court. Frances had heard a scream, and a few minutes later had watched as her mother (blood on her face) and father had entered the room. Her mother had then sent her to bed. She later heard her father calling for her mother, asking where she was, and watched as he left the bathroom and walked downstairs. She also described how Sandra Rivett did not normally work on Thursday nights. [105]

The landlord of The Plumbers Arms described how Lady Lucan had entered his bar covered "head to toe in blood" before she fell into "a state of shock". [106] He claimed that she shouted "Help me, help me, I've just escaped from being murdered" and "My children, my children, he's murdered my nanny". [107] Pathologist Keith Simpson outlined his post-mortem examination, concluding that death was caused by "blunt head injuries" and "inhalation of blood". [108] He confirmed that the lead pipe found at the scene was most likely responsible for Rivett's injuries; some, to the left eye and mouth, he thought more likely to have been caused by punches from a clenched fist. [109] The last person to confirm seeing Lucan alive, Susan Maxwell-Scott, told the court that the earl looked "dishevelled", and his hair "a little ruffled". [108] His trousers had a damp patch on the right hip. Lucan had told her that he was walking, or passing by the house when he saw Veronica being attacked by a man. He let himself in but slipped in a pool of blood at the bottom of the stairs. He told Maxwell-Scott that the attacker ran off, and that Veronica was "very hysterical" and accused him of having hired a hitman to kill her. [110]

I will record that Sandra Eleanor Rivett died from head injuries, that at 10:30 pm on 7 November 1974 she was found dead at 46 Lower Belgrave Street ... and that the following offence was committed by Richard John Bingham, Earl of Lucan – namely the offence of murder.

Gavin Thurston [111]

Once the hearing had ended, Thurston made a summary of the evidence presented and told the jury their options. At 11:45 am, their foreman announced "Murder by Lord Lucan". [112] Lucan became the first member of the House of Lords to be named a murderer since 1760, when Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers, was hanged for killing his bailiff. [113] He was also the last person to be committed by a coroner to a Crown Court for unlawful killing; the coroner's power to do so was removed by the Criminal Law Act 1977. [114]

Rivett's body, which had been held for several weeks following the murder, was released to her family and cremated at Croydon crematorium on 18 December 1974. A police spokesman cited Lady Lucan's desire not to upset the family as a reason for her non-attendance at the cremation. [115]

Lucan's defence

Lucan's friends and family were critical of the inquest, which they felt offered a one-sided view of events. His mother told reporters that it did not serve "any useful purpose at all". [116] Veronica's sister, Christina, said that she felt "great sadness and sorrow" [117] at the verdict. Susan Maxwell-Scott continued to press the earl's claims of innocence and claimed to feel "awfully sorry" [117] for the countess.

However, as Lucan remained absent, his description of "a traumatic night of unbelievable coincidence" [118] came only from the letters he authored and the people he spoke with soon after Rivett's murder. While his fingerprints were not found at the scene, his assertions make no provision for the lead pipe discovered in the boot of the Ford Corsair, the claims by some that he discussed murdering his wife, or the lack of a viable suspect for the man he claimed to have seen fighting her. [nb 6] No sign of a forced entry was found, and officers attempting to demonstrate that Lucan could have seen into the basement kitchen, from the street, could only do so by stooping low to the pavement. The basement light was not working, making it even more difficult to see into the room; its lightbulb (which was tested and found to be in working order) was found removed from its holder and left lying on a chair. Furthermore, Lady Lucan claimed not to have entered the basement that night, contradicting the earl's version of events; his wife's account is supported by the forensic examination made of the blood splashes and stains around the property. Some traces of her blood were found in the basement, the rear garden and on the canvas sack used to store Rivett's body; this may have been due to contamination at the scene. The man Lucan claimed to have seen could not have left through the basement's front door as it was locked, and the rear door led to a walled garden through which no trace of an escape was found. No signs that the man left by the ground level front door were discovered, and no witnesses reported seeing any such person near 46 Lower Belgrave Street. [121]

In contrast to his defenders, the national press were almost unanimous in their condemnation of Lucan. Their leader-writers ignored the threat of libel and identified him as Rivett's killer. [122]

Bankruptcy and estate

Be it known that the Right Honourable Richard John Bingham, Seventh Earl of Lucan, of 72a Elizabeth Street, London SW1, died on or since the 8th day of November 1974.

Probate document, 1999 [123]

As Lucan's bankruptcy proceeded, in August 1975 his creditors were informed that the missing earl had unsecured debts of £45,000 and preferential liabilities for £1,326. His assets were estimated at £22,632. [124] The family silver was sold in March 1976 for around £30,000. [125] [126] His remaining debts were repaid by the Lucan family trust in the years immediately following his disappearance. [127] His family was granted probate over his estate in 1999, but no death certificate was issued, [123] and his heir, George Bingham, Lord Bingham, was refused permission to take his father's title and seat in the House of Lords. [128] [129] Following the passage of the Presumption of Death Act 2013, Bingham began a new attempt to have his father declared dead, [130] which proved successful in a High Court hearing at the Rolls Building on 3 February 2016. [131] [132] He therefore inherited his father's title, becoming the 8th Earl of Lucan. [132]

Ultimate fate and reported sightings

He was not pronounced dead so we could pay for the children's education, that was the reason it took so long. If his body was found my son would have been the Earl of Lucan and we would have to pay death duties. We would not have been able to pay for the children's education. They were only four, seven and 10 so there was a lot of time ahead.

Dowager Countess of Lucan [133]

The last confirmed sighting of Lucan was at about 1:15 am on 8 November 1974 as he exited the driveway of the Maxwell-Scott property in his friend's Ford Corsair, and his ultimate fate remains a mystery. Detective Chief Superintendent Roy Ranson initially claimed that Lucan had "done the honourable thing" and "fallen on his own sword", a view repeated by many of Lucan's friends, [134] including John Aspinall, who said that he believed that the earl was guilty of Rivett's murder and that he had committed suicide by scuttling his motorboat and jumping into the English Channel with a stone tied around his body. [135] [136] Veronica Lucan committed suicide in 2017, [137] and she believed that her husband had killed himself "like the nobleman he was". [138] [139]

Ranson later changed his view, explaining that he considered it more likely that suicide was far from Lucan's thoughts, that a drowning at sea was implausible, and that the earl had moved to southern Africa. [140] A detective who led a new investigation into Lucan's disappearance 32 years after the murder told the Telegraph that "the evidence points towards the fact that Lord Lucan left the country and lived abroad for a number of years". [138] Susan Maxwell-Scott told author John Pearson that Lucan might have been helped out of the country by shadowy underground financiers before being judged too great a risk, killed, and buried in Switzerland. [141] Advertising executive Jeremy Scott proposed a similar theory, as he was familiar with some of the Clermont Set. [142]

Lucan's disappearance has captivated the public's imagination for decades, with thousands of sightings reported around the world. [143] [144] One of the earliest such sightings occurred shortly after the murder, but it turned out to be British politician John Stonehouse who had attempted to fake his own death. The police travelled to France in June the following year to hunt another lead, to no avail. A sighting in Colombia turned out to be an American businessman. John Miller was a bounty hunter who kidnapped fugitive train robber Ronnie Biggs, and he claimed to have captured the earl in 1982, but he was later exposed by the News of the World as a hoaxer. [145] In 2003, a former Scotland Yard detective thought that he had tracked the earl to Goa, India, but the man whom he traced was actually Barry Halpin, a folk singer from St Helens, Merseyside. [146] In 2007, reporters in New Zealand interviewed a homeless British expatriate who neighbours claimed was the missing earl. [147]

George Bingham responded to claims that the two eldest Lucan children were sent to Gabon in the early 1980s so that their father might secretly watch them "from a distance" [143] and denied ever visiting the country. Veronica Lucan dismissed the newspaper claims of sightings as "nonsense", reiterating that her husband "was not the sort of Englishman to cope abroad". [133]

See also

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References

Footnotes

  1. Lucan's ancestry contains many royal connections. His grandmother was a lady-in-waiting to the Duchess of Albany and could count Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, among her friends. His great-aunt was a woman-of-the-bedchamber to Mary of Teck. His grandfather, George Bingham, 5th Earl of Lucan, was Lord-in-waiting to King George V. The family is also linked to the family of Diana, Princess of Wales. [5]
  2. Raphael's wife, Eve, later became godmother to Lucan's first child, Frances. [10]
  3. "The former Lord Lucan was reputed to have inherited one-quarter of a million pounds along with his title and clearly, for all to see, had the money to indulge an expensive range of sporting passions." [21]
  4. This conversation, which Howard thought was "drunken rambling", [47] was not revealed to the inquest jury.
  5. Thurston was concerned about holding a full inquest before a trial had been held. The law at the time considered that a wife was usually neither "compellable nor competent" to testify against her husband in a criminal trial. She could tell the jury how she was attacked, but not anything about Rivett's death, or his "confession" after the fact. Her attack would also have to be heard before a different jury, in a different trial to the murder case. While these rules did not apply to an inquest, enabling her to speak freely, her evidence might prejudice any future trial. Furthermore, hearsay evidence was banned from criminal trials but not from inquests. [101]
  6. A former boxer named Michael Fitzpatrick later claimed to know the unidentified person, but later still admitted inventing the tale. He was convicted of wasting police time. [119] [120]

Notes

  1. "Countess of Lucan: setting the record straight".
  2. Lord Lucan 'officially dead' BBC, 27 October 1999
  3. Moore 1987 , pp. 43–46
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Davenport-Hines, Richard (January 2011), Bingham, (Richard) John, 7th earl of Lucan (b. 1934, d. in or after 1974) (online ed.), oxforddnb.com, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/75967 , retrieved 10 June 2012
  5. Moore 1987, p. 23
  6. Moore 1987 , pp. 46–48
  7. Other Old Etonians, etoncollege.com, retrieved 11 June 2012
  8. Moore 1987 , p. 49
  9. Moore 1987 , pp. 49–50
  10. 1 2 Moore 1987 , pp. 53–54
  11. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 20–22
  12. Moore 1987 , p. 55
  13. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 24
  14. 1 2 Moore 1987 , pp. 55–56
  15. Moore 1987 , p. 61
  16. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 13–14
  17. Moore 1987 , p. 64
  18. ITV interview 2017 with Lady Lucan, a guest was overheard to say: "there's no one here"
  19. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 14–16
  20. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 22
  21. Ranson & Strange 1994, p. 20
  22. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 22–23
  23. 1 2 Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 16–18
  24. Moore 1987 , pp. 70–71
  25. Moore 1987 , p. 53
  26. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 16–18, 189
  27. Moore 1987 , pp. 72–73
  28. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 24–25
  29. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 25
  30. Moore 1987 , pp. 77–78, 81
  31. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 30–33
  32. Moore 1987 , p. 82
  33. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 33–34
  34. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 34–38
  35. Moore 1987 , p. 83
  36. 1 2 Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 38–39
  37. Moore 1987 , pp. 86–87
  38. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 40–41
  39. Moore 1987 , p. 87
  40. Sir Stanley Rees, telegraph.co.uk, 14 December 2000, retrieved 19 June 2012
  41. Moore 1987 , p. 94
  42. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 41
  43. Moore 1987 , p. 97
  44. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 41–44
  45. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 43–48
  46. Moore 1987 , pp. 89–90
  47. 1 2 Moore 1987 , p. 204
  48. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 63–64
  49. Pearson 2007 , pp. 236–237
  50. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 50–57
  51. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 59
  52. Taki (17 February 2018). "Unlucky at cards, unlucky in love". The Spectator.
  53. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 61–62
  54. The three angry women ..., guardian.co.uk, 20 July 2001, retrieved 22 June 2012
  55. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 67–68
  56. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 191
  57. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 66–68
  58. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 68–71
  59. Moore 1987 , pp. 105–107
  60. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 139
  61. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 136–142
  62. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 144–145
  63. Moore 1987 , p. 107
  64. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 75
  65. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 72–77
  66. Moore 1987 , p. 29
  67. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 81
  68. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 87
  69. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 77–79
  70. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 80–82
  71. Moore 1987 , pp. 24–26
  72. Moore 1987 , p. 32
  73. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 91
  74. Moore 1987 , pp. 31–32
  75. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 82–83
  76. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 84
  77. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 85–86
  78. Moore 1987 , pp. 37–38
  79. Moore 1987 , p. 115
  80. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 87–88
  81. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 93–94
  82. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 92
  83. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 103–104
  84. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 94–95
  85. 1 2 Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 100
  86. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 96
  87. Pearson 2007 , pp. 256–257
  88. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 98–99
  89. 1 2 Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 104–106
  90. Moore 1987 , p. 112
  91. Pearson 2007 , p. 262
  92. Pearson 2007 , p. 260
  93. Pearson 2007 , pp. 261–262
  94. Moore 1987 , p. 130
  95. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 100–102
  96. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 102
  97. Wilkes, Roger (9 September 2000), Inside story: Stewart's Grove, telegraph.co.uk, retrieved 9 June 2012
  98. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 159
  99. Moore 1987 , pp. 132, 231
  100. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 107–108
  101. Ranson & Strange 1994, pp. 109–110
  102. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 111–112
  103. Moore 1987 , p. 138
  104. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 113–124
  105. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 125–127
  106. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 128
  107. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 127–128
  108. 1 2 Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 131
  109. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 130–131
  110. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 131–132
  111. Moore 1987, p. 200
  112. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 132–133
  113. Pearson 2007 , p. 263
  114. Green & Green 2006 , p. 57
  115. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 145
  116. Moore 1987 , p. 191
  117. 1 2 Moore 1987 , p. 201
  118. Ranson & Strange 1994 , p. 149
  119. Ranson & Strange 1994, p. 150
  120. Moore 1987, pp. 118–124
  121. Ranson & Strange 1994 , pp. 147–156
  122. Moore 1987 , p. 202
  123. 1 2 Family close a chapter in Lord Lucan saga, The Birmingham Post, 28 October 1999, archived from the original on 10 June 2014, retrieved 14 June 2012
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Bibliography

Further reading

Non-fiction

Fiction

Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
George Bingham
Earl of Lucan
1964–2016
Succeeded by
George Bingham