John Charles Herries

Last updated


John Charles Herries
John Charles Herries.jpg
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
3 September 1827 25 January 1828
Monarch George IV
Prime Minister The Viscount Goderich
Preceded by The Lord Tenterden
(interim)
Succeeded by Henry Goulburn
President of the Board of Trade
In office
2 February 22 November 1830
Monarch George IV
William IV
Prime Minister The Duke of Wellington
Preceded by William Vesey-FitzGerald
Succeeded by The Lord Auckland
Member of Parliament for Harwich
In office
1823  1847
Preceded by Charles Bathurst
Nicholas Vansittart
Succeeded by William Beresford
John Attwood
Member of Parliament for Stamford
In office
1847  1853
Preceded by Sir George Clerk, Bt
Marquess of Granby
Succeeded by Viscount Cranborne
Sir Frederic Thesiger
Personal details
BornNovember 1778 (1778-11)
Died24 April 1855(1855-04-24) (aged 76)
St Julians, Kent
Nationality British
Political party Tory
Spouse(s)Sarah Dorington (d. 1821)
Alma mater University of Leipzig

John Charles Herries PC (November 1778 – 24 April 1855), known as J. C. Herries, was a British politician and financier and a frequent member of Tory and Conservative cabinets in the early to mid-19th century.

Tory A conservative political philosophy

A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved in the English culture throughout history. The Tory ethos has been summed up with the phrase "God, Queen, and Country". Tories generally advocate monarchism, and were historically of a high church Anglican religious heritage, opposed to the liberalism of the Whig faction.

Conservative Party (UK) Political party in the United Kingdom

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, sometimes informally called the Tories, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 312 Members of Parliament, and also has 249 members of the House of Lords, 4 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 11 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors.

Contents

Background and education

Herries was the eldest son of Charles Herries, a London merchant, by his wife Mary Ann Johnson, and was educated at Cheam and the University of Leipzig.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital of and largest city in England and the United Kingdom, with the largest municipal population in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Political career

Herries worked his way up in the Treasury and eventually became Secretary to the First Lord of the Treasury, Commissary-General to the Army, Paymaster of the Civil List, Secretary to the Treasury (1823–1827), Chancellor of the Exchequer in Lord Goderich's government (1827–1828), Master of the Mint under the Duke of Wellington (1828–1830), briefly President of the Board of Trade (1830), Secretary at War under Sir Robert Peel (1834–1835), and finally President of the Board of Control in Lord Derby's first government (1852). During his tenure as Commissary-General, he used the help of Nathan Mayer Rothschild to transfer money to British and allied army troops on the continent, which was not an easy task during the Continental Blockade. Rothschild's successful conclusion of these transfers was one of the foundations of the house's English banking empire.

First Lord of the Treasury head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom

The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is by convention also the Prime Minister. This office is not equivalent to the usual position of the "Treasurer" in other governments; the closer equivalent of a Treasurer in the United Kingdom is Chancellor of the Exchequer, who is the Second Lord of the Treasury.

Royal Army Service Corps

The Royal Army Service Corps (RASC) was a corps of the British Army responsible for land, coastal and lake transport, air despatch, barracks administration, the Army Fire Service, staffing headquarters' units, supply of food, water, fuel and domestic materials such as clothing, furniture and stationery and the supply of technical and military equipment. In 1965 its functions were divided between other Corps and the RASC ceased to exist; subsequently, in 1993, they in their turn became the "Forming Corps" of the Royal Logistic Corps.

A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. It is a term especially associated with the United Kingdom and its former colonies of Canada and New Zealand. It was originally defined as expenses supporting the monarch. Morocco has a civil list defined in its constitution of 1996.

Herries was one of few men of ministerial experience to side with the protectionist Tories after the repeal of the Corn Laws. Following the death of Lord George Bentinck in 1848, Herries was suggested by Lord Stanley as an alternative to Benjamin Disraeli as Shadow Leader of the House of Commons. In the end Herries declined, and Disraeli gradually came into his own as leader. Staunchly protectionist, Herries was in repeated conflict with Disraeli who, despite championing protectionism barely six years before, was hurriedly disassociating himself and the party from that doctrine. The two never got along, and Herries' refusal to assist in the framing of the 1852 Budget (which he regarded as "wild work"), cannot have helped matters. By the time of Derby's second government in 1858, Herries had died. His son, Charles Herries, was appointed Chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue by Disraeli during the latter's second premiership in 1877.

The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846. The word "corn" in the English spoken in nineteenth century Britain denotes all cereal grains, such as wheat and barley. They were designed to keep grain prices high to favour domestic producers, and represented British mercantilism. The Corn Laws imposed steep import duties, making it too expensive to import grain from abroad, even when food supplies were short.

Lord George Bentinck British politician

Lord William George Frederick Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, better known as Lord George Bentinck, was an English Conservative politician and racehorse owner, noted for his role in unseating Sir Robert Peel over the Corn Laws.

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby British Prime Minister

Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley. He is one of only four British prime ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However, his ministries each lasted less than two years and totalled three years and 280 days.

Family

Herries married Sarah, daughter of John Dorington, in 1814. They had three sons, one of whom, Sir Charles Herries, was a well-known financier. Sarah died in February 1821. Herries survived her by over thirty years and died at St Julians, near Sevenoaks, Kent, in April 1855, aged 76.

Sevenoaks Market town and civil parish in western Kent, England

Sevenoaks is a town and civil parish with a population of 29,506 situated south-east of London in western Kent, England. It is served by a commuter main line railway into London. Sevenoaks is 21 miles (34 km) from Charing Cross, the traditional centre of London. It is the principal town of the Sevenoaks district, followed by Swanley and Edenbridge.

Kent County of England

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone.

Related Research Articles

Benjamin Disraeli British Conservative Prime Minister

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield,, was a British politician of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone, and his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy". He made the Conservatives the party most identified with the glory and power of the British Empire. He is the only British prime minister to have been of Jewish birth. He was also a novelist, publishing works of fiction even as prime minister.

F. J. Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich British politician

Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon,, styled The Honourable F. J. Robinson until 1827 and known as The Viscount GoderichGOHD-rich between 1827 and 1833, the name by which he is best known to history, was a British politician during the Regency era. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between August 1827 and January 1828.

Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax British politician

Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax, GCB, PC, known as Sir Charles Wood, 3rd Bt between 1846 and 1866, was a Anglo-Indian Whig politician and Member of Parliament Of The British Empire. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1846 to 1852.

John Pakington, 1st Baron Hampton British politician

John Somerset Pakington, 1st Baron Hampton,, known as Sir John Pakington, Bt, from 1846 to 1874, was a British Conservative politician.

Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, 1st Earl of Cranbrook British politician

Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, 1st Earl of Cranbrook,, known as Gathorne Hardy until 1878, was a prominent British Conservative politician, a moderate, middle-of-the road Anglican. He held cabinet office in every Conservative government between 1858 and 1892 and notably served as Home Secretary from 1867 to 1868 and as Secretary of State for War from 1874 to 1878.

Charles Grant, 1st Baron Glenelg British politician

Charles Grant, 1st Baron Glenelg PC FRS was a Scottish politician and colonial administrator.

1852 United Kingdom general election

The 1852 United Kingdom general election was a watershed in the formation of the modern political parties of Britain. Following 1852, the Tory/Conservative party became, more completely, the party of the rural aristocracy, while the Whig/Liberal party became the party of the rising urban bourgeoisie in Britain. The results of the election were extremely close in terms of both the popular vote and the numbers of seats won by the two main parties.

Spencer Horatio Walpole British Conservative politician

Spencer Horatio Walpole was a British Conservative Party politician who served three times as Home Secretary in the administrations of Lord Derby.

Who? Who? ministry Government of the United Kingdom

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby led the "Who? Who?" ministry, a short-lived British Conservative government which was in power for a matter of months in 1852. Lord Derby was Prime Minister and Benjamin Disraeli served as Chancellor of the Exchequer. It marked the first time the protectionist wing of the Conservative Party had taken office since the Corn Laws schism of 1846. It is also called the first Derby–Disraeli ministry.

Henry Labouchere, 1st Baron Taunton English politician

Henry Labouchere, 1st Baron Taunton, PC was a prominent British Whig and Liberal Party politician of the mid-19th century.

Second Disraeli ministry Government of the United Kingdom

Benjamin Disraeli was appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a second time by Queen Victoria after William Ewart Gladstone's government was defeated in the 1874 general election. Disraeli's foreign policy was seen as immoral by Gladstone, and following the latter's Midlothian campaign, the government was heavily defeated in the 1880 general election, whereupon Gladstone formed his second government. The ailing Disraeli, by now created Earl of Beaconsfield, died in April 1881.

Sir George Clerk, 6th Baronet Scottish politician

Sir George Clerk of Pennycuik, 6th Baronet was a Scottish politician who served as the Tory MP for Edinburghshire, Stamford and Dover.

Charles Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland British nobleman and Conservative politician

Charles Cecil John Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland KG, styled Marquess of Granby before 1857, was an English Conservative politician.

George Smythe, 7th Viscount Strangford British politician

George Smythe, 7th Viscount Strangford, styled The Honourable George Smythe until 1855, was a British Conservative politician, best known for his association with Benjamin Disraeli and the Young England movement. He served briefly as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1846 under Sir Robert Peel.

Lord Henry Lennox British politician

Lord Henry George Charles Gordon-Lennox PC, known as Lord Henry Lennox, was a British Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1846 to 1885 and was a close friend of Benjamin Disraeli.

William Forbes Mackenzie was a Scottish Conservative politician and temperance reformer. He is best known for the Forbes MacKenzie Act, legislation passed in 1853 to regulate public houses in Scotland.

Canningite government, 1827–1828 Government of the United Kingdom

The Canningites, led by George Canning and then the Viscount Goderich as First Lord of the Treasury, governed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1827 until 1828.

George Sholto Douglas, 17th Earl of Morton, known as George Douglas until 1827, was a Scottish Tory politician.

References

Robert Norman William Blake, Baron Blake,, was an English historian and peer. He is best known for his 1966 biography of Benjamin Disraeli, and for The Conservative Party from Peel to Churchill, which grew out of his 1968 Ford lectures.

St. Martin's Press is a book publisher headquartered in Manhattan, New York City. St. Martin's Press is considered one of the largest English-language publishers bringing to the public some 700 titles a year under eight imprints.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Charles Bathurst
Nicholas Vansittart
Member of Parliament for Harwich
1823–1841
With: George Canning 1823–1826
Nicholas Conyngham Tindal 1826–1827
Sir William Rae, Bt 1827–1830
George Robert Dawson 1830–1832
Christopher Thomas Tower 1832–1835
Francis Robert Bonham 1835–1837
Alexander Ellice 1837–1841
Succeeded by
William Beresford
John Attwood
Preceded by
Sir George Clerk, Bt
Marquess of Granby
Member of Parliament for Stamford
1847–1853
With: Marquess of Granby 1847–1852
Sir Frederic Thesiger 1852–1853
Succeeded by
Viscount Cranborne
Sir Frederic Thesiger
Political offices
Preceded by
Charles Arbuthnot
Stephen Rumbold Lushington
Joint Secretary to the Treasury
1823–1827
With: Stephen Rumbold Lushington 1823–1827
Joseph Planta 1827
Succeeded by
Joseph Planta
Thomas Frankland Lewis
Preceded by
George Canning
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1827–1828
Succeeded by
Henry Goulburn
Preceded by
George Tierney
Master of the Mint
1828–1830
Succeeded by
The Lord Auckland
Preceded by
William Vesey-FitzGerald
President of the Board of Trade
1830
Preceded by
Edward Ellice
Secretary at War
1834–1835
Succeeded by
Viscount Howick
Preceded by
Marquess of Granby
Conservative Leader of the Commons
1849–1851
With: Benjamin Disraeli and Marquess of Granby
Succeeded by
Benjamin Disraeli
Preceded by
Fox Maule
President of the Board of Control
1852
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Wood