|Battles/wars||English Civil War|
John Desborough(1608–1680) was an English soldier and politician who supported the parliamentary cause during the English Civil War.
He was the son of James Desborough of Eltisley, Cambridgeshire, and of Elizabeth Hatley of Over in the same county. He was baptized on 13 November 1608. He was educated in law. On 23 June 1636 he married Eltisley Jane, daughter of Robert Cromwell of Huntingdon, and sister of Oliver Cromwell, the future Lord Protector.
He took an active part in the English Civil War, and showed considerable military ability. In 1645, he was present as major in the engagement at Langport on 10 July, at Hambleton Hill on 4 August, and on 10 September he commanded the horse at the storming of Bristol. Later he took part in the operations round Oxford. In 1648, as colonel he commanded the forces at Great Yarmouth.
He avoided all participation in the trial of Charles I in June 1649, being employed in the settlement of the west of England. He fought at Worcester as major-general and nearly captured Charles II near Salisbury.
After the establishment of the Commonwealth of England he was chosen, on 7 January 1652, a member of the committee for legal reforms. In 1653, he became a member of the Protectorate council of state, and a commissioner of the treasury, and was appointed one of the four Generals at Sea and a commissioner for the army and navy. In 1654, he was made constable of St Briavel's Castle in Gloucestershire. During the Rule of the Major-Generals (1655–1656) he was appointed major-general over the south west. He had been nominated a member of the Barebones Parliament in 1653, and he was returned to the First Protectorate Parliament of 1654 for Cambridgeshire, and to the Second Protectorate Parliament in 1656 for Somersetshire. In the Second Parliament, he introduced the "Militia Bill" which was voted down by one hundred and twenty four votes to eighty eight. If passed it would have helped to finance the Army by imposing a ten percent "Decimation Tax", on known Royalists.
In July 1657, he became a member of the Protector's Privy Council, and in 1658 he accepted a seat in Cromwell's Other House (House of Lords).
In spite of his near relationship to the Protectors family, he was one of the most violent opponents of the assumption by Cromwell of the royal title, and after the Protector's death, instead of supporting the interests and government of his nephew Richard Cromwell, he was, with Charles Fleetwood, the chief instigator and organizer of the hostility of the army towards his administration, and forced Richard Cromwell by threats and menaces to dissolve his Third Protectorate Parliament in April 1659. Desborough was chosen a member of the Council of State by the restored Rump Parliament, and made colonel and governor of Plymouth, but presenting with other officers a seditious petition from the Army Council, on 5 October 1659, was about a week later dismissed. After the exclusion of the Rump Parliament from the Palace of Westminster by Fleetwood on 13 October, he was chosen by the officers a member of the new administration and commissary-general of the horse.
The new military government, however, rested on no solid foundation, and its leaders quickly found themselves without any influence. Desborough himself became an object of ridicule, his regiment even revolted against him, and on the return of the Rump he was ordered to quit London. At the Restoration he was excluded from the 1660 Indemnity and Oblivion Act but not included in the clause of pains and penalties extending to life and goods, being therefore only incapacitated from public employment. Soon afterwards he was arrested on suspicion of conspiring to kill the king and queen, but was quickly liberated. Subsequently he escaped to the Netherlands, where he engaged in republican intrigues. Accordingly, he was ordered home, in April 1666, on pain of incurring the charge of treason, and obeying was imprisoned in the Tower of London until February 1667, when he was examined before the council and set free.
Desborough died in 1680. By his first wife, Cromwell's sister, he had one daughter and seven sons; he married a second wife in April 1658 whose name is unrecorded. Desborough was a good soldier and nothing more; and his only conception of government was by force and by the army. His rough person and manners are the constant theme of ridicule in the royalist ballads, and he is caricatured by Samuel Butler in Hudibras and in the Parable of the Lion and the Fox.
This article needs additional citations for verification . (December 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Wikisource has the text of the 1885–1900 Dictionary of National Biography's article about Desborough, John .|
The Commonwealth was the political structure during the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, were governed as a republic after the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth was vested primarily in the Parliament and a Council of State. During the period, fighting continued, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, between the parliamentary forces and those opposed to them, as part of what is now referred to as the Third English Civil War.
Richard Cromwell was an English statesman who was the second Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and son of the first Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell.
The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth when England and Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and the English overseas possessions were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic. The Protectorate began in 1653 when, following the dissolution of the Rump Parliament and then Barebone's Parliament, Oliver Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector of the Commonwealth under the terms of the Instrument of Government. In 1659, the Protectorate Parliament was dissolved by the Committee of Safety as Richard Cromwell, who had succeeded his father as Lord Protector, was unable to keep control of the Parliament and the Army. This marked the end of the Protectorate and the start of a second period of rule by the Rump Parliament as the legislature and the Council of State as the executive.
John Lambert was an English Parliamentary general and politician. He fought during the English Civil War and then in Oliver Cromwell's Scottish campaign (1650–51), becoming thereafter active in civilian politics until his dismissal by Cromwell in 1657. During this time he wrote the Instrument of Government, one of only two codified constitutions ever adopted in Britain, and was influential in bringing about the Protectorate.
The Rump Parliament was the English Parliament after Colonel Thomas Pride purged the Long Parliament, on 6 December 1648, of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.
The English Council of State, later also known as the Protector's Privy Council, was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 after the execution of King Charles I.
The Second Protectorate Parliament in England sat for two sessions from 17 September 1656 until 4 February 1658, with Thomas Widdrington as the Speaker of the House of Commons. In its first session, the House of Commons was its only chamber; in the second session an Other House with a power of veto over the decisions of the Commons was added.
The Third Protectorate Parliament sat for one session, from 27 January 1659 until 22 April 1659, with Chaloner Chute and Thomas Bampfylde as the Speakers of the House of Commons. It was a bicameral Parliament, with an Upper House having a power of veto over the Commons.
Colonel Sir Richard Ingoldsby was an English officer in the New Model Army during the English Civil War and a politician who sat in the House of Commons variously between 1647 and 1685. As a Commissioner (Judge) at the trial of King Charles I, he signed the king's death warrant but was one of the few regicides to be pardoned.
Henry Cromwell was the fourth son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier, and an important figure in the Parliamentarian regime in Ireland.
Carrickfergus and Belfast was a constituency in Ireland, that returned a single Member of Parliament to sit in the House of Commons of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
William Packer was a major-general during the English Civil War.
Colonel Philip Jones was a Welsh military leader and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1650 and 1656. He rose to the rank of Colonel in the service of the Parliamentary Army under Fairfax during the English Civil War. As Governor of Swansea he successfully held the town against the Royalist forces.
William Sydenham (1615–1661) was a Cromwellian soldier; and the eldest brother of Thomas Sydenham. He fought for Parliament and defeated the Royalists in various skirmishes in Dorset. He was member of the various parliaments of the Commonwealth, avowal conservative principles, and defended the liberties of Englishmen. In 1654 made councillor and commissioner of the treasury by Oliver Cromwell. Took the side of the army against Parliament. In 1660, after the Protectorate, and before the Restoration, he was expelled from the Long Parliament. After the Restoration, he was perpetually incapacitated from holding office by the Indemnity and Oblivion Act.
Edmund Dunch, 1st Baron Burnell of East Wittenham (1602–1678) was an English Member of Parliament who supported the Parliamentary cause before and during the English Civil War. During the Interregnum he sat as a member of parliament. In 1659, after the Protectorate and before the Restoration, regaining his seat in the Rump he also sat in Committee of Safety. After the restoration of the monarchy he was not exempted under the Act of Pardon and Oblivion but the titles granted to him under the Protectorate were not recognised under the restored monarchy of Charles II.
Charles Fleetwood was an English Parliamentarian soldier and politician, Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1652–1655, where he enforced the Cromwellian Settlement. Named Cromwell's Lieutenant General for the Third English Civil War, Fleetwood was thereafter one of his most loyal supporters throughout the Protectorate. After the Lord Protector's death, Fleetwood was initially supportive of his brother-in-law Richard Cromwell, but turned against him and forced him from power. Together with his colleague John Lambert he dominated government for a little over a year before being outmaneuvered by George Monck. At the Restoration he was included in the Act of Indemnity as among the twenty liable to penalties other than capital, and was finally incapacitated from holding any office of trust. His public career then closed.
John Clark was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons for various constituencies between 1653 and 1659. He was a colonel in the Parliamentary army.
Colonel James Whitlocke of Trumpington, Cambridgeshire supported the Parliamentary cause in the English Civil War, and was a Member of Parliament during the Interregnum.
During the Protectorate period (1653–1659) of the Commonwealth of England, the Lord Protector reserved the power previously held by the monarch to confer knighthoods, baronetcies and peerages.
John Parker was an English judge and an MP for Rochester during the Interregnum.