John Fisher

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Saint John Fisher
Cardinal and Bishop of Rochester
San Juan Fisher Obispo de Rochester y Martir.jpg
DioceseRochester
SeeRochester
Appointed14 October 1504
Installed24 April 1505
Term ended2 January 1535
Predecessor Richard FitzJames
Successor Nicholas Heath
Other posts Cardinal-Priest of San Vitale
Orders
Ordination17 December 1491
by  Thomas Rotherham
Consecration24 November 1504
by  William Warham
Created cardinal21 May 1535
RankBishop, Cardinal-Priest
Personal details
Bornc. 19 October 1469 [1]
Beverley, Yorkshire, Kingdom of England
Died22 June 1535(1535-06-22) (aged 65)
Tower Hill, London, Kingdom of England
Denomination Roman Catholic
Mottofaciam vos fieri piscatores hominum ("I shall make you fishers of men")
Coat of arms Coat of arms of Saint John Fisher.svg
Sainthood
Feast day
Venerated in Catholic Church, Church of England, some of the other Churches in the Anglican Communion
Title as SaintBishop, cardinal and martyr
Beatified29 December 1886
Rome, Kingdom of Italy,
by  Pope Leo XIII
Canonized19 May 1935
Vatican City,
by  Pope Pius XI
Patronage Diocese of Rochester
Styles of
John Fisher
Coat of arms of Saint John Fisher.svg
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal style Cardinal

John Fisher (c. 19 October 1469 – 22 June 1535), venerated by Roman Catholics as Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop, cardinal, and theologian. Fisher was also an academic, and eventually served as Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration is the Holy See.

Cardinal (Catholic Church) Senior official of the Catholic Church

A cardinal is a leading bishop and prince of College of Cardinals in the Catholic Church. Their duties include participating in Papal consistories, and Papal conclaves, when the Holy See is vacant. Most have additional missions, such as leading a diocese or a dicastery of the Roman Curia, the equivalent of a government of the Holy See. During the sede vacante, the day-to-day governance of the Holy See is in the hands of the College of Cardinals. The right to enter the Papal conclave of cardinals where the pope is elected is limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years by the day the vacancy occurs.

A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system.

Contents

Fisher was executed by order of Henry VIII during the English Reformation for refusing to accept the King as Supreme Head of the Church of England and for upholding the Roman Catholic Church's doctrine of papal supremacy. He was named a cardinal shortly before his death. He is honoured as a martyr and saint by the Catholic Church. He shares his feast day with St Thomas More on 22 June in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints and on 6 July in that of the Church of England.

Henry VIII of England 16th-century King of England

Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. He was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is also known as "the father of the Royal Navy"; he invested heavily in the Navy, increasing its size greatly from a few to more than 50 ships.

English Reformation 16th-century separation of the Church of England from the Pope of Rome

The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity across western and central Europe. Causes included the decline of feudalism and the rise of nationalism, the rise of the common law, the invention of the printing press and increased circulation of the Bible, and the transmission of new knowledge and ideas among scholars, the upper and middle classes and readers in general. However, the various phases of the English Reformation, which also covered Wales and Ireland, were largely driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion gradually accommodated itself.

Supreme Head of the Church of England

Supreme Head of the Church of England was a title created in 1531 for King Henry VIII of England when he first began to separate the Church of England from the authority of the Holy See and allegiance to the Pope. The Act of Supremacy of 1534 confirmed the King's status as having supremacy over the church and required the nobility to swear an oath recognising Henry's supremacy. By 1536, Henry had broken with Rome, seized the Catholic Church's assets in England and declared the Church of England as the established church with himself as its head. Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry in 1538 over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon.

Early life

John Fisher was born in Beverley, Yorkshire, [2] in 1469, the eldest son of Robert Fisher, a modestly prosperous merchant of Beverley, and Agnes, his wife. He was one of four children. His father died when John was eight. His mother remarried and had five more children by her second husband, William White. Fisher seems to have had close contacts with his extended family all his life. Fisher's early education was probably received in the school attached to the collegiate church in his home town. He attended Beverley Grammar School, an old foundation claiming to date from the year 700. In the present day, one of the houses at the school is named in Fisher's honour. [3]

Beverley town and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England

Beverley is a historic market town, civil parish and the county town of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The town is known for Beverley Minster, Beverley Westwood, North Bar and Beverley Racecourse. It inspired the naming of the city of Beverly, Massachusetts, Which in turn was the impetus for Beverly Hills, California.

Yorkshire Historic county of Northern England

Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have also been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region. The name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military, and also features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire.

Beverley Grammar School Academy in Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire, England

Beverley Grammar School is a boys' comprehensive state secondary academy school in Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire, England. A school may have been founded here about 700 AD and on that basis the school is claimed to be the country's oldest state school and the eighth oldest school overall, but the existence of a school here is not continuous. The present school is a specialist Engineering College and shares a joint Sixth form with Beverley High School. The school has received an 'Outstanding' in Ofsted inspections in 2006, 2008, and in 2010. However it was unable to sustain such a high level record when deemed 'requires improvement' in 2013. The current headteacher is Gavin Chappell, who took over from Gillian Todd in September 2015.

Fisher studied at the University of Cambridge from 1484, where at Michaelhouse he came under the influence of William Melton, a pastorally-minded theologian open to the new current of reform in studies arising from the Renaissance. Fisher earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1487 and in 1491 proceeded to a Master of Arts degree. Also in 1491 Fisher received a papal dispensation to enter the priesthood despite being under canonical age. [4] Fisher was ordained into the Catholic priesthood on 17 December 1491 – the same year that he was elected a fellow of his college. [5] He was also made Vicar of Northallerton, Yorkshire. In 1494 he resigned his benefice to become proctor of the university and three years later was appointed master debater, about which date he also became chaplain and confessor to Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of King Henry VII. On 5 July 1501, he became a doctor of sacred theology and 10 days later was elected Vice-Chancellor of the University. Under Fisher's guidance, his patroness Lady Margaret founded St John's and Christ's Colleges at Cambridge, and a Lady Margaret Professorship of Divinity at each of the two universities at Oxford and Cambridge, Fisher himself becoming the first occupant of the Cambridge chair. From 1505 to 1508 he was also the President of Queens' College. At the end of July 1516 he was at Cambridge for the opening of St John's College and consecrated the chapel.

University of Cambridge university in Cambridge, United Kingdom

The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two 'ancient universities' share many common features and are often referred to jointly as 'Oxbridge'. The academic standards, history, influence and wealth of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

Michaelhouse, Cambridge

Michaelhouse is a former college of the University of Cambridge, that existed between 1323 and 1546, when it was merged with King's Hall to form Trinity College. Michaelhouse was the second residential college to be founded, after Peterhouse (1284). Though King's Hall was established earlier in 1317, it did not acquire actual premises until its re-foundation by Edward III in 1336. The name Michaelhouse is now used for St Michael's Church.

Renaissance European cultural period, 14th to 17th century

The Renaissance was a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the Middle Ages.

Fisher's strategy was to assemble funds and attract to Cambridge leading scholars from Europe, promoting the study not only of Classical Latin and Greek authors, but of Hebrew. He placed great weight upon pastoral commitment, above all popular preaching by the endowed staff. Fisher's foundations were also dedicated to prayer for the dead, especially through chantry foundations. Fisher had a vision to which he dedicated all his personal resources and energies. A scholar and a priest, humble and conscientious, he managed despite occasional opposition to administer a whole university, one of only two in England. He conceived and saw through long-term projects.

Classical Latin high-prestige form of the Latin language in the Roman Republic and Empire

Classical Latin is the form of Latin language recognized as a standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and Roman Empire. In some later periods, it was regarded as "good"/"proper" Latin, with later versions viewed as debased, degenerate, "vulgar", or corrupted. The word Latin is now taken by default to mean "Classical Latin". For example, modern Latin textbooks almost exclusively teach Classical Latin. Cicero and his contemporaries of the late republic used lingua latina and sermo latinus versions of the Latin language. Conversely, the Greeks used Vulgar Latin in their vernacular, written as latinitas, or "Latinity" when combined. It was also called sermo familiaris, sermo urbanus, and in rare cases sermo nobilis. Besides latinitas, it was mainly called latine, or latinius.

Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language. The beginning of Latin literature dates to 240 BC, when the first stage play was performed in Rome. Latin literature would flourish for the next six centuries. The classical era of Latin literature can be roughly divided into the following periods: Early Latin literature, The Golden Age, The Imperial Period and Late Antiquity.

Greek literature dates back from the ancient Greek literature, beginning in 800 BC, to the modern Greek literature of today.

A stern and austere man, Fisher was known to place a human skull on the altar during Mass and on the table during meals. [6]

Erasmus said of John Fisher: "He is the one man at this time who is incomparable for uprightness of life, for learning and for greatness of soul." [7]

Bishop

By Papal Bull dated 14 October 1504, Fisher was appointed the Bishop of Rochester at the personal insistence of Henry VII. [8] Rochester was then the poorest diocese in England and usually seen as a first step on an ecclesiastical career. Nonetheless, Fisher stayed there, presumably by his own choice, for the remaining 31 years of his life. At the same time, like any English bishop of his day, Fisher had certain state duties. In particular, he maintained a passionate interest in the University of Cambridge. In 1504 he was elected the university's chancellor. Re-elected annually for 10 years, Fisher ultimately received a lifetime appointment. At this date he is also said to have acted as tutor to Prince Henry, afterwards King Henry VIII. As a preacher his reputation was so great that Fisher was appointed to preach the funeral oration for King Henry VII and the Lady Margaret, both of whom died in 1509, the texts being extant. Besides his share in the Lady Margaret's foundations, Fisher gave further proof of his zeal for learning by inducing Erasmus to visit Cambridge. The latter attributes it ("Epistulae" 6:2) to Fisher's protection that the study of Greek was allowed to proceed at Cambridge without the active molestation that it encountered at Oxford. [2]

Despite his fame and eloquence, it was not long before Fisher came into conflict with the new King, his former pupil. The dispute arose over funds left by the Lady Margaret, the King's grandmother, for financing foundations at Cambridge.

In 1512 Fisher was nominated as one of the English representatives at the Fifth Council of the Lateran, then sitting, but his journey to Rome was postponed, and finally abandoned. [2]

Fisher has also been named, though without any real proof, as the true author of the royal treatise against Martin Luther entitled "Assertio septem sacramentorum" ( Defence of the Seven Sacraments ), published in 1521, which won for King Henry VIII the title "Fidei Defensor" ( Defender of the Faith ). Prior to this date Fisher had denounced various abuses in the church, urging the need for disciplinary reforms. On about 11 February 1526, at the King's command, he preached a famous sermon against Luther at St Paul's Cross, the open-air pulpit outside St Paul's Cathedral in London. This was in the wake of numerous other controversial writings; the battle against heterodox teachings increasingly occupied Fisher's later years. In 1529 Fisher ordered the arrest of Thomas Hitton, a follower of William Tyndale, and subsequently interrogated him. Hitton was tortured and executed at the stake for heresy. [9]

Defence of Catherine of Aragon

When Henry tried to divorce Queen Catherine of Aragon, Fisher became the Queen's chief supporter. [10] As such, he appeared on the Queen's behalf in the legates' court, where he startled the audience by the directness of his language and by declaring that, like St John the Baptist, he was ready to die on behalf of the indissolubility of marriage. [11] Henry VIII, upon hearing this, grew so enraged by it that he composed a long Latin address to the legates in answer to the bishop's speech. Fisher's copy of this still exists, with his manuscript annotations in the margin which show how little he feared the royal anger. [12] The removal of the cause to Rome brought Fisher's personal involvement to an end, but the King never forgave him for what he had done.

Henry's attack on the Church

In November 1529, the "Long Parliament" of Henry's reign began encroaching on the Catholic Church's prerogatives. Fisher, as a member of the upper house, the House of Lords, at once warned Parliament that such acts could only end in the utter destruction of the Catholic Church in England. The Commons, through their speaker, complained to the King that Fisher had disparaged Parliament, presumably with Henry prompting them behind the scenes. The opportunity was not lost. Henry summoned Fisher before him, demanding an explanation. This being given, Henry declared himself satisfied, leaving it to the Commons to declare that the explanation was inadequate, so that he appeared as a magnanimous sovereign, instead of Fisher's enemy.

This yere was a coke boylyd in a cauderne in Smythfeld for he wolde a powsyned the bishop of Rochester Fycher with dyvers of hys servanttes, and he was lockyd in a chayne and pullyd up and downe with a gybbyt at dyvers tymes tyll he was dede.

Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London, 1531

A year later, in 1530, the continued encroachments on the Church moved Fisher, as Bishop of Rochester, along with the Bishops of Bath and Ely, to appeal to the Holy See. This gave the King his opportunity and an edict forbidding such appeals was immediately issued, and the three bishops were arrested. Their imprisonment, however, must have lasted only a few months for in February 1531, Convocation met, and Fisher was present. This was the occasion when the clergy were forced, at a cost of 100,000 pounds, to purchase the King's pardon for having recognized Cardinal Wolsey's authority as legate of the pope; and at the same time to acknowledge Henry as Supreme Head of the Church in England, to which phrase the addition of the clause "so far as God's law permits" was made through Fisher's efforts.

A few days later, several of Fisher's servants were taken ill after eating some porridge served to the household and two died. A cook, Richard Roose, was executed by boiling alive for attempted poisoning.

Intrigues with the Holy Roman Emperor

Fisher also engaged in secret activities to overthrow Henry. As early as 1531 he began secretly communicating with foreign diplomats. In September 1533 communicating secretly through the imperial ambassador Eustace Chapuys he encouraged Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to invade England and depose Henry in combination with a domestic uprising. [13]

"The King's Great Matter"

John Fisher by Gerard Valck, after Adriaen van der Werff, 1697. John Fisher by Gerard Valck, after Adriaen van der Werff.jpg
John Fisher by Gerard Valck, after Adriaen van der Werff, 1697.

Matters now moved rapidly. In May 1532, Sir Thomas More resigned the chancellorship and, in June, Fisher preached publicly against the divorce. In August, William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, died and Thomas Cranmer was at once proposed by Henry to the Pope as his successor. In January of the next year, Henry secretly went through a form of marriage with Anne Boleyn. Cranmer's consecration as a bishop took place in March 1533, and, a week later, Fisher was arrested. It seems that the purpose of this arrest was to prevent him from opposing the sentence of divorce which Cranmer pronounced in May, or the coronation of Anne Boleyn which followed on 1 June, for Fisher was set at liberty again within a fortnight of the latter event, no charge being made against him. In the autumn of 1533, various arrests were made in connection with the so-called revelations of the Holy Maid of Kent, Elizabeth Barton, but as Fisher was taken seriously ill in December, proceedings against him were postponed for a time. However, in March 1534, a special Bill of Attainder against Fisher and others for complicity in the matter of the Maid of Kent was introduced in Parliament and passed. By this, Fisher was condemned to forfeit all his personal estate and to be imprisoned during the King's pleasure. Subsequently a pardon was granted him on payment of a fine of 300 pounds.

The same session of Parliament passed the First Succession Act, by which all who should be called upon to do so were compelled to take an oath of succession, acknowledging the issue of Henry and Anne as legitimate heirs to the throne, under pain of being guilty of misprision of treason. Fisher refused the oath and was imprisoned in the Tower of London on 26 April 1534. [8] Several efforts were made to induce him to submit, but without effect, and in November he was attained of misprision of treason a second time, his goods being forfeited as from the previous 1 March, and the See of Rochester being declared vacant as of 2 June following. He was to remain in the Tower for over a year, and while he was allowed food and drink sent by friends, and a servant, he was not allowed a priest, even to the very end. A long letter exists, written from the Tower by Fisher to Thomas Cromwell, speaking of the severity of his conditions of imprisonment.

Like Thomas More, Bishop Fisher believed that because the statute condemned only those speaking maliciously against the King's new title, there was safety in silence. However, on 7 May he fell into a trap laid for him by Richard Rich, who was to perjure himself to obtain Thomas More's conviction. Rich told Fisher that for his own conscience's sake the King wished to know, in strict secrecy, Fisher's real opinion. Fisher, once again, declared that the King was not Supreme Head of the Church of England. [7]

Cardinalate and Martyrdom

Memorial space at the Tower Hill public execution site London 01 2013 Tower Hill scaffold 5211.JPG
Memorial space at the Tower Hill public execution site

In May 1535, the newly elected Pope Paul III created Fisher Cardinal Priest of San Vitale , apparently in the hope of inducing Henry to ease Fisher's treatment. The effect was precisely the reverse: [7] Henry forbade the cardinal's hat to be brought into England, declaring that he would send the head to Rome instead. In June a special commission for Fisher's trial was issued, and on Thursday, 17 June, he was arraigned in Westminster Hall before a court of seventeen, including Thomas Cromwell, Anne Boleyn's father, and ten justices. The charge was treason, in that he denied that the King was the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Since he had been deprived of his position of Bishop of Rochester by the Act of Attainder, he was treated as a commoner, and tried by jury. The only testimony was that of Richard Rich. John Fisher was found guilty and condemned to be hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.

The Bell Tower, where John Fisher was held during his prison time together with Thomas More, though imprisoned separately therein. London bell tower 08.03.2013 12-32-17.JPG
The Bell Tower, where John Fisher was held during his prison time together with Thomas More, though imprisoned separately therein.

However, a public outcry was brewing among the London populace who saw a sinister irony in the parallels between the conviction of Fisher and that of his patronal namesake, Saint John the Baptist, who was executed by King Herod Antipas for challenging the validity of Herod's marriage to his brother's divorcée Herodias. For fear of John Fisher's living through his patronal feast day, that of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist on 24 June, and of attracting too much public sympathy, King Henry commuted the sentence to that of beheading, to be accomplished before 23 June, the Vigil of the feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist. He was executed on Tower Hill on 22 June 1535. [14] The execution had the opposite effect from that which King Henry VIII intended, as it created yet another parallel with that of the martyrdom of St. John the Baptist, who was also beheaded; his death also happened on the feast day of Saint Alban, the first martyr of Britain. [14]

Fisher's last moments were in keeping with his life. He met death with a calm dignified courage which profoundly impressed those present. His body was treated with particular rancour, apparently on Henry's orders, being stripped and left on the scaffold until the evening, [7] when it was taken on pikes and thrown naked into a rough grave in the churchyard of All Hallows' Barking, also known as All Hallows-by-the-Tower. There was no funeral prayer. A fortnight later, his body was laid beside that of Sir Thomas More in the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula within the Tower of London. Fisher's head was stuck upon a pole on London Bridge but its ruddy and lifelike appearance excited so much attention that, after a fortnight, it was thrown into the Thames, its place being taken by that of Sir Thomas More, whose execution, also at Tower Hill, occurred on 6 July. [15]

Fisher was a figure universally esteemed throughout Europe and notwithstanding the subsequent efforts of the English government, was to remain so. In the Decree of Beatification issued on 29 December 1886 by Pope Leo XIII, when 54 English martyrs were beatified, the greatest place was given to Fisher. He was later canonised, on 19 May 1935, by Pope Pius XI along with Thomas More, [16] after the presentation of a petition by English Catholics.

Canonisation

Saint

John Fisher
Lossy-page1-2916px-'Fisher. Bishop of Rochester' RMG PY6068 (cropped).jpg
Portrait of Fisher, c. 1760
Cardinal and Bishop of Rochester
Bornc. (1469-10-19)October 19, 1469
Beverley, Yorkshire, Kingdom of England
Died(1535-06-22)June 22, 1535
Tower Hill, London, Kingdom of England
Venerated in Catholic Church
Anglicanism
Beatified 29 December 1886, Rome, Kingdom of Italy by Pope Leo XIII
Canonized 19 May 1935, Vatican City by Pope Pius XI
Feast 22 June (Catholic Church)
6 July (Anglicanism)
9 July (pre-1969 Catholic)
Patronage Diocese of Rochester

Fisher was beatified by Pope Leo XIII with Thomas More and 52 other English Martyrs on 29 December 1886 and canonised, with Thomas More, on 19 May 1935 by Pope Pius XI. His feast day, for celebration jointly with St Thomas More, is on 22 June (the date of Fisher's execution).

In 1980, despite being an opponent of the English Reformation, Fisher was added to the Church of England's calendar of Saints and Heroes of the Christian Church, jointly with Thomas More, to be commemorated every 6 July (the date of More's execution) as "Thomas More, Scholar, and John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, Reformation Martyrs, 1535". [17] He is also listed along with Thomas More in the calendar of saints of some of the other Churches of the Anglican Communion, like The Anglican Church of Australia.[ citation needed ]

Portraits

Several portraits of Fisher exist, the most prominent being by Hans Holbein the Younger in the Royal Collection; and a few secondary relics are extant.

Relic

Fisher's walking-staff is in the possession of the Eyston family of East Hendred, in Oxfordshire (formerly Berkshire). [18]

Cinematic and television portrayals

John Fisher was portrayed by veteran actor Joseph O'Conor in the film Anne of the Thousand Days (1969), by Bosco Hogan in the miniseries The Tudors , and by Geoffrey Lewis in the 1971 miniseries The Six Wives of Henry VIII .

Writings

A list of Fisher's writings is found in Joseph Gillow's Bibliographical Dictionary of the English Catholics (London, s.d.), II, 262–270. There are twenty-six works in all, printed and manuscript, mostly ascetical or controversial treatises, several of which have been reprinted many times. The original editions are very rare and valuable. The principal are:

Patronage

Due to his status as the Bishop of Rochester, Fisher has been adopted as a patron of several institutions in other cities named "Rochester" including St. John Fisher College [19] and Saint John of Rochester Catholic Church in the Rochester, New York area, and Saint John Fisher Catholic Church near Rochester, Michigan.

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References

  1. based upon his baptismal date as taken from "Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year," edited by the Rev. Hugo Hoever OSB Cist, New York: Catholic Book Publishing Co., 1951
  2. 1 2 3 "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. John Fisher". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  3. "John Fisher (1469–1534)". Owen Spencer-Thomas. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  4. Reynolds, Ernest Edwin (1955). Saint John Fisher. Anthony Clarke Books. p. 6.
  5. "Fisher, John (FSR487J)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  6. Seward, Desmond (2007). The Wars of the Roses. Constable and Robinson. p. 437.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Foley OFM, Leonard, "St. John Fisher", Saint of the Day, Lives, Lessons, and Feast, (revised by Pat McCloskey OFM), Francisan Media ISBN   978-0-86716-887-7
  8. 1 2 "Catholic Culture Library: Bishop John Fisher" . Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  9. Brian Moynahan, God's Messenger
  10. Bridgett, Thomas Edward (1890). Life of Blessed John Fisher: Bishop of Rochester, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church and Martyr Under Henry VIII. Burns & Oates. p. 165.
  11. Bridgett, Thomas Edward (1890). Life of Blessed John Fisher: Bishop of Rochester, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church and Martyr Under Henry VIII. Burns & Oates. p. 170.
  12. Bridgett, Thomas Edward (1890). Life of Blessed John Fisher: Bishop of Rochester, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church and Martyr Under Henry VIII. Burns & Oates. p. 172.
  13. Brendan Bradshaw. Humanism, Reform and the Reformation: The Career of Bishop John Fisher. pp. 156–7.
  14. 1 2 Fuller, Thomas. The Church History of Britain, Vol 2. London: Thomas Tegg, 1842. P61-63.
  15. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. John Fisher". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
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  17. "The Calendar". The Church's Year. Church of England. 2000. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  18. The Berkshire Book, Berkshire Federation of Women's Institutes (1951)
  19. College, St John Fisher. "St. John Fisher College, Rochester, NY". www.sjfc.edu. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  20. "Under Construction". www.stjohnfisher.org. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  21. "St. John Fisher Chapel University Parish". archive.is. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  22. "St. John Fisher Parish". St. John Fisher Parish. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  23. "St. John Fisher Church". St. John Fisher Church. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  24. "Home - Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston". www.archgh.org. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
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  26. "Life experience makes Fr Bryan a Youngcare fan". Archdiocese of Brisbane. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  27. "SJF church Portland" . Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  28. "St John Fisher College - Bracken Ridge". www.stjohnfishercollege.qld.edu.au. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  29. "About Fisher House". web.archive.org. 18 October 2002. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  30. "FSSP" . Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  31. "Southwark Parish Directory". directory.rcsouthwark.co.uk. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
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  33. "Home - St. John Fisher". www.st-clair.net. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
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  35. "St John Fisher Catholic Primary School - Home". www.st-johnfisher.essex.sch.uk. Retrieved 12 December 2018.

Further reading

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Richard FitzJames
Bishop of Rochester
1504–1535
Succeeded by
John Hilsey
Academic offices
Preceded by
Henry Babington
Vice-Chancellors of the University of Cambridge
1501
Succeeded by
Humphrey Fitzwilliam
Preceded by
Thomas Wilkynson
President of Queens' College, Cambridge
1505-1508
Succeeded by
Robert Bekensaw