John Fuller Russell (1813–1884), was a priest in the Church of England, a writer, mostly on theological subjects, especially religious ritual, and a notable art collector. He was a member of the committee of the Ecclesiological Society and had close connections to the High Church Oxford Movement.
The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism. The movement, whose original devotees were mostly associated with the University of Oxford, argued for the reinstatement of some older Christian traditions of faith and their inclusion into Anglican liturgy and theology. They thought of Anglicanism as one of three branches of the "one holy, catholic, and apostolic" Christian church. By the 1840s many participants decided that the Anglican Church lacked grace, and converted to Roman Catholicism.
Russell was born on 15 August 1813,the son of Thomas Russell, a Congregationalist minister, whose surname was originally Cloutt. Arthur Tozer Russell was his brother. He was educated at Peterhouse College, Cambridge, where he read civil law. He became one of the first sympathisers with the Oxford movement at Cambridge, and in 1836, while still an undergraduate at Peterhouse, he began a correspondence with Edward Bouverie Pusey, in which he expressed a desire to revive much of the disused ritual of the Church. In 1837 he visited Pusey at Christ Church.
Thomas Russell, originally Thomas Cloutt (1781–1846) was an English independent minister, known for editions of theological works.
Arthur Tozer Russell (1806–1874) was an English clergyman known as a hymn-writer.
Edward Bouverie Pusey was an English churchman, for more than fifty years Regius Professor of Hebrew at the University of Oxford. He was one of the main promoters of the Oxford Movement.
In 1838 he was ordained deacon and appointed to the curacy of St. Peter's, Walworth. The next year he graduated LL.B., and was admitted into priest's orders. He held the perpetual curacy of St James, Enfield Highway, from 1841 to 1854.On 2 October 1843 he married Rosalie Croshaw at the church. In 1856 he became rector of Greenhithe, Kent.
Walworth is a district of Central London, England, within the London Borough of Southwark. It adjoins Camberwell to the south and Elephant and Castle to the north, and is 1.9 miles (3.1 km) south-east of Charing Cross.
St James’ Church, Enfield Highway, is an active Anglican church in Hertford Road, Enfield Highway, Greater London. It is a parish church in the deanery of Enfield, the archdeaconry of Hampstead, and the diocese of London.
Greenhithe is a village in the Borough of Dartford in Kent, England. It is located east of Dartford, in the civil parish of Swanscombe and Greenhithe.
He was a member of the council of the Society of Antiquaries, of the central committee of the Royal Archæological Institute, and of the committee of the Ecclesiological Society.
When the German art historian Gustav Waagen visited Russell at Eagle House near Enfield, he found the walls "so richly adorned with specimens of the 14th century, that the spectator feels as if transported to a chapel at Siena or Florence."He described Russell as "one of the most enthusiastic admirers of the grandeur and high significance of the ecclesiastic art from the 13th to the 15th century that I met with in England".
His collection included the "Diptych of Jeanne of France" (now in the collection of the Musée Condé in Chantilly), believed in his lifetime to be by Hans Memlingsix of the seven panels from the predella of Ugolino da Siena's altarpiece for Santa Croce in Florence, bought from the sale of the William Young Ottley collection, Abrecht Altdorfer's Christ taking Leave of His Mother (National Gallery, London) and Simone Martini's St Geminianus, St Michael and St Augustine, each with an Angel above (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge)
The Musée Condé – in English, the Condé Museum – is a museum located inside the château de Chantilly in Chantilly, Oise, 40 km north of Paris.
Hans Memling was a German painter who moved to Flanders and worked in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting. He was born in the Middle Rhine region, and probably spent his childhood in Mainz. He had moved to the Netherlands by 1465 and spent time in the Brussels workshop of Rogier van der Weyden. He was subsequently made a citizen of Bruges, where he became one of the leading artists in which he painted religious works that often incorporated portraits of his wealthy patrons. Memling's patrons included wealthy burghers, clergymen, and aristocrats.
A predella is the platform or step on which an altar stands. In painting, the predella is the painting or sculpture along the frame at the bottom of an altarpiece. In later Christian medieval and Renaissance altarpieces, where the main panel consisted of a scene with large static figures, it was normal to include a predella below with a number of small-scale narrative paintings depicting events from the life of the dedicatee, whether the Life of Christ, the Life of the Virgin or a saint. Typically there would be three to five small scenes, in a horizontal format.
He also had a notable collection of illuminated manuscripts and early printed books.
He died on 6 April 1884 at his house in Ormonde Terrace, Regent's Park, London.His paintings were sold at Christie's, on 18 April 1885.
Russell's works relate mainly to the doctrine and discipline of the church of England. They include:
He was co-editor with Walter Farquhar Hook of the Voice of the Church (2 vols. 1840), and with William Josiah Irons of Tracts of the Anglican Fathers (1841). He was also editor of Hierurgia Anglicana, or Documents and Extracts illustrative of the Church of England after the Reformation (1848).
Albrecht Altdorfer was a German painter, engraver and architect of the Renaissance working in Regensburg, Bavaria. Along with Lucas Cranach the Elder and Wolf Huber he is regarded to be the main representative of the Danube School setting biblical and historical subjects against landscape backgrounds of expressive colours. As an artist also making small intricate engravings he is seen to belong to the Nuremberg Little Masters.
Duccio di Buoninsegna was an Italian painter active in Siena, Tuscany, in the late 13th and early 14th century. He was hired throughout his life to complete many important works in government and religious buildings around Italy. Duccio is credited with creating the painting styles of Trecento and the Sienese school, and also contributed significantly to the Sienese Gothic style.
Richard Crashaw, was an English poet, teacher, Anglican cleric and Catholic convert, who was among the major figures associated with the metaphysical poets in seventeenth-century English literature.
Gustav Friedrich Waagen was a German art historian. In the light of later research his writings are not of much value as regards trustworthy criticism, though they are useful as catalogues of art treasures in private collections at the time when they were compiled. His opinions were greatly respected in England, where he was invited to give evidence before the royal commission inquiring into the condition and future of the National Gallery, for which he was a leading candidate to become director. He died on a visit to Copenhagen in 1868.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
In Anglican Christianity, the low church wing of one of the Anglican churches includes those who give relatively little emphasis to ritual, sacraments, and sometimes the authority of clergy. The term is most often used in a liturgical context. "Low church", in a contemporary Anglican context, denotes a Protestant emphasis, and high church denotes an emphasis on ritual, often as Anglo-Catholicism.
Ritualism, in the history of Christianity, refers to an emphasis on the rituals and liturgical ceremony of the church, in particular of Holy Communion.
John Mason Neale was an Anglican priest, scholar and hymnwriter.
Andrew Perne, Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University and Dean of Ely, was the son of John Perne of East Bilney, Norfolk.
The Cambridge Camden Society, known from 1845 as the Ecclesiological Society, was a learned architectural society founded in 1839 by undergraduate students at Cambridge University to promote "the study of Gothic Architecture, and of Ecclesiastical Antiques." Its activities would come to include publishing a monthly journal, The Ecclesiologist, advising church builders on their blueprints, and advocating a return to a medieval style of church architecture in England. At its peak influence in the 1840s, the society counted over 700 members in its ranks, including bishops of the Church of England, deans at Cambridge University, and Members of Parliament. The society and its publications enjoyed wide influence over the design of English churches throughout the 19th century, and are often known as the ecclesiological movement.
The word saint derives from the Latin sanctus, meaning holy, and has long been used in Christianity to refer to a person who was recognized as having lived a holy life and as being an exemplar and model for other Christians. Beginning in the 10th century, the Church began to centralize and formalize the process of recognizing saints; the process whereby an individual was added to the canon (list) of recognized saints became known as canonisation.
Lux Mundi: A Series of Studies in the Religion of the Incarnation is a collection of 12 essays by liberal Anglo-Catholic theologians published in 1889. It was edited by Charles Gore, then the principal of Pusey House, Oxford, and a future Bishop of Oxford.
Edward Maltby was an English clergyman of the Church of England. He became Bishop of Durham, controversial for his liberal politics, for his slightly naive ecumenism, and for the great personal wealth that he amassed.
Bartolomeo Bulgarini, also known as Bulgarino or Bologhini, was an Italian painter of the Trecento period in Siena both before and after the Black Death.
William Scott (1813–1872) was an English clergyman, a leading High Church figure of his time.
John Morris Livingstone was an Anglican Archdeacon in France in the last decades of the 20th century.