Florence, Tuscan Margrave
|Died||12 July 1073 (aged 88)|
Badia di Passignano, Tavarnelle Val di Pesa, Florence, Tuscan Margrave
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Canonized||24 October 1193, Old Saint Peter's Basilica, Papal States by Pope Celestine III|
Saint Giovanni Gualberto (c. 985 – 12 July 1073) was an Italian Roman Catholic abbot and the founder of the Vallumbrosan Order.Born into a noble family, Gualberto was a predictably vain individual who sought pleasure in vanities and romantic intrigues. When his older brother Ugo was murdered, Gualberto set out for revenge. He found the murderer in Florence, but as it was Good Friday, granted the killer's plea for mercy. Soon after Gualberto became a member of the Order of Saint Benedict though he left in order to found his own congregation. He condemned nepotism and all simoniacal actions and was known for the pureness and meekness of his faith. Even popes held him in high esteem.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints. Originally, a person was recognized as a saint without any formal process. Later, different processes were developed, such as those used today in the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may also be given as an honorary title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The female equivalent is abbess.
The Vallumbrosan Order is a Roman Catholic religious order, technically a Benedictine congregation, which derives its name from the motherhouse, Vallombrosa, situated c. 30 km from Florence on the northwest slope of Monte Secchieta in the Pratomagno chain. They use the abbreviation O.S.B. Vall., the Vall. to distinguish themselves from the Benedictines, who use the abbreviation O.S.B.
Miracles were reported at his tomb after his death. Pope Celestine III canonized Gualberto on 24 October 1193.
Pope Celestine III, born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198. He was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome and served as a cardinal-deacon prior to becoming pope. He was ordained as a priest on 13 April 1191 and he ruled the church for six years, nine months, and nine days before he died aged 92. He was buried at the Lateran.
Giovanni Gualberto was born circa 985 to nobles who hailed from the Visdomini house; he was born in the castle known as Poggio Petroio.His sole sibling was his older brother Ugo. He was also related to the Blessed Pietro Igneo.
Blessed Pietro Igneo was an Italian Roman Catholic Benedictine monk from the Vallombrosians branch. He also served as a cardinal and was named as the Cardinal-Bishop of Albano. He is often referred to as a member of the Aldobrandini house but this familiar denomination is not attested in sources as a fact.
He was educated and raised Catholic but in his adolescence cared little for religion. He was instead focused on frivolous things and was concerned with vain amusements and romantic intrigues.When his brother Ugo was murdered, Gualbert set out to avenge his death.
One Good Friday as he was entering Florence with his armed followers, he happened, in a narrow lane, to come upon the man who had killed his brother. The killer fell upon his knees with arms outstretched in the form of a cross and begged for mercy in the name of Jesus, reminding Gualbert that Christ had died on that day. Gualberto granted him mercy and renounced his revenge.
Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at Calvary, the divine mercy and the redemption of Christians. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, and may coincide with the Jewish observance of Passover. It is also known as Holy Friday and Great Friday.
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.
Gualbert entered the Benedictine church at San Miniato al Monte to pray and the figure on the crucifix is said to have bowed its head to him in recognition of his generous and merciful act. Gualbert begged pardon of his sins and that week cut off his hair and began to wear an old habit that he had borrowed. This tale forms the subject of Burne-Jones's picture "The Merciful Knight" and Shorthouse adapted this in "John Inglesant".
San Miniato al Monte is a basilica in Florence, central Italy, standing atop one of the highest points in the city. It has been described as one of the finest Romanesque structures in Tuscany and one of the most scenic churches in Italy. There is an adjoining Olivetan monastery, seen to the right of the basilica when ascending the stairs.
The Merciful Knight is a watercolour by the pre-Raphaelite artist Edward Burne-Jones which was completed in 1863 and is currently housed at the Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery.
Gualberto became a Benedictine monk at San Miniato despite his father's opposition. His father hastened to find his son but gave him his blessing when he heard his son's arguments and saw that he was resolute in his decision. But he counselled his son to do good.He fought against simoniacal actions of which both his abbot Oberto and the Bishop of Florence Pietro Mezzabarba were accused and their guilt discovered. Unwilling to compromise, he left to find a more solitary and strict life. He often fasted and imposed other strict penances on himself. His attraction was for the cenobitic and not eremitic life so after he spent some time with the monks at Camaldoli, but later settled at Vallombrosa where he founded his own convent in 1036. Instead of a traditional garden he opted to have his monks plant trees (firs and pines for the most part). He founded additional convents for his order in locations such as Rozzuolo and San Salvi.
He became a noted figure for his compassion to the poor and the ill. Pope Leo IX travelled to Vallambrosa to see the monk. Pope Stephen IX and Alexander II held him in the greatest esteem as did Pope Gregory VII who praised Gualberto for the pureness and meekness of his faith as a staunch example of compassion and goodness.Gualberto also admired the teachings of the Church Fathers as well as Saint Basil and Saint Benedict of Nursia in particular.
He never wished to be ordained to the priesthood and nor did he even wish to receive the minor orders.
Gualbert died at the age of 80, in 1073.
The holy lives of the first monks at Vallombrosa attracted considerable attention and brought many requests for new foundations, but there were few postulants, since few could endure the extraordinary austerity of the life. Thus only one other monastery, that of San Salvi at Florence, was founded during this period. But when the founder had mitigated his rule somewhat, three more monasteries were founded and three others reformed and united to the order during his lifetime. In the struggle of the popes against simony the early Vallumbrosans took a considerable part, of which the most famous incident is the ordeal by fire undertaken successfully by St. Peter Igneus in 1068. Shortly before this the monastery of S. Salvi had been burned and the monks ill-treated by the anti-reform party. These events still further increased the repute of Vallombrosa. A Bull of Pope Urban II in 1090, which takes Vallombrosa under the protection of the Holy See, enumerates fifteen monasteries besides the motherhouse.
Gualbert was canonized by Pope Celestine III on 24 October 1193.
His liturgical feast was not included in the Tridentine Calendar but was later added to the General Roman Calendar in 1595. Owing to its limited worldwide importance his feast was removed from that calendar in 1969.The date assigned for his feast still remains as indicated in the Roman calendar and according to the new rules given in the Roman Missal in 1969 could still be celebrated across the globe with his own Mass unless in some places an important celebration is assigned and thus coincides.
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Vallombrosa is a Benedictine abbey in the comune of Reggello, about 30 km south-east of Florence, in the Apennines, surrounded by forests of beech and firs. It was founded by Giovanni Gualberto, a Florentine noble, in 1038 and became the mother house of the Vallumbrosan Order.
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Saint Bernardo degli Uberti was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate who was a professed member and served as an abbot of the Vallumbrosan Order. Uberti served as the Bishop of Parma from 1106 until his death and was appointed as a cardinal. He came from the noble Uberti house from Florence. Uberti served as a papal legate for successive popes in several Italian regions in their disputes with secular rulers and was a close confidante and advisor to the Countess Matilda. He is often considered the third founding father for the order alongside Saint Benedict of Nursia and Saint Giovanni Gualberto.
The Vallombrosa Altarpiece is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Pietro Perugino, dating to 1500–01. It is housed in the Accademia Gallery of Florence, Italy.
The papal election of 1099 took place upon the death of Pope Urban II, the cardinal-electors with the consent of the lower Roman clergy chose Pope Paschal II as his successor.
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