John Henry, Margrave of Moravia

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John Henry

John Henry I of Moravia.jpg

Portrait by Anton Boys, c.1580
Count of Tyrol
Reign 1335-1341
Predecessor Henry of Gorizia
Successor Louis of Wittelsbach
Margrave of Moravia
Reign 1349–1375
Predecessor Charles IV
Successor Jobst of Moravia
Born 12 February 1322
Mělník, Bohemia
Died 12 November 1375 (aged 53)
Brno, Moravia
Burial St. Thomas Church, Brno
Spouse Margaret, Countess of Tyrol
(divorced 1349)
Margaret of Opava
Margaret of Austria
Elizabeth of Oettingen
Issue Catherine of Moravia
Jobst of Moravia
Elisabeth of Moravia
Anna of Moravia
John Sobieslaw of Moravia
Prokop of Moravia
House Luxembourg
Father John of Bohemia
Mother Elisabeth of Bohemia

John Henry of Luxembourg (Czech : Jan Jindřich, German : Johann Heinrich; 12 February 1322 12 November 1375), [1] a member of the House of Luxembourg, was Count of Tyrol from 1335 to 1341 and Margrave of Moravia from 1349 until his death.

Czech language West Slavic language spoken in the Czech Republic

Czech, historically also Bohemian, is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree. Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

House of Luxembourg noble family

The House of Luxembourg was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia and Hungary. Their rule over the Holy Roman Empire was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach.

Contents

Biography

Henry was born at Mělník, the third surviving son of King John of Bohemia (1296–1346) and his consort, the Přemyslid princess Elizabeth (1292–1330). John Henry therefore was the younger brother of Emperor Charles IV. At the time of his birth, the marriage of his parents was already broken; his mother fled to the Bavarian court of the Wittelsbach duke Henry XIV, the husband of her daughter Margaret, and John Henry was raised in Cham, Upper Palatinate.

Mělník Town in Czech Republic

Mělník is a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It lies at the confluence of the Labe and Vltava rivers, approximately 35 km (22 mi) north of Prague. The town is part of the Prague larger urban zone. The region belongs to the most important agricultural areas of the Czech Republic. The main agricultural produce are fruits, vegetables, potatoes, corn, sugar beet and wine.

John of Bohemia Czech king and warrior

John of Bohemia was the Count of Luxembourg from 1313 and King of Bohemia from 1310 and titular King of Poland. He was the eldest son of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII and his wife Margaret of Brabant. He is well known for having died while fighting in the Battle of Crécy at age 50, after having been blind for a decade.

Přemyslid dynasty dynasty

The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia, as well as in parts of Poland, Hungary, and Austria.

During the rise of the Wittelsbach emperor Louis IV, King John had made attempts to reconcile with his former rival Henry of Gorizia-Tyrol, Duke of Carinthia and Count of Tyrol, whom he had deposed as Bohemian king in 1310. In 1327, his younger son John Henry and Henry's daughter, Countess Margaret of Tyrol (Margarethe Maultasch), were betrothed. As Henry had no male heirs, King John expected a considerable enlargement of the Luxembourg lands and control over the Tyrolean mountain passes to Italy. John Henry and Margaret were married on 16 September 1330 at Innsbruck. Nevertheless, Emperor Louis IV in the same year secretly promised the Carinthian duchy including the March of Carniola and large parts of Tyrol to the Habsburg dukes Albert II and Otto of Austria.

Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Louis IV, called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.

Duchy of Carinthia

The Duchy of Carinthia was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, and was the first newly created Imperial State after the original German stem duchies.

Margaret, Countess of Tyrol Countess of Tyrol

Margaret, nicknamed Margarete Maultasch, was the last Countess of Tyrol from the House of Gorizia (Meinhardiner). Upon her death, Tyrol became united with the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburg dynasty.

Thus, after Henry of Gorizia-Tyrol had died on 2 April 1335, Emperor Louis IV gave Carinthia and southern Tyrol including the overlordship of the Trent and Brixen bishoprics to the Austrian dukes, who themselves could refer to their mother Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol, sister of deceased Henry. King John the Blind felt deprived, he put an end to his quarrels with the Polish king Casimir III and campaigned the Austrian duchy. A peace was concluded at the city of Enns on 9 October 1336, when John the Blind renounced Carinthia, while Margaret and John Henry could inherit the Tyrolean estates.

Bishopric of Trent ecclesiastical principality and constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire, 1027–1803

The Prince-Bishopric of Trent or Bishopric of Trent for short is a former ecclesiastical principality roughly corresponding to the present-day Northern Italian autonomous province of Trentino. It was created in 1027 and existed until 1802, when it was secularised and absorbed into the County of Tyrol held by the House of Habsburg. Trent was a Hochstift, an Imperial State under the authority of a prince-bishop at Trento.

Bishopric of Brixen former state in South Tyrol (1027–1803)

The Prince-Bishopric of Brixen is a former ecclesiastical state of the Holy Roman Empire in the present-day Italian province of South Tyrol. It should not be confused with the larger Catholic diocese, over which the prince-bishops exercised only the ecclesiastical authority of an ordinary bishop. The bishopric in the Eisack/Isarco valley was established in the 6th century and gradually received more secular powers. It gained imperial immediacy in 1027 and remained an Imperial Estate until 1803, when it was secularised to Tyrol. The diocese however existed until 1964, and is now part of the Diocese of Bolzano-Brixen.

Casimir III the Great King of Poland

Casimir III the Great reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. He was the third son of King Władysław I and Duchess Jadwiga of Kalisz, and the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty.

Charles IV acted as regent for his 14-year-old brother John Henry and soon came into conflict with the Tyrolian nobility. Furthermore, John Henry and his –reportedly– ugly wife had developed a strong aversion to each other. Margaret finally took the lead of the insurgence against her husband, when she refused him the access to Castle Tyrol on 1 November 1341. John Henry fled to the Patriarchal State of Aquileia, while his wife claimed that their marriage had never been consummated. Margaret was backed by Emperor Louis IV, who himself had plans to assure the Tyrolian heritage for the House of Wittelsbach. He had the scholars Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham rendered an opinion that the marriage was not vaild. In 1342, Margaret took her inheritance of Tirol to her next husband, the Emperor's eldest son Margrave Louis of Brandenburg.

Patria del Friuli territory under the temporal rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia and one of the ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire; acqured in 1420 by the Republic of Venice

The Patria del Friuli was the territory under the temporal rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia and one of the ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1420, the Republic of Venice acquired it, but it continued to be ruled for some time under its own laws and customs.

House of Wittelsbach German noble family

The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.

Marsilius of Padua Italian philosopher

Marsilius of Padua was an Italian scholar, trained in medicine, who practiced a variety of professions. He was also an important 14th-century political figure. His political treatise Defensor pacis, an attempt to refute papalist claims to a "plenitude of power" in affairs of both church and state, is seen by some authorities as the most revolutionary political treatise written in the later Middle Ages. It is one of the first examples of a reasoned defense of caesaropapism in Western Europe.

Bust of John Henry, St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague Busta Jan Jindrich.jpg
Bust of John Henry, St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague

Humiliated, John Henry returned to Bohemia. Furious King John allied with Pope Clement VI, who banned both Louis and Margaret; nevertheless, the Luxembourg rule over Tyrol was terminated. In 1346 the Bohemian king died in the Battle of Crécy and was succeeded by his eldest son Charles IV.

Pope Clement VI (1291–1352) fourth of the Avignon Popes, 1342–1352

Pope Clement VI, born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352. He was the fourth Avignon pope. Clement reigned during the first visitation of the Black Death (1348–1350), during which he granted remission of sins to all who died of the plague.

Battle of Crécy An English victory during the Hundred Years War

The Battle of Crécy, also spelled Cressy, was an English victory during the Edwardian phase part of the Chevauchée of Edward III of 1346 during the Hundred Years' War. It was the first of three famous English successes during the conflict, followed by Poitiers in 1356 and Agincourt in 1415.

After John Henry's marriage was conclusively divorced according to canon law in 1349, he married Margaret of Opava, daughter of Duke Nicholas II and Charles IV gave him the Bohemian Margraviate of Moravia as appanage. In turn, John henry had to renaounce all rights to the Bohemian throne. His second marriage produced several sons, none of whom however was able to leave surviving children, so John Henry's line ended in 1411. The eldest was Margrave Jobst of Moravia, the Elector of Brandenburg from 1388 on, who in 1410 became elected King of the Romans, but remained actually a rival king.

After Margaret of Opava had died in 1363, John Henry married Margaret of Austria, the daughter of Duke Albert II and widow of Margaret Maultasch's son from her marriage with Louis of Wittelsbach, Count Meinhard III of Tyrol.

He is buried at St Thomas's Abbey, in Brno.

Genealogy

Henry VII
12 July 1275(6) – 24 August 1313
  Margaret of Brabant
4 October 1276 – 14 December 1311
  Wenceslaus II
27 September 1271 – 21 June 1305
  Judith of Habsburg
13 March 1271 – 18 June 1297
     
   
  John of Bohemia
10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346
  Elisabeth of Bohemia
20 January 1292 – 28 September 1330
 
   
  
1
Margaret of Tyrol
1318 – 3 October 1369
OO  16 September 1330, div.1342
2
Margaret of Opava
26 September 1329 – 1363
OO  March 1350
John Henry
12. February 1322 – 12. November 1375
3
Margaret of Austria
1346 – 14. January 1366
OO  26: February 1364
4
Elizabeth of Oettingen

OO  c. 1366
          
  1  2/1  2/2  2/3  2/4  2/5  2/6 
0 - childless
Catherine of Moravia Duchesse of Falkenberg
1353–1378
Jobst of Moravia

King of the Romans
Oktober 1354–18. January 1411

Elisabeth of Moravia Margravine of Meissen
1355–20. November 1400
Anna of Moravia
1356–98
John Sobieslaw of Moravia

Patriarch of Aquilea
October 1357– 12. November 1394

Prokop of Moravia

younger (titular) Margrave of Moravia
1358–September 1403

  3  4    
0 - childless
0 - childless

Ancestry

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References

  1. Spock Beta(dead link)