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John Herbert Chapman (August 28, 1921 – September 28, 1979) from London, Ontario, son of Lt. Col. Lloyd Chapman and Kathleen Chapman, was a Canadian space researcher. Chapman started his career with his work on radio propagation and the ionosphere. He later received a Master of Science degree and a Ph.D. in physics at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec. After his studies at university Chapman got his first position in the government with the Defence Research Board (DRB). He was then promoted to the position of section leader of the ionospheric propagation unit at the Defense Research Telecommunications Establishment (DRTE) in 1951 at Shirley's Bay, a Canadian military and civilian telecommunication research campus.He was also a superintendent.
London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. The city had a population of 383,822 according to the 2016 Canadian census. London is at the confluence of the Thames River, approximately 200 km (120 mi) from both Toronto and Detroit; and about 230 km (140 mi) from Buffalo, New York. The city of London is a separated municipality, politically separate from Middlesex County, though it remains the county seat.
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian.
Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere. As a form of electromagnetic radiation, like light waves, radio waves are affected by the phenomena of reflection, refraction, diffraction, absorption, polarization, and scattering. Understanding the effects of varying conditions on radio propagation has many practical applications, from choosing frequencies for international shortwave broadcasters, to designing reliable mobile telephone systems, to radio navigation, to operation of radar systems.
While at Shirley's Bay he worked on a number of projects. One of the projects he directed was the ground-breaking Canadian satellite called Alouette. The DRTE having no experience developing satellites had to work quite hard to think of and counter all the difficulties they would face in the harsh environment of space. Because of his work on Alouette he was promoted to chairman of government study group to study the upper atmosphere and space programs in Canada.
Alouette 1 is a deactivated Canadian satellite that studied the ionosphere. Launched in 1962, it was Canada's first satellite, and the first satellite constructed by a country other than the Soviet Union or the United States. Canada was the fourth country to operate a satellite, as the British Ariel 1, constructed in the United States by NASA, preceded Alouette 1 by five months. The name "Alouette" came from the French for "skylark" and the French-Canadian folk song of the same name.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon.
While chairman, he compiled his findings into "The Chapman Report" in which he argued that Canada needed to redirect its space program in order to continue its ongoing research more effectively and efficiently. "The Chapman Report" remains an important document in helping the Canadian Space Agency choose what they should work on when it comes to space programs.
The Canadian Space Agency was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990. The agency reports to the federal Minister of Innovation, Science, and Economic Development. The current president of the Canadian Space Agency is Sylvain Laporte, who took the position March 9, 2015 following the announcement of his appointment on February 27, 2015.
Chapman was given awards for his work in aero-space technology. The first was given by the Royal Society of Canada in 1966; he also received an Engineering medal from the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario and the Dillinger Gold Medal from the International Union of Radio Scientists the same year. In 1967 Chapman was awarded with The Chree Medal and Prize and the McCurdy award from the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institution.
The Royal Society of Canada, also known as the Academies of Arts, Humanities and Sciences of Canada, is the senior national, bilingual council of distinguished Canadian scholars, humanists, scientists and artists. The primary objective of the RSC is to promote learning and research in the arts, the humanities and the sciences. The RSC is Canada’s National Academy and exists to promote Canadian research and scholarly accomplishment in both official languages, to recognize academic and artistic excellence, and to advise governments, non-governmental organizations and Canadians on matters of public interest.
Professional Engineers Ontario (PEO), up to 1993 known as the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario (APEO), is the self-regulatory body that governs Ontario's 85,000 professional engineers, and sets standards for and regulates engineering practice in the province. It has a statutory mandate under the Professional Engineers Act of Ontario to protect the public interest where engineering is concerned. It was created in 1922 and is mandated to educating its members to latest developments and maintaining a Code of Ethics that puts the public interest first. Licensed professional engineers can be identified by the P.Eng. after their names.
Chapman was a member of the Royal Society of Canada. He was also part of the National Research Council (NRC) Associate committee on Space Research, a council of the top Canadian space scientists. He also served on the International Union of Radio Science and the American Geophysical Union.
The International Union of Radio Science is one of 26 international scientific unions affiliated to the International Council for Science (ICSU).
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries. AGU's activities are focused on the organization and dissemination of scientific information in the interdisciplinary and international field of geophysics. The geophysical sciences involve four fundamental areas: atmospheric and ocean sciences; solid-Earth sciences; hydrologic sciences; and space sciences. The organization's headquarters is located on Florida Avenue in Washington, D.C.
After his death in 1979, the Canadian Space Agency was formed to organize and give Canada its own space agency to create a central place to meet and work on Canadian space projects. With this new organization Canada has been able to construct and launch new projects into orbit. One of the most important Canadian projects is Canadarm which has become used frequently on the International Space Station (or ISS for short).
The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), also known as Canadarm, is a series of robotic arms that were used on the Space Shuttle orbiters to deploy, maneuver and capture payloads. After the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, the Canadarm was always paired with the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), which was used to inspect the exterior of the Shuttle for damage to the thermal protection system.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. Its first component was launched into orbit in 1998, with the first long-term residents arriving in November 2000. It has been inhabited continuously since that date. The last pressurised module was fitted in 2011, and an experimental inflatable space habitat was added in 2016. The station is expected to operate until 2030. Development and assembly of the station continues, with several new elements scheduled for launch in 2019. The ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised habitation modules, structural trusses, solar arrays, radiators, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets and American Space Shuttles.
When the headquarters building of the Canadian Space Agency was completed in 1992, it was named the John H. Chapman Space Centre, in his honour.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about 60 km (37 mi) to 1,000 km (620 mi) altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere. The ionosphere is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important role in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. It has practical importance because, among other functions, it influences radio propagation to distant places on the Earth.
James Alfred Van Allen was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa. He was instrumental in establishing the field of magnetospheric research in space.
The Swedish Institute of Space Physics is a Swedish government agency. The institute's primary task is to carry out basic research, education and associated observatory activities in space physics, space technology and atmospheric physics.
The John H. Chapman Space Centre is the headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency. It is located in Longueuil, Quebec, Canada, in the borough of Saint-Hubert.
Alouette 2 was a Canadian research satellite launched at 04:48 UTC on November 29, 1965 by a Thor Agena rocket with Explorer 31 from the Western test range at Vandenberg AFB in California. It was designed to explore the ionosphere.
ISIS 1 and 2 were the third and fourth in a series of Canadian satellites launched to study the ionosphere. After the success of Canada's Alouette 1, Canada and the United States jointly sent up three more satellites in the ISIS program. The first was named Alouette 2. As was the case for the Alouette satellites, RCA Victor of Montreal was the prime contractor for both ISIS 1 and 2.
The DRTE Computer was a transistorized computer built at the Defence Research Telecommunications Establishment (DRTE), part of the Canadian Defence Research Board. It was one of the earlier fully transistorized machines, running in prototype form in 1957, and fully developed form in 1960. Although the performance was quite good, equal to that of contemporary machines like the PDP-1, no commercial vendors ever took up the design, and the only potential sale to the Canadian Navy's Pacific Naval Laboratories, fell through. The machine is currently part of the Canadian national science and technology collection housed at the Canada Science and Technology Museum.
Colin Athol Franklin, CM, FRSC is an engineer and a leading pioneer in Canada's space programme. He played a leading role in the design, construction and application of Canada's first satellite, the Alouette. His extensive work and contribution to Canadian research and industrial development activities in space-related research and manufacturing, have been a significant influence in establishing Canada as a world leader in these fields.
The Communications Research Centre Canada is a Canadian government scientific laboratory for research and development in wireless technologies, with a particular focus on the efficient use of radio frequency spectrum. Its mission is as follows:
The Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) is an executive and bureaucratic space agency of the Government of Pakistan, responsible for the nation's public and civil space programme and for aeronautics and aerospace research. Its mission statement and objective is to conduct peaceful research in space technology and promote the technology for socio-economic uplift of the country. SUPARCO is a bilateral organisation of China National Space Administration as noted in their web page. Established in its modern form on 16 September 1961 by an executive order of President of Pakistan, it is headquartered in Karachi, Sindh Province of Pakistan. Part of the Strategic Plans Division (SPD) of Pakistan Armed Forces, which is currently headquartered at the Chakalala Military District under the control of the PAF; the space programme recorded number of pioneering accomplishments in space flight during the initial years of its establishment.
Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) is a Canadian space science program that was initiated in 2005. CGSM is funded primarily by the Canadian Space Agency, and consists of networks of imagers, meridian scanning photometers, riometers, magnetometers, digital ionosondes, and High Frequency SuperDARN radars. The overarching objective of CGSM is to provide synoptic observations of the spatio-temporal evolution of the ionospheric thermodynamics and electrodynamics at auroral and polar latitudes over a large region of Canada.
The Prince Albert Radar Laboratory (PARL) was a radar research facility operated by the Defence Research Telecommunications Establishment (DRTE), part of the Canadian Defence Research Board. Its primary purpose was to test long-range radio propagation and radar techniques in the presence of the aurora borealis. This was part of a greater ABM effort being carried out in concert with the United States Air Force, and PARL operated along with two similar instruments at the Rome Air Development Centre and MIT Lincoln Laboratory. The site continues to operate today, used as a satellite downlink station known as the Prince Albert Satellite Station (PASS).
Dr. Abdul Majid (Urdu):(عبد الماجد) is a Pakistani astrophysicist and scientist in the field of space technology. He is a former chairman of Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission from 1997 to 2001. He had made significant contributions to Pakistan's space program. During his tenure as SUPARCO Administrator, Pakistan launched its two Low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, which were masterminded and developed by him. He also initiated a Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) project at SUPARCO. He retired from SUPARCO in 2001 as a chief scientist. Since his retirement, he has been inactive from Pakistan's space program and currently resides in Karachi where he lives a very quiet life there.
The Lviv Centre of the Space Research Institute of the NASU and NSAU is a Lviv branch of the actual institute.
David William Barron FBCS was a British academic in Physics and Computer Science who was described in the Times Higher Education magazine as one of the "founding fathers" of computer science.
San Marco 1, also known as San Marco A, was the first Italian satellite. Built in-house by the Italian Space Research Commission on behalf of the National Research Council, it was the first of five as part of the Italian-US San Marco programme.
Jules Aarons was an American space physicist known for his study of radio-wave propagation, and a photographer known for his street photography in Boston.
Robert Eugene Bourdeau was an American physicist known for major contributions to the study of the ionosphere, plasma physics and radio science using space vehicles including satellites and rockets. Among his many achievements was the launch on November 3, 1960 of Explorer 8 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. This occurred during his 16-year career at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He was both Project Manager and Project Scientist for Explorer 8 which added significant knowledge to the understanding of these fields.