John Horsley (c. 1685 – 12 January 1732) was a British antiquarian, known primarily for his book Britannia Romana or The Roman Antiquities of Britain which was published in 1732.
John Hodgson, in a memoir published in 1831, held that Horsley was born in 1685, at Pinkie House, in the parish of Inveresk, Midlothian, and that his father was a Northumberland nonconformist, who had migrated to Scotland, but returned to England soon after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. John Hodgson Hinde, in the Archaeologia Aeliana of February 1865, held that he was a native of Newcastle-on-Tyne, the son of Charles Horsley, a member of the Tailors' Company of the town. David Boyd Haycock writing in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography comments that none of the suggestions made for Horsley's background is verifiable.
He was educated at the Royal Grammar School, Newcastleand at Edinburgh University, where he graduated MA on 29 April 1701. There is evidence that he "was settled in Morpeth as a Presbyterian minister as early as 1709." Hodgson, however, thought that up to 1721, at which time he was residing at Widdrington, "he had not received ordination, but preached as a licentiate."
Horsley communicated to the Philosophical Transactions notes on the rainfall at Widdrington in the years 1722 and 1723. At Morpeth Horsley opened a private school, attracting pupils irrespective of religious connection, among them Newton Ogle, later dean of Winchester. He gave lectures on mechanics and hydrostatics in Morpeth, Alnwick and Newcastle, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 23 April 1730, or in May, 1729.
Horsley died of apoplexy on 12 January 1732, on the eve of the publication of the Britannia Romana.
It is as an archaeologist and antiquarian that Horsley is now known. His major work, Britannia Romana, or The Roman Antiquities of Britain was published in 1732. One of Horsley's achievements in this book was to identify for the first time which legions of the Roman army were stationed in Britain.There was in the British Museum a copy with notes by John Ward.
He also published two sermons and a handbook to his lectures on mechanics, etc., and projected a history of Northumberland and Durham, collections for which were found among his papers.
William Stukeley was an English antiquarian, physician, and Anglican clergyman. A significant influence on the later development of archaeology, he pioneered the scholarly investigation of the prehistoric monuments of Stonehenge and Avebury in Wiltshire. He published over twenty books on archaeology and other subjects during his lifetime.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1732.
Morpeth is a historic market town in Northumberland, North East England, lying on the River Wansbeck. Nearby villages include Mitford, Clifton and Pegswood. In the 2011 census, the population of Morpeth was given as 14,017, up from 13,833 in the 2001 census. The earliest record of the town is believed to be from the Neolithic period. The meaning of the town's name is uncertain, but it may refer to its position on the road to Scotland and a murder which occurred on that road. An alternative origin is a derivation of 'murderers' path' from the time when the gallows were on the Common. The de Marley family was granted the Barony of Morpeth in c. 1080 and built two castles in the town in the late 11th century and the 13th century. The town was granted its coat of arms in 1552. By the mid 1700s it had become one of the main markets in England, having been granted a market charter in 1199, but the opening of the railways in the 1800s led the market to decline. The town's history is celebrated in the annual Northumbrian Gathering.
Charles Julius Bertram (1723–1765) was an English expatriate in Denmark who "discovered"—and presumably wrote—The Description of Britain, an 18th-century literary forgery purporting to be a mediaeval work on history that remained undetected for over a century. In that time, it was highly influential for the reconstruction of the history of Roman Britain and contemporary Scotland, to the extent of appearing in Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and being used to direct William Roy's initial Ordnance Survey maps. Bertram "discovered" the manuscript around the age of 24 and spent the rest of his life a successful academic and author. Scholars contested various aspects of the Description, but it was not recognized as an unquestionable forgery until 1846.
William Borlase, Cornish antiquary, geologist and naturalist. From 1722, he was Rector of Ludgvan, Cornwall, where he died. He is remembered for his works The Antiquities of Cornwall and The Natural History of Cornwall (1758), although his plans for a parish-by-parish county history were abandoned.
William Widdrington, 1st Baron Widdrington was an English landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 to 1642 and was created a peer in 1643. He fought in the Royalist army in the English Civil War and was killed in battle in 1651.
This is a list of the High Sheriffs of the English county of Northumberland. The High Sheriff is the oldest secular office under the Crown. Formerly the High Sheriff was the principal law enforcement officer in the county but over the centuries most of the responsibilities associated with the post have been transferred elsewhere or are now defunct, so that its functions are now largely ceremonial. The High Sheriff changes every March.
The Damnonii were a Brittonic people of the late 2nd century who lived in what became the Kingdom of Strathclyde by the Early Middle Ages, and is now southern Scotland. They are mentioned briefly in Ptolemy's Geography, where he uses both of the terms "Damnonii" and "Damnii" to describe them, and there is no other historical record of them, except arguably by Gildas three centuries later. Their cultural and linguistic affinity is presumed to be Brythonic. However, there is no unbroken historical record, and a partly Pictish origin is not precluded.
Baron Widdrington, of Blankney in the County of Lincoln, was a title in the Peerage of England. It was created on 2 November 1643 for Sir William Widdrington, 1st Baronet. He had already been created a baronet, of Widdrington in the County of Northumberland, in the Baronetage of England on 9 July 1642. The Widdringtons were an ancient Northumbrian family who gave their name to the village, near Morpeth, Northumberland. In the 17th century the family were strongly Royalist. William Widdrington, 4th Baron Widdrington, joined Derwentwater and other Northumberland families in the Jacobite rising of 1715 and was captured at the Battle of Preston (1715). As a consequence of the subsequent attainder of the brothers, the Widdrington estates were sequestered and sold by the Crown, and the title was forfeited. Of their three great houses no traces now remain: Widdrington Castle was demolished in 1862 ; Stella Hall, Blaydon on Tyne, was demolished in 1954; and Blankney Hall, Lincolnshire suffered the same fate in 1960. Some of the family paintings passed to the Cook/Widdrington family of Newton Hall, and those were auctioned by Christie’s in 2010. The important collection of family portraits passed into the possession of the Towneley family through Mary Widdrington, daughter of the third Baron. These were sold at various auctions after Towneley Hall was emptied in about 1902. A few have since been donated to Towneley Hall, and four were donated to Stonyhurst College in the 19th Century.
The decade of the 1730s in archaeology involved some significant events.
Milecastle 3 (Ouseburn) was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. No remains exist, but it was thought to have been located at the junction of the A187 Byker Bridge and Stephen Street.
Milecastle 0 is a possible milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall which may have preexisted the fort of Segedunum. Although its existence has been suggested by historian Peter Hill, no evidence of this milecastle has been found. It is not known whether the decision to establish forts on the line of the wall predated the decision to extend the wall to Wallsend, so it is possible that this milecastle was never built.
Milecastle 2 (Walker) was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. No remains are currently visible, having been built over, but its probable location is at or near the junction of the A187 Fossway and Tunstall Avenue, in the parish of Wallsend.
Milecastle 5 was the first milecastle west of Pons Aelius fort of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. No remains exist of the milecastle, though its supposed position is at the junction of the A186 Westgate road and the B1311 Corporation Street. No remains currently exist.
The Portgate was a fortified gateway, constructed as part of Hadrian's Wall where it crossed the Roman road now known as Dere Street, which preceded Hadrian's Wall by around 50 years. It was built to control traffic along Dere Street as it passed north through Hadrian's Wall. The gate's remains exist beneath the old B6318 Military Road to the south-west of the Stagshaw Roundabout.
William Carnaby (1595–1645) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1640. He fought on the Royalist side in the English Civil War.
The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne, the oldest provincial antiquarian society in England, was founded in 1813. It is a registered charity under English law.
English county histories, in other words historical and topographical works concerned with individual ancient counties of England, were produced by antiquarians from the late 16th century onwards. The content was variable: some recorded archaeological sites, but others were heavily slanted towards the genealogies of county families and other biographical material, particularly relating to property and the descent of lordships of manors. The tradition continues with the series of Victoria County Histories.
John Hodgson (1779–1845) was an English clergyman and antiquary, known as the county historian of Northumberland.
Milecastle 29 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. Its remains exist as a mutilated earth platform accentuated by deep robber-trenches around all sides, and are located beside the B6318 Military Road. Like Milecastles 9, 23, 25, and 51, a ditch has been identified around the Milecastle, and is still visible to a small extent. It has been postulated that this was as a result of the need for drainage on the site.