John I, Duke of Brittany

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John I
Jean le Roux.jpg
John represented on a window in Chartes Cathedral
Duke of Brittany
Reign21 October 1221 8 October 1286
Predecessor Peter I & Alix
Successor John II
Regent Peter I
Earl of Richmond
Predecessor Peter of Savoy
Successor John II
Bornc. 1217/18
Died8 October 1286
Château de l'Isle
Spouse Blanche of Navarre
Among Others
John II
Peter, Lord of Hade
Alix, Countess of Blois
House Dreux
Father Peter I, Duke of Brittany
Mother Alix, Duchess of Brittany
Religion Roman Catholicism

John I (Breton : Yann, French : Jean; c. 1217/18 8 October 1286), known as John the Red due to the colour of his beard, was Duke of Brittany from 1221 to his death and 2nd Earl of Richmond in 1268.


John was the eldest of three children born to Duchess Alix and her husband and jure uxoris co-ruler, Duke Peter I. [1] He became duke upon his mother's death in 1221. His father, who had reigned as duke due to his marriage to Alix, ruled as regent until John reached adulthood. [2] In 1268, Henry III granted the earldom of Richmond to John, and the title continued in his family, through frequent temporary forfeitures and reversions, until 1342.

He experienced a number of conflicts with the Bishop of Nantes and the Breton clergy. In 1240, he issued an edict expelling Jews from the duchy and cancelling all debts to them. [3] He joined Louis IX of France in the Eighth Crusade in 1270, and survived the plague that killed the king. The duchy of Brittany experienced a century of peace, beginning with John I and ending with Duke John III's reign in 1341. [4]

Marriage and issue

In 1236 John married Infanta Blanche, daughter of King Theobald I of Navarre. [5] They had the following surviving issue:


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  1. Richard 1983, p. xxviii.
  2. Lower 2005, p. 117.
  3. Jones 1988, p. 140.
  4. Jones 1988, p. 34.
  5. Hallam & Everard 2001, p. 273.
  6. 1 2 3 Morvan 2009, p. table 2.


See also

John I, Duke of Brittany
Cadet branch of the Capetian Dynasty
Born: c. 1217/18 Died: 8 October 1286
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Alix and
Peter I
Duke of Brittany
Succeeded by
John II
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Peter of Savoy
Earl of Richmond
Succeeded by
John II