John represented on a window in Chartes Cathedral
|Duke of Brittany|
|Reign||21 October 1221 –8 October 1286|
|Predecessor||Peter I & Alix|
|Earl of Richmond|
|Predecessor||Peter of Savoy|
|Died||8 October 1286|
Château de l'Isle
|Spouse||Blanche of Navarre|
| John II |
Peter, Lord of Hade
Alix, Countess of Blois
|Father||Peter I, Duke of Brittany|
|Mother||Alix, Duchess of Brittany|
John I (Breton : Yann, French : Jean; c. 1217/18 –8 October 1286), known as John the Red due to the colour of his beard, was Duke of Brittany from 1221 to his death and 2nd Earl of Richmond in 1268.
John was the eldest of three children born to Duchess Alix and her husband and jure uxoris co-ruler, Duke Peter I.He became duke upon his mother's death in 1221. His father, who had reigned as duke due to his marriage to Alix, ruled as regent until John reached adulthood. In 1268, Henry III granted the earldom of Richmond to John, and the title continued in his family, through frequent temporary forfeitures and reversions, until 1342.
He experienced a number of conflicts with the Bishop of Nantes and the Breton clergy. In 1240, he issued an edict expelling Jews from the duchy and cancelling all debts to them.He joined Louis IX of France in the Eighth Crusade in 1270, and survived the plague that killed the king. The duchy of Brittany experienced a century of peace, beginning with John I and ending with Duke John III's reign in 1341.
In 1236 John married Infanta Blanche, daughter of King Theobald I of Navarre.They had the following surviving issue:
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|Ancestors of John I, Duke of Brittany|
Philip III, called the Bold, was King of France from 1270 to 1285.
Peter I, also known as Peter Mauclerc, was Duke of Brittany jure uxoris from 1213 to 1221, and regent of the duchy for his minor son John I from 1221 to 1237. As duke he was also 1st Earl of Richmond from 1218 to 1235.
Odo II, Count of Porhoet was the son of Geoffroy, Viscount de Porhoët, and his wife Hawise. He became Duke of Brittany in 1148 upon his marriage to Bertha, Duchess of Brittany.
Conan IV, called the Young, was the Duke of Brittany from 1156 to 1166. He was the son of Bertha, Duchess of Brittany, and her first husband, Alan, Earl of Richmond. Conan IV was his father's heir as Earl of Richmond and his mother's heir as Duke of Brittany. Conan and his daughter Constance would be the only representatives of the House of Penthièvre to rule Brittany.
Guy of Thouars was the third husband of Constance, Duchess of Brittany, whom he married in 1199 in Angers, County of Anjou between August and October 1199 after her son Arthur of Brittany entered Angers to be recognized as count of the three countships of Anjou, Maine and Touraine. He was an Occitan noble, a member of the House of Thouars.
Alix of Thouars ruled as Duchess of Brittany from 1203 until her death. She was also Countess of Richmond in the peerage of England.
John II reigned as Duke of Brittany from 1286 until his death, and was also Earl of Richmond in the Peerage of England. He took part in two crusades prior to his accession to the ducal throne. As a duke, John was involved in the conflicts between the kings of France and England. He was crushed to death in an accident during the celebrations of a papal coronation.
Guy of Dampierre was the Count of Flanders (1251–1305) and Marquis of Namur (1268–1297). He was a prisoner of the French when his Flemings defeated the latter at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302.
Stephen of Penthièvre, Count of Tréguier, 3rd Lord of Richmond was a Breton noble and a younger son of Odo, Count of Penthièvre and Agnes of Cornouaille, sister of Hoël II, Duke of Brittany. In 1093, he succeeded to the title of Count of Tréguier; in 1098, he succeeded his brother Alain as Lord of Richmond in Yorkshire, England.
Blanche of Navarre, also known as Blanche of Champagne, was the daughter of Theobald the Troubador, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne, and his second wife Agnes of Beaujeu. She was a member of the House of Champagne. By her marriage to John I, Duke of Brittany, she became Duchess consort of Brittany.
Saint-Gildas-de-Rhuys is a commune in the Morbihan department of Brittany in north-western France.
Guihomar, Guidomar, or Guyomar IV was the Viscount of Léon from 1168 until his death. He was the son and successor of Harvey II. His reign was spent in constant rebellion against his nominal lords in an effort to preserve his historical independence.
Theobald II was a count of Bar. He was the son of Henry II of Bar and Philippa of Dreux. He became count of Bar when his father was killed during the Barons' Crusade in 1239, but news of Henry's death did not reached him until 1240. As Theobald was still a minor, his mother ruled as regent until 17 March 1242. Theobald's own children included his successor Henry III and the bishop Reginald of Bar.
Isabella of France was a daughter of Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence. She was married to Theobald II of Navarre, eldest son of Theobald I of Navarre and Margaret of Navarre on 6 April 1255. Isabelle became Queen consort of Navarre.
Yolande of Brittany was the ruler of the counties of Penthièvre and Porhoet in the Duchy of Brittany. Yolande had been betrothed to King Henry III of England in 1226 at the age of seven years. but married Hugh XI of Lusignan, the half-brother of Henry III. Through Hugh, she became Countess of La Marche and of Angoulême. She was the mother of seven children. From 1250 to 1256, she acted as Regent of La Marche and Angoulême for her son, Hugh XII of Lusignan.
Enguerrand IV, Lord of Coucy was the son of Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy and Marie de Montmirail. He succeeded his older brother Raoul II, Lord of Coucy, serving as the Sire de Coucy from his brother's death in 1250 until his own in 1311.
Amaury I of Craon (1170–1226), was Lord of Craon, of Chantocé, Ingrandes, Candé, Segré, Duretal, Baugé and of Lude.
Henry V the Blondell, called the Great, was the count of Arlon from 1226 to his death, lord of Ligny from 1240 to his death, count of Luxembourg and Laroche from 1247 to his death, and the count of Namur between 1256 and 1264 as Henry III. He was the son and successor of Waleran III of Limburg and Ermesinda of Luxembourg.
Geoffrey V, nicknamed le Trouillard, was the Lord of Joinville from 1190 until his death in late 1203 or early 1204. He was also the hereditary seneschal of the County of Champagne. He went on both the Third Crusade (1189–90) and the Fourth Crusade (1202–04), where he died.
The English invasion of France of 1230 was a military campaign undertaken by Henry III of England in an attempt to reclaim the English throne's rights and inheritance to the territories of France, held prior to 1224. The English did not seek battle with the French, did not invade the Duchy of Normandy and marched south to the County of Poitou. The campaign on the continent ended in a fiasco, Henry made a truce with Louis IX of France and returned to England. The failure of the campaign led to the dismissal of Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent as Justiciar.
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John I, Duke of Brittany
Cadet branch of the Capetian DynastyBorn: c. 1217/18 Died: 8 October 1286
| Duke of Brittany |
|Peerage of England|
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