John II, Count of Holland

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John II
Count of Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland
Born1247
Died22 August 1304 (aged 5657)
Noble family Avesnes
Spouse(s) Philippa of Luxembourg
Father John I of Avesnes
Mother Adelaide of Holland

John II (1247 – 22 August 1304) was Count of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland.

Contents

Life

John II, born 1247, was the eldest son of John I of Avesnes and Adelaide of Holland, daughter of Floris IV, Count of Holland. [1] He was Count of Hainaut from 1280 to his death and Count of Holland from 1299 until his death. [1] John continued the war between the House of Dampierre and the House of Avesnes against Count Guy of Flanders for imperial Flanders.

John II became count of Holland in 1299 upon the death of his maternal cousin John I. [2] The personal union he established between Hainaut and Holland–Zeeland lasted for another half-century. [2] John I's father, Floris V, had been fighting against Flanders for Zeeland. [3] He sought help of France against Flanders. [3] The French defeated the Flemish in 1300 and 1301. The rebels in Zeeland were defeated as well. John's brother, Guy of Avesnes, became bishop of Utrecht. [4] Thus, all his main enemies were gone.

The tide changed dramatically after a Flemish uprising and the defeat of the French army at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302, where John's eldest son was killed fighting for the French. Flemish patriots attacked Hainaut and Zeeland supported by the dissatisfied population there. Guy of Namur defeated John's son, William, in a battle on the island of Duiveland. Bishop Guy of Utrecht was taken prisoner. Guy of Namur and Duke John II of Brabant conquered most of Utrecht, Holland, and Zeeland. Guy of Namur was finally defeated in 1304 by the fleet of Holland and France at the naval Battle of Zierikzee. John II regained most of his authority when he died in the same year.

Family

In 1270, John married Philippa, [5] daughter of Count Henry V of Luxembourg and Margaret of Bar. Their children were:

  1. John, Lord of Beaumont, Count of Ostervant. Killed in battle (11 July 1302). [1]
  2. Henry, a canon in Cambrai, (died 1303). [1]
  3. William I, Count of Hainaut (c.1286 – 7 June 1337) He succeeded his father in 1304. Married Joan of Valois, daughter of Charles, Count of Valois. [1]
  4. John of Beaumont (1288 – 11 March 1356). He was married to Margaret, Countess de Soissons. [1]
  5. Margaret (died 18 October 1342), married Robert II of Artois, who was killed at the Battle of the Golden Spurs, 11 July 1302. [1]
  6. Alice or Alix (d. 26 October 1317), who married 1290 Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, by whom she had no issue. [1]
  7. Isabelle (died 1305), married Raoul de Clermont Lord of Nesle, who was killed in battle at the Battle of the Golden Spurs, 11 July 1302. [1]
  8. Joan, a nun at Fontenelles. [1]
  9. Mary of Avesnes (1280–1354), married Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. [1]
  10. Matilda, Abbess of Nivelles. [1]

John's illegitimate children were:

  1. Willem de Cuser [6]
  2. Aleid van Zandenburg, who was married firstly to Wolfert II of Borselen, lord of Veere, and secondly to Otto III of Buren. [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

Floris V, Count of Holland 13th-century Count of Holland

Floris V reigned as Count of Holland and Zeeland from 1256 until 1296. His life was documented in detail in the Rijmkroniek by Melis Stoke, his chronicler. He is credited with a mostly peaceful reign, modernizing administration, policies beneficial to trade, generally acting in the interests of his peasants at the expense of nobility, and reclaiming land from the sea. His dramatic murder, engineered by King Edward I of England and Guy, Count of Flanders, made him a hero in Holland.

The count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century. The title was held for a time by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. During the French Revolution in 1790, the county of Flanders was annexed to France and ceased to exist. In the 19th century, the title was appropriated by Belgium and granted twice to younger sons of Belgian kings. The most recent holder died in 1983.

Margaret II, Countess of Flanders Countess of Flanders

Margaret, often called Margaret of Constantinople, ruled as Countess of Flanders during 1244–1278 and Countess of Hainaut during 1244–1253 and 1257–1280. She was the younger daughter of Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders and Hainaut, and Marie of Champagne.

Battle of the Golden Spurs 1302 battle

The Battle of the Golden Spurs was a military confrontation between the royal army of France and rebellious forces of the County of Flanders on 11 July 1302 during the Franco-Flemish War (1297–1305). It took place near the town of Kortrijk (Courtrai) in modern-day Belgium and resulted in an unexpected victory for the Flemish. It is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Courtrai.

County of Hainaut countship

The County of Hainaut, was a territorial lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, straddling what is now the border of Belgium and France. Its most important towns included Mons, now in Belgium, and Valenciennes, now in France.

John of Avesnes was the count of Hainaut from 1246 to his death.

Adelaide of Holland Dutch noble

Adelaide of Holland, Countess of Hainaut, was a Dutch regent. She was a daughter of Floris IV, Count of Holland and Matilda of Brabant. She was also a sister of William II, Count of Holland and King of Germany. She acted as regent for her nephew Count Floris V during his minority.

William the Good was count of Hainaut, Avesnes, Holland, and Zeeland from 1304 to his death.

Louis I, called the Lame was Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and La Marche and the first Duke of Bourbon.

Guy, Count of Flanders Count of Flanders (1251-1305)

Guy of Dampierre was the Count of Flanders (1251–1305) and Marquis of Namur (1268–1297). He was a prisoner of the French when his Flemings defeated the latter at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302.

Burgundian Circle imperial circle of the Holy Roman Empire

The Burgundian Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire created in 1512 and significantly enlarged in 1548. In addition to the Free County of Burgundy, the Burgundian Circle roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e., the areas now known as the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg and adjacent parts in the French administrative region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais.

Avesnes family noble family

The Avesnes family played an important role during the Middle Ages. The family has its roots in the small village Avesnes-sur-Helpe, in the north of France.

Guy of Dampierre, Count of Zeeland, also called Guy of Namur, was a Flemish noble who was the Lord of Ronse and later the self-proclaimed Count of Zeeland. He was a younger son of Guy, Count of Flanders and Isabelle of Luxembourg.

Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle

The Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle was fought on 18 August 1304 between the French and the Flemish. The French were led by King Philip IV "the Fair" in person.

Jan van Renesse was a member of the Zeeland nobility. Together with Wolfert van Borselen he co-led a party favoring Flanders and against Holland, with considerable influence in Zeeland. With the support of Edward I of England, Jan van Renesse governed Zeeland on behalf of John I, Count of Holland, but van Borselen took up arms against him, and he was expelled after the failure of Edward I's invasion of Flanders. John was a descendant of Henry, Count of Looz.

Guy of Avesnes Dutch bishop

Guy van Avennes was Bishop of Utrecht from 1301 to 1317.

Isabelle of Luxembourg (1247–1298) was a countess consort of Flanders and a marquis consort of Namur by marriage to Guy of Dampierre.

Battle of Zierikzee

The battle of Zierikzee was a naval battle between a Flemish fleet and an allied Franco-Hollandic fleet which took place on 10 and 11 August 1304. The battle, fought near the town of Zierikzee, ended in a Franco-Holland victory. The battle is part of a larger conflict between the Count of Flanders and his French feudal lord, King Philip IV of France (1296–1305).

House of Dampierre noble dynasty

The Dampierre family played an important role during the Middle Ages. Named after Dampierre, in the Champagne region, where members first became prominent, members of the family were later Count of Flanders, Count of Nevers, Counts and Dukes of Rethel, Count of Artois and Count of Franche-Comté.

Franco-Flemish War conflict

The Franco-Flemish War was a conflict between the Kingdom of France and the County of Flanders between 1297 and 1305.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafel 22
  2. 1 2 Johan C H Blom, History of the Low Countries (New York: Berghahn Books, 2006), p. 58
  3. 1 2 Johan C H Blom, History of the Low Countries (New York: Berghahn Books, 2006), pp. 57–8
  4. Elizabeth Moore Hunt, Illuminating the Borders of Northern French and Flemish Manuscripts, 1270 – 1310 (New York: Routledge, 2007), p. 125
  5. M. A. Pollock, Scotland, England and France After the Loss of Normandy, 1204-1296, (The Boydell Press, 2015), xv.
  6. Gary Boyd Roberts, The royal descents of 600 immigrants to the American colonies or the United States : who were themselves notable or left descendants notable in American history: with a 2008 addendum, coda, and final addition (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2008)[ page needed ]
  7. Orlanda Lie and Joris Reynaert eds., Artes in context. Opstellen over het handschriftelijk milieu van Middelnederlandse artesteksten (Hilversum 2004), 67.


John II, Count of Holland
Born: 1247 Died: 22 August 1304
Preceded by
Margaret I
Count of Hainaut
1280–1304
Succeeded by
William I
Preceded by
John I
Count of Holland and Zeeland
1299–1304