John II, Duke of Bourbon

Last updated
John II
Duke of Bourbon
JeanIIdeBourbonFouquet1470.jpg
John II, Duke of Bourbon, detail of an illumination by Jean Fouquet, Statuts de l'Order de Saint-Michel , 1470. Screen 9/76; see
Full name
Jean de Bourbon
Born1426
Died1 April 1488
Château de Moulins
Spouse(s) Joan of Valois
Catherine of Armagnac
Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendôme
Issue
John, Count of Clermont
Louis, Count of Clermont
Father Charles I, Duke of Bourbon
Mother Agnes of Burgundy

Jean (John) de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon (1426 1 April 1488), sometimes referred to as John the Good and The Scourge of the English, was a son of Charles I of Bourbon and Agnes of Burgundy. He was Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne from 1456 to his death. [1]

Contents

Life

John II at prayer, wearing the collar of the Order of Saint-Michel, from the chapel in the crypt of the Sainte-Chapelle at Bourbon-l'Archambault, attributed to Michel Colombe (Walters Art Museum). Michel Colombe - Jean II, Duke of Bourbon, at Prayer - Walters 27510 - Left Side.jpg
John II at prayer, wearing the collar of the Order of Saint-Michel, from the chapel in the crypt of the Sainte-Chapelle at Bourbon-l'Archambault, attributed to Michel Colombe (Walters Art Museum).
A portrait of John's third wife Jeanne of Bourbon-Vendome. Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendome.jpg
A portrait of John's third wife Jeanne of Bourbon-Vendome.

John earned his nicknames "John the Good" and "The Scourge of the English" for his efforts in helping drive out the English from France.

He was made constable of France in 1483 by his brother Peter and sister-in-law Anne, to neutralize him as a threat to their regency.[ citation needed ]

In an effort to win discontented nobles back to his side, Louis XI of France made great efforts to give out magnificent gifts to certain individuals; John was a recipient of these overtures. According to contemporary chronicles, the King received John in Paris with "honours, caresses, pardon, and gifts; everything was lavished upon him". In further attempts to gain the nobles' favor, the King proposed a match between his eldest legitimized daughter Marguerite to John's eldest illegitimate son Louis de Bourbon. The marriage was celebrated in Paris with royal magnificence and the wedded couple were heaped with honors and wealth by the King. It has been said despite all of his brilliant marriages, nothing flattered John more than this particular marriage between his natural son and a legitimized daughter of the King.

John is notable for making three brilliant alliances but leaving no legitimate issue.

First Marriage

In 1447, his father, the Duke of Bourbon, had John married to a daughter of Charles VII, King of France, Joan of Valois. [2] They were duly married at the Château de Moulins. They had no surviving issue.

Second marriage

In 1484 at St. Cloud to Catherine of Armagnac, daughter of Jacques of Armagnac, Duke of Nemours, who died in 1487 while giving birth to:

Third marriage

In 1487 he married Jeanne of Bourbon-Vendôme, daughter of John of Bourbon, Count of Vendôme (from a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon), by whom he had one son:

Illegitimate issue

By Louise of Albret (- 8 September 1494) [lower-alpha 1] :

By Marguerite de Brunant:

By unknown women:

Death and aftermath

John died in 1488 at the Château de Moulins and was succeeded by his younger brother Charles. However, this succession was strongly contested due to the political strength of Peter and Anne. Within a span of days, Charles was forced to renounce his claims to the Bourbon lands to Peter in exchange for a financial settlement.

Ancestry

Notes

  1. daughter of Jean I of Albret (1425 - 3 January 1468), Lord of Albret, Viscount of Tartas, and Catherine of Rohan

Related Research Articles

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The House of Bourbon is a European dynasty of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

Antoine of Navarre King of Navarre

Antoine was the King of Navarre through his marriage to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death. He was the first monarch of the House of Bourbon, of which he was head from 1537. He was the father of Henry IV of France.

Duke of Bourbon

Duke of Bourbon is a title in the peerage of France. It was created in the first half of the 14th century for the eldest son of Robert of France, Count of Clermont and Beatrice of Burgundy, heiress of the lordship of Bourbon. In 1416, with the death of John of Valois, the Dukes of Bourbon were simultaneously Dukes of Auvergne.

Charles de Bourbon was the oldest son of John I, Duke of Bourbon and Marie, Duchess of Auvergne.

Jeanne de Bourbon, Duchess of Bourbon

Jeanne de Bourbon was a daughter of John II, Count of Vendôme and Isabelle de Beauvau. Through her daughter Madeleine, she was the maternal grandmother of French queen consort Catherine de' Medici and the great-grandmother of French Kings Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III.

Jacques dArmagnac French noble (1433–1477)

Jacques d'Armagnac, duke of Nemours, was the son of Bernard d'Armagnac, count of Pardiac, and Eleanor of Bourbon-La Marche.

René, Duke of Alençon

René of Alençon, was the son of John II of Alençon and Marie of Armagnac.

Charles I dAlbret

Charles I d'Albret was the Lord of Albret and the Constable of France from 1402 until 1411, and again from 1413 until 1415. He was also the co-commander of the French army at the Battle of Agincourt where he was killed by the English forces led by King Henry V.

Counts and dukes of Penthièvre

In the 11th and 12th centuries the Countship of Penthièvre in Brittany belonged to a branch of the sovereign House of Brittany. It initially belonged to the House of Rennes. Alan III, Duke of Brittany, gave it to his brother Eudes in 1035, and his descendants formed a cadet branch of the ducal house.

John VIII, Count of Vendôme

John VIII de Bourbon was Count of Vendôme from 1466 until his death. A member of the House of Bourbon, he was the son and successor of Louis, Count of Vendôme. As a courtier of King Charles VII of France, he fought the English in Normandy and Guyenne. He attached himself to King Louis XI, but was not in royal favor. He withdrew to the Château of Lavardin and completed its construction.

Counts of Dreux Noble family of France

The Counts of Dreux were a noble family of France, who took their title from the chief stronghold of their domain, the château of Dreux, which lies near the boundary between Normandy and the Île-de-France. They are notable for inheriting the Duchy of Brittany through Pierre de Dreux's marriage to Alix de Thouars in the early 13th century.

The County of Fézensac was an 8th-century creation on the north-eastern fringes of the Duchy of Gascony following Charlemagne's policy of feudalisation and Frankish colonisation. The move was aimed at offsetting and undermining the authority of the duke of Gascony Lupo II after the setback suffered by the Franks at the Battle of Roncevaux in 778 and failure to restrain the Basques. That advance clearly displeased the Basques, with these policies sparking a stir on the banks of the Garonne.

Alain I of Albret

Alain I of Albret (1440–1522), called "The Great", was a powerful French aristocrat. He was 16th Lord of Albret, Viscount of Tartas, the 2nd Count of Graves and the Count of Castres. He was the son of Catherine de Rohan and Jean I of Albret. He was the grandson and heir of Charles II of Albret and became head of the House of Albret in 1471.

Marie dAlbret, Countess of Rethel

Marie d'Albret, Countess of Rethel, Countess of Nevers was the suo jure Countess of Rethel, a title which she inherited at the age of nine upon the death of her mother, Charlotte of Nevers, Sovereign Countess of Rethel, on 23 August 1500. She was the wife of Charles II of Cleves, Count of Nevers.

Castres-en-Albigenses was a dependence of the Viscount of Albi. The Viscounts of Albi granted Castres a city charter establishing a commune with the city, headed by consuls. During the Albigensian Crusade, the city quickly surrendered to Simon de Montfort, who gave it to his brother Guy de Montfort.

Jeanne dAlbret Queen of Navarre

Jeanne d'Albret, also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, becoming the Duchess of Vendôme and was the mother of Henri de Bourbon, who became King Henry III of Navarre and IV of France, the first Bourbon king of France.

John II, the Hunchback,, Count of Armagnac, of Fézensac, Rodez (1371–1384) and Count of Charolais (1364–1384), Viscount Lomagne and Auvillars, he was the son of John I, Count of Armagnac, of Fezensac and Rodez, Viscount Lomagne and Auvillars and Beatrix de Clermont, great-granddaughter of Louis IX of France.

Royal bastard

A royal bastard was a common term for the illegitimate child of a reigning monarch. These children were considered to be born outside of marriage - either because the monarch had an extra-marital affair, or because the legitimacy of the monarch's marriage had been called into question.

Jean I of Albret, 15th Lord of Albret, was a Viscount of Tartas.

References

  1. de Troyes 1906, p. 9.
  2. Morrison & Hedeman 2010, p. 5.
  3. Blanchard 2007, p. 1282.

Sources

Preceded by Duke of Auvergne and Bourbon
Count of Forez

1456–1488
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Count of l'Isle-Jourdain
1469–1488