John II of Aragon

Last updated
John II
SOAOTO - Folio 067R.jpg
John as a Knight of the Golden Fleece
Miniature from the southern Netherlands, 1473
Reign27 June 1458 – 20 January 1479
Predecessor Alfonso V
Successor Ferdinand II
King of Navarre
Reign8 September 1425 – 20 January 1479
Predecessor Blanche I
Successor Eleanor
Co-monarch Blanche I
Born29 June 1398
Medina del Campo
Died20 January 1479(1479-01-20) (aged 80)
Barcelona
Burial
Consort Blanche I of Navarre
Juana Enríquez
Issue
among others...
Charles IV of Navarre
Blanche II of Navarre
Eleanor I of Navarre
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Joanna, Queen of Naples
(illeg.) Alfonso de Aragón
(illeg.) Juan de Aragón
House Trastámara
Father Ferdinand I of Aragon
Mother Eleanor of Alburquerque
Religion Roman Catholicism

John II (Catalan: Joan II, Aragonese: Chuan II and Basque : Joanes II), called the Great (el Gran) or the Faithless (el Sense Fe) [1] (29 June 1398 – 20 January 1479), [2] was the King of Navarre through his wife ( jure uxoris ) from 1425 and the King of Aragon in his own right from 1458 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I [3] and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John was also King of Sicily from 1458-1468.

Catalan language Romance language

Catalan is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia. It also has semi-official status in the Italian comune of Alghero. It is also spoken in the eastern strip of Aragon, in some villages of Region of Murcia called Carche and in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France. These territories are often called Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".

Aragonese language Romance language

Aragonese is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 20,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça. It is the only modern language which survived from medieval Navarro-Aragonese in a form distinctly different from Spanish.

Basque language Language of the Basque people

Basque (; euskara[eus̺ˈkaɾa]) is a language spoken in the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and is a language isolate relative to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% (751,500) of Basques in all territories. Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion.

Contents

Biography

A Sicilian-Athenian-Neopatrian carlino of John II. Carlino Giovanni II.jpg
A Sicilian–Athenian–Neopatrian carlino of John II.

John was born at Medina del Campo (in the Crown of Castile). In his youth he was one of the infantes (princes) of Aragon who took part in the dissensions of Castile during the minority and reign of John II. Till middle life he was also lieutenant-general in Aragon for his brother and predecessor Alfonso V, whose reign was mainly spent in Italy. In his old age he was engaged in incessant conflicts with his Aragonese and Catalan subjects, with Louis XI of France, and in preparing the way for the marriage of his son Ferdinand with Isabella I of Castile which brought about the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile and which was to create the Kingdom of Spain. His troubles with his subjects were closely connected with tragic dissensions within his own family.

Medina del Campo Municipality in Castile and León, Spain

Medina del Campo is a town located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León autonomous region, 45 km from Valladolid. It is the capital of a farming area, far away from the great economic centres.

Crown of Castile Former country in the Iberian Peninsula

The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715.

John II of Castile King of Castille and Leon

John II of Castile was King of Castile and León from 1406 to 1454.

John was first married to Blanche I of Navarre of the house of Évreux. By right of Blanche he became king of Navarre, and on her death in 1441 he was left in possession of the kingdom for his lifetime. But one son, Charles, given the title "Prince of Viana" as heir of Navarre, had been born of the marriage. John quickly came to regard this son with jealousy. After his second marriage, to Juana Enríquez, it grew into absolute hatred, being encouraged by Juana. John tried to deprive his son of his constitutional right to act as lieutenant-general of Aragon during his father's absence. Charles's cause was taken up by the Aragonese, however, and the king's attempt to make his second wife lieutenant-general was set aside.

Blanche I of Navarre Queen regnant of Navarre and queen consort of Sicily

Blanche I was Queen of Navarre from her father King Charles III of Navarre's death in 1425 until her own death. She served as Regent of Sicily in 1404–05 and in 1408–15.

Évreux Prefecture and commune in Normandy, France

Évreux is a commune in and the capital of the department of Eure, in the French region of Normandy.

Juana Enríquez Aragonese queen

Juana Enriquez de Córdoba, 5th Lady of Casarrubios del Monte, a Castilian noblewoman, was Queen of Navarre from her marriage in April 1444 to King John II and Queen of Aragon from John II's accession in 1458 until her death. She married John three years after the death of his first wife, Queen Blanche I of Navarre.

There followed the long Navarrese Civil War, with alternations of success and defeat, ending only with the death of the prince of Viana, perhaps by poison administered by his stepmother in 1461. The Catalans, who had adopted the cause of Charles and who had grievances of their own, called in a succession of foreign pretenders in a War against John II. His last years John spent contending with these. He was forced to pawn Roussillon, his possession on the north-east of the Pyrenees, to King Louis XI of France, who refused to part with it.

The Navarrese Civil War of 1451–1455 pitted John II of the Kingdom of Navarre against his son and heir-apparent, Charles IV.

Roussillon Historical province in Pyrénées-Orientales, France

Roussillon is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia. It may also refer to Northern Catalonia or French Catalonia, the first used by Catalan-speakers and the second used by French-speakers, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales save Fenouillèdes. A 1998 survey found that 34% of respondents stated they speak Catalan, and a further 21% understand it.

Louis XI of France Valois king of France

Louis XI, called "Louis the Prudent", was King of France from 1461 to 1483. He succeeded his father Charles VII.

In his old age John was blinded by cataracts, but recovered his eyesight by the operation of couching conducted by his physician Abiathar Crescas, a Jew. The Catalan revolt was pacified in 1472, but John carried on a war, in which he was generally unfortunate, with his neighbor the French king till his death in 1479. He was succeeded by Ferdinand, his son by his second marriage, who was already married to Isabella I of Castile. With his death and son's accession to the throne of Aragon, the unification of Spain under one royal house began in earnest.

Cataract clouding of the lens inside the eye, which leads to low vision

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry or double vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. This may result in trouble driving, reading, or recognizing faces. Poor vision caused by cataracts may also result in an increased risk of falling and depression. Cataracts cause half of all cases of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide.

Couching is the earliest documented form of cataract surgery. As a cataract is a clouding in the lens of the eye, couching is a technique whereby the lens is dislodged, thus removing the opacity. Although couching is nowadays routinely practiced only in remote areas in third world countries, it was a precursor to modern cataract surgery and pars plana vitrectomy.

Abiathar Crescas was a 15th-century physician and astrologer from the Crown of Aragon. He was head astrologer to King John II of Aragon, father of King Ferdinand of Aragon.

Marriages and issue

From his first marriage to Blanche of Navarre, John had the following children:

A ducat with John II's effigy Ducado aragones Juan II de Aragon (1453).jpg
A ducat with John II's effigy

From his second marriage to Juana Enríquez, John had the following children:

Illegitimate children:

Ancestors

Related Research Articles

James II of Aragon King of Aragon

James II, called the Just, was the King of Aragon and Valencia and Count of Barcelona from 1291 to 1327. He was also the King of Sicily from 1285 to 1295 and the King of Majorca from 1291 to 1298. From 1297 he was nominally the King of Sardinia and Corsica, but he only acquired the island of Sardinia by conquest in 1324. His full title for the last three decades of his reign was "James, by the grace of God, king of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia and Corsica, and count of Barcelona".

Charles, Prince of Viana King of Navarre

Charles, Prince of Viana, sometimes called Charles IV of Navarre, was the son of King John II of Aragon and Queen Blanche I of Navarre.

Kingdom of Aragon medieval and early modern kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula

The Kingdom of Aragon was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain. It should not be confused with the larger Crown of Aragon, that also included other territories — the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Majorca, and other possessions that are now part of France, Italy, and Greece — that were also under the rule of the King of Aragon, but were administered separately from the Kingdom of Aragon.

Kingdom of Navarre Medieval Basque kingdom that occupied the lands around the western Pyrenees

The Kingdom of Navarre, originally the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.

Henry IV of Castile King of Castile

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Compromise of Caspe Aragonese parliamentary agreement on succession

The 1412 Compromise of Caspe was an act and resolution of parliamentary representatives of the constituent realms of the Crown of Aragon, meeting in Caspe, to resolve the interregnum following the death of King Martin of Aragon in 1410 without a legitimate heir.

House of Trastámara Spanish royal dynasty

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Ferdinand II of Aragon 15th and 16th-century King of Aragon, Sicily, Naples, and Valencia

Ferdinand II, called the Catholic, was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. In 1469, he married Infanta Isabella, the future queen of Castile, which was regarded as the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy". As a consequence of the marriage, in 1474 he became de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V, when Isabella held the crown of Castile, until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and Isabella‘s last will and testament, and Ferdinand lost his monarchical status in Castile. Joanna's husband Philip became de jure uxoris King of Castile, but died in 1506, and Joanna ruled in her own right. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1506, as part of a treaty with a France, Ferdinand married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth. In 1508, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile, following Joanna's alleged mental illness, until his own death in 1516. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest.

Catalan Civil War

The Catalan Civil War, also called the Catalonian Civil War or the War against John II, was a civil war in the Principality of Catalonia, then belonging to the Crown of Aragon, between 1462 and 1472. The two factions, the royalists who supported John II of Aragon and the Catalan constitutionalists, disputed the extent of royal rights in Catalonia. The French entered the war at times on the side on John II and at times with the Catalans. The Catalans, who at first rallied around John's son Charles of Viana, set up several pretenders in opposition to John during the course of the conflict. Barcelona remained their stronghold to the end: with its surrender the war came to a close. John, victorious, re-established the status quo ante.

Blanche of France, Infanta of Castile French princess

Blanche of France (1253–1323) was a daughter of King Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, and sister of King Philip III of France and Queen Isabella of Navarre.

Luis de Requesens y de Relat was Catalan baron of Altafulla, baron of La Nou de Gaià, both in the province of Tarragona, Spain.

Infantes of Aragon the children born of the marriage of King Fernando I of Aragón with his aunt Leonor de Alburquerque

The Infantes of Aragon is an appellation commonly used by Spanish historians to refer to a group of 15th-century infantes (princes) of the House of Trastámara, specifically the sons of King Ferdinand I of Aragon and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque:

Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza Castilian noble

Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza was the second Admiral of Castile, Count of Melgar and Rueda, and second Lord of Medina del Rioseco. He was a son of Alonso Enríquez, the first admiral of Castile.

Louis of Beaumont was a medieval noble of the kingdom of Navarre. He was the 2nd Count of Lerín in Southern Navarre, Marquis of Huesca and Connetable de Navarre.

References

  1. Ferran Soldevila, Ferrán Valls i Taberner, Antonio Badia y Torres, Francesc X. Hernandez, Rafael Tasis i Marca, Francesc Gordo-Guarinos, Eufemià Fort i Cogul, i Miquel Coll i Alentorn. [ page needed ]
  2. Teófilo F. Ruiz (2007). Spain's centuries of crisis: 1300–1474; Volume 4 of A history of Spain. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN   978-1-4051-2789-9.[ page needed ]
  3. Elena Woodacre, The Queens Regnant of Navarre: Succession, Politics, and Partnership, 1274–1512, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 91.
  4. de Sousa, Antonio Caetano (1735). Historia genealogica da casa real portugueza [Genealogical History of the Royal House of Portugal] (in Portuguese). 2. Lisboa Occidental. p. 497.

Sources

John II of Aragon
Born: 29 June 1397 Died: 20 January 1479
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Alfonso the Magnanimous
King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca,
Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica;
Count of Barcelona

1458–1479
Succeeded by
Ferdinand the Catholic
Count of Roussillon and Cerdagne
1458–1462
Succeeded by
Louis the Prudent
Preceded by
Charles III
King of Navarre (jure uxoris)
1425–1441
with Blanche I
Succeeded by
Charles IV de jure
King of Navarre de facto
withholding the crown from
Charles IV and Blanche II

1441–1479
Succeeded by
Eleanor
Spanish nobility
Vacant
Title last held by
Martin of Aragon
Duke of Montblanc
1415–1458
Succeeded by
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Preceded by
James II of Urgell
Lord of Balaguer
1418–1458
Preceded by
Hugh of Cardona
Duke of Gandia
1433–1439
Succeeded by
Charles of Viana