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John as a Knight of the Golden Fleece
Miniature from the southern Netherlands, 1473
|Reign||27 June 1458 – 20 January 1479|
|King of Navarre|
|Reign||8 September 1425 – 20 January 1479|
|Born||29 June 1398|
Medina del Campo
|Died||20 January 1479 80) (aged|
|Consort|| Blanche I of Navarre |
| Charles IV of Navarre |
Blanche II of Navarre
Eleanor I of Navarre
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Joanna, Queen of Naples
(illeg.) Alfonso de Aragón
(illeg.) Juan de Aragón
|Father||Ferdinand I of Aragon|
|Mother||Eleanor of Alburquerque|
John II (Catalan: Joan II, Aragonese: Chuan II and Basque : Joanes II), called the Great (el Gran) or the Faithless (el Sense Fe)(29 June 1398 – 20 January 1479), was the King of Navarre through his wife ( jure uxoris ) from 1425 and the King of Aragon in his own right from 1458 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John was also King of Sicily from 1458-1468.
John was born at Medina del Campo (in the Crown of Castile). In his youth he was one of the infantes (princes) of Aragon who took part in the dissensions of Castile during the minority and reign of John II. Till middle life he was also lieutenant-general in Aragon for his brother and predecessor Alfonso V, whose reign was mainly spent in Italy. In his old age he was engaged in incessant conflicts with his Aragonese and Catalan subjects, with Louis XI of France, and in preparing the way for the marriage of his son Ferdinand with Isabella I of Castile which brought about the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile and which was to create the Kingdom of Spain. His troubles with his subjects were closely connected with tragic dissensions within his own family.
John was first married to Blanche I of Navarre of the house of Évreux. By right of Blanche he became king of Navarre, and on her death in 1441 he was left in possession of the kingdom for his lifetime. But one son, Charles, given the title "Prince of Viana" as heir of Navarre, had been born of the marriage. John quickly came to regard this son with jealousy. After his second marriage, to Juana Enríquez, it grew into absolute hatred, being encouraged by Juana. John tried to deprive his son of his constitutional right to act as lieutenant-general of Aragon during his father's absence. Charles's cause was taken up by the Aragonese, however, and the king's attempt to make his second wife lieutenant-general was set aside.
There followed the long Navarrese Civil War, with alternations of success and defeat, ending only with the death of the prince of Viana, perhaps by poison administered by his stepmother in 1461. The Catalans, who had adopted the cause of Charles and who had grievances of their own, called in a succession of foreign pretenders in a War against John II. His last years John spent contending with these. He was forced to pawn Roussillon, his possession on the north-east of the Pyrenees, to King Louis XI of France, who refused to part with it.
In his old age John was blinded by cataracts, but recovered his eyesight by the operation of couching conducted by his physician Abiathar Crescas, a Jew. The Catalan revolt was pacified in 1472, but John carried on a war, in which he was generally unfortunate, with his neighbor the French king till his death in 1479. He was succeeded by Ferdinand, his son by his second marriage, who was already married to Isabella I of Castile. With his death and son's accession to the throne of Aragon, the unification of Spain under one royal house began in earnest.
From his first marriage to Blanche of Navarre, John had the following children:
From his second marriage to Juana Enríquez, John had the following children:
|Ancestors of John II of Aragon|
Charles III, called the Noble, was King of Navarre from 1387 to his death and Count of Évreux from 1387 to 1404, when he exchanged it for the title Duke of Nemours. He spent his reign improving the infrastructure of his kingdom, restoring Navarre's pride after the dismal reign of his father, Charles the Bad, and mending strained relations with France.
Charles, Prince of Viana, sometimes called Charles IV of Navarre, was the son of King John II of Aragon and Queen Blanche I of Navarre.
The Kingdom of Aragon was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain. It should not be confused with the larger Crown of Aragon, that also included other territories — the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Majorca, and other possessions that are now part of France, Italy, and Greece — that were also under the rule of the King of Aragon, but were administered separately from the Kingdom of Aragon.
Henry IV of Castile, King of Castile, nicknamed "the Impotent", was the last of the weak late medieval kings of Castile. During Henry's reign, the nobles became more powerful and the nation became less centralised.
In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula. After the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 408, the history of medieval Spain begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arianist Visigoths (507–711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared in 587. Visigothic culture in Spain can be seen as a phenomenon of Late Antiquity as much as part of the Age of Migrations.
The House of Trastámara was a dynasty of kings in Spain, which first governed in Castile beginning in 1369 before expanding its rule into Aragon, Navarre and Naples. They were an illegitimate cadet line of the House of Ivrea.
Eleanor of Castile was an infanta of Castile and the Queen consort of Navarre.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715.
Juana Enriquez de Córdoba, 5th Lady of Casarrubios del Monte, a Castilian noblewoman, was Queen of Navarre from her marriage in April 1444 to King John II and Queen of Aragon from John II's accession in 1458 until her death. She married John three years after the death of his first wife, Queen Blanche I of Navarre.
Blanche I was Queen of Navarre from her father King Charles III of Navarre's death in 1425 until her own death. She served as Regent of Sicily in 1404–05 and in 1408–15.
The Prince of Viana is one of the titles of the heir of the Crown of Spain. Other associated titles originate from the rest of the kingdoms that formed Spain: Prince of Asturias, Prince of Girona, Duke of Montblanc, Count of Cervera and Lord of Balaguer.
Violant or Violante of Aragon, also known as Yolanda of Aragon, was Queen consort of Castile and León from 1252 to 1284 as the wife of King Alfonso X of Castile.
Ferdinand II was King of Aragon from 1479 and, by marriage, King of Castile from 1474, reigning over a dynastically unified Spain jointly with his wife Isabella I and going down in history as the first King of Spain.
The Catalan Civil War, also called the Catalonian Civil War or the War against John II, was a civil war in the Principality of Catalonia, then belonging to the Crown of Aragon, between 1462 and 1472. The two factions, the royalists who supported John II of Aragon and the Catalan constitutionalists, disputed the extent of royal rights in Catalonia. The French entered the war at times on the side on John II and at times with the Catalans. The Catalans, who at first rallied around John's son Charles of Viana, set up several pretenders in opposition to John during the course of the conflict. Barcelona remained their stronghold to the end: with its surrender the war came to a close. John, victorious, re-established the status quo ante.
The Navarrese Civil War of 1451–1455 pitted John II of the Kingdom of Navarre against his son and heir-apparent, Charles IV.
Blanche of France (1253–1323) was a daughter of King Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, and sister of King Philip III of France and Queen Isabella of Navarre.
Isabella of Navarre was the younger surviving daughter of Charles III of Navarre and his wife Eleanor of Castile. She was a member of the House of Évreux.
Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza was the second Admiral of Castile, Count of Melgar and Rueda, and second Lord of Medina del Rioseco. He was a son of Alonso Enríquez, the first admiral of Castile.
Louis of Beaumont was a noble in the Kingdom of Navarre. He was the 2nd Count of Lerín in southern Navarre, Marquis of Huesca, and Constable (condestable) of Navarre.
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John II of AragonBorn: 29 June 1397 Died: 20 January 1479
Alfonso the Magnanimous
| King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca,|
Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica;
Count of Barcelona
Ferdinand the Catholic
| Count of Roussillon and Cerdagne |
Louis the Prudent
| King of Navarre (jure uxoris)|
with Blanche I
Charles IV de jure
| King of Navarre de facto|
withholding the crown from
Charles IV and Blanche II
Title last held byMartin of Aragon
| Duke of Montblanc |
Ferdinand II of Aragon
James II of Urgell
| Lord of Balaguer |
Hugh of Cardona
| Duke of Gandia |
Charles of Viana