John I of France

Last updated

John I
JeanIposthume.JPG
Tomb effigy of John the Posthumous
King of France and Navarre
Reign15–20 November 1316
Predecessor Louis X and I
Successor Philip V and II
Regent Philip the Tall
Born15 November 1316
Paris, France
Died20 November 1316 (aged 5 days)
Paris, France
Burial
House Capet
Father Louis X of France
Mother Clementia of Hungary

John I (15–20 November 1316), called the Posthumous (French : Jean Ier le Posthume, Occitan : Joan Ièr lo Postume), was king of France and Navarre, as the posthumous son and successor of Louis X, for the five days he lived in 1316. He is the youngest person to be king of France, the only one to have borne that title from birth, and the only one to hold the title for his entire life. His reign is the shortest of any French king. [note 1] Although considered a king today, his status was not recognized until chroniclers and historians in later centuries began numbering John II, thereby acknowledging John I's brief reign. [1]

Contents

John reigned for five days under the regency of his uncle, Philip the Tall of France, until his death on 20 November 1316. His death ended the three centuries of father-to-son succession to the French throne. The infant king was buried in the Basilica of Saint-Denis. He was succeeded by his uncle, Philip, whose contested legitimacy led to the re-affirmation of the Salic law, which excluded women from the line of succession to the French throne.

Consequences

Funerary convoy of John I. Jean Ier Bier.jpg
Funerary convoy of John I.

The child mortality rate was very high in medieval Europe and John may have died from any number of causes, but rumours of poisoning spread immediately after his death (including one which said that he had been murdered with a pin by his aunt), [2] as many people benefited from it, and as John's father also died in strange circumstances. The cause of his death is still not known today. [3]

The premature death of John brought the first issue of succession of the Capetian dynasty. When Louis X, his father, died without a son to succeed him, it was the first time since Hugh Capet that the succession from father to son of the kings of France was interrupted. It was then decided to wait until his pregnant widow, Clementia of Hungary, delivered the child. The king's brother, Philip the Tall, was in charge of the regency of the kingdom against his uncle Charles of Valois. The birth of a male child was expected to give France its king. The problem of succession returned when John died five days after birth. Philip ascended the throne at the expense of John's four-year-old half-sister, Joan, daughter of Louis X and Margaret of Burgundy.

Supposed survival

Various legends circulated about this royal child. First, it was claimed that his uncle, Philip the Tall, had him poisoned. Then, a strange story a few decades later started the rumor that the little King John was not dead. During the captivity of John the Good (13561360), a man named Giannino Baglioni claimed to be John I and thus the heir to the throne. He tried to assert his rights, but was captured in Provence and died in captivity in 1363. [4]

In The Man Who Believed He Was King of France, Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri suggests that Cola di Rienzo manufactured false evidence that Baglioni was John the Posthumous in order to strengthen his own power in Rome by placing Baglioni on the French throne. Shortly after they met in 1354, di Rienzo was assassinated, and Baglioni waited two years to report his claims. He went to the Hungarian court where Louis I of Hungary, nephew of Clementia of Hungary, recognized him as the son of Louis and Clementia. In 1360, Baglioni went to Avignon, but Pope Innocent VI refused to receive him. After several attempts to gain recognition, he was arrested and imprisoned in Naples, where he died in 1363. [4]

Maurice Druon's historical novel series Les Rois maudits dramatises this theory and develops it as a major plotline throughout the series. In La Loi des mâles (1957), the infant John is temporarily switched with the child of Guccio Baglioni and Marie de Cressay as a decoy by Hugues de Bouville, former chamberlain to Philip IV and protector of the child, and his wife. He is subsequently poisoned by Mahaut, Countess of Artois, in order to place John's uncle (and Mahaut's son-in-law), Philippe, Count of Poitiers, on the throne. Marie is coerced into secretly raising John as her own son, named Giannino Baglioni. An adult Giannino was portrayed by Jean-Gérard Sandoz in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, and by Lorans Stoica in the 2005 adaptation.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, and a branch of the Robertians. It is among the largest and oldest royal houses in Europe and the world, and consists of Hugh Capet, the founder of the dynasty, and his male-line descendants, who ruled in France without interruption from 987 to 1792, and again from 1814 to 1848. The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328. That line was succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and then Bourbon, which ruled without interruption until the French Revolution abolished the monarchy in 1792. The Bourbons were restored in 1814 in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat, but had to vacate the throne again in 1830 in favor of the last Capetian monarch of France, Louis Philippe I, who belonged to the House of Orléans.

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor 14th century Holy Roman Emperor of the House of Luxembourg

Charles IV, King of Bohemia and the Holy Roman Emperor, had a long and successful reign. The empire he ruled from Prague expanded, and his subjects lived in peace and prosperity. When the emperor died, the whole empire mourned. More than 7.000 people accompanied him on his last procession. Also known as Charles of Luxembourg, born Wenceslaus, was the first King of Bohemia to become Holy Roman Emperor. He was a member of the House of Luxembourg from his father's side and the Czech House of Přemyslid from his mother's side; he emphasized the latter due to his lifelong affinity for the Czech side of his inheritance, and also because his direct ancestors in the Přemyslid line included two saints.

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The House of Bourbon is a European dynasty of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

House of Valois Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.

Philip V of Spain 18th-century King of Spain

Philip V was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 14 January 1724, and again from 6 September 1724 to his death in 1746. Philip instigated many important reforms in Spain, most especially the centralization of power of the monarchy and the suppression of regional privileges, via the Nueva Planta decrees, and restructuring of the administration of the Spanish Empire on the Iberian peninsula and its overseas regions. The sum of his two reigns, 45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history.

Salic law Major body of Frankish law governing all the Franks of Frankia under the rule of its kings during the Old Frankish Period

The Salic law, also called the Salian law, was the ancient Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis. The written text is in Latin and contains some of the earliest known instances of Old Dutch. It remained the basis of Frankish law throughout the early Medieval period, and influenced future European legal systems. The best-known tenet of the old law is the principle of exclusion of women from inheritance of thrones, fiefs and other property. The Salic laws were arbitrated by a committee appointed and empowered by the King of the Franks. Dozens of manuscripts dating from the sixth to eighth centuries and three emendations as late as the ninth century have survived.

Louis X of France King of France

Louis X, called the Quarrelsome, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn, was King of France from 1314 to 1316 and King of Navarre as Louis I, from 1305 until his death in 1316. He abolished slavery, emancipated serfs who could pay their freedom, and readmitted Jews in the kingdom.

Philip V of France King of France and Navarre

Philip V, known as the Tall, was Count of Poitiers and later King of France and Navarre. He reigned from 1316 to 1322.

Arthur I, Duke of Brittany Duke of Brittany

Arthur I was 4th Earl of Richmond and Duke of Brittany between 1196 and 1203. He was the posthumous son of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, and Constance, Duchess of Brittany. His father, Geoffrey, was the son of Henry II, King of England.

Joan II of Navarre Queen of Navarre

Joan II, also known as Joan of France, was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only surviving child of Louis X of France, the King of France and Navarre, and Margaret of Burgundy. Joan's paternity was dubious because her mother was involved in a scandal, but Louis X declared her his legitimate daughter before he died in 1316. However, the French lords were opposed to the idea of a female monarch and elected Louis X's brother, Philip V, king. The Navarrese noblemen also paid homage to Philip. Joan's maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy, and uncle, Odo IV of Burgundy, made attempts to secure the counties of Champagne and Brie to Joan, but the French royal troops defeated her supporters. After Philip V married his daughter to Odo and granted him two counties as her dowry, Odo renounced Joan's claim to Champagne and Brie in exchange for a compensation in March 1318. Joan married Philip of Évreux, who was also a member of the French royal family.

Louis, Dauphin of France (son of Louis XIV) Dauphin of France

Louis was Dauphin of France as the eldest son of King Louis XIV and his spouse, Maria Theresa of Spain. He became known as the Grand Dauphin after the birth of his own son, Louis, Duke of Burgundy, the Petit Dauphin. As he died before his father, he never became king. His grandson became Louis XV of France.

<i>The Accursed Kings</i>

The Accursed Kings is a series of historical novels by French author Maurice Druon about the French monarchy in the 14th century. Published between 1955 and 1977, the series has been adapted as a miniseries twice for television in France.

House of Capet Rulers of the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328

The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, also called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian". The Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings". The name "Capet" derives from the nickname given to Hugh, the first Capetian king.

Robert III of Artois

Robert III of Artois was Lord of Conches-en-Ouche, of Domfront, and of Mehun-sur-Yèvre, and in 1309 he received as appanage the county of Beaumont-le-Roger in restitution for the County of Artois, which he claimed. He was also briefly Earl of Richmond in 1341 after the death of John III, Duke of Brittany.

Margaret I, Countess of Burgundy Countess of Burgundy and Artois

Margaret I was a Capetian princess who ruled as countess of Burgundy and Artois from 1361 until her death. She was also countess of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel by marriage to Louis I of Flanders, and regent of Flanders during the minority of her son, Louis II, in 1346.

Clementia of Hungary Queen consort of France and Navarre

Clementia of Hungary was queen of France and Navarre as the second wife of King Louis X.

Drugeth family French-Hungarian noble family

The Drugeths were a noble family of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 14th to 17th centuries whose possessions were located in the northeastern parts of the kingdom. The ancestors of the family left Apulia for Hungary during the reign of King Charles I. Several members of the family held high offices in the first half of the 14th century and later, when the Drugeth estates were the largest in all of Hungary. The family continued to be important until the male line died out in 1691.

Tour de Nesle affair

The Tour de Nesle affair was a scandal amongst the French royal family in 1314, during which Margaret, Blanche, and Joan, the daughters-in-law of King Philip IV, were accused of adultery. The accusations were apparently started by Philip's daughter, Isabella. The Tour de Nesle was a tower in Paris where much of the adultery was said to have occurred. The scandal led to torture, executions and imprisonments for the princesses' lovers and the imprisonment of the princesses, with lasting consequences for the final years of the House of Capet.

This article covers the mechanism by which the French throne passed from the establishment of the Frankish Kingdom in 486 to the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870.

John I Drugeth

John (I) Drugeth was an influential Neapolitan–Hungarian baron, an early member of the powerful Drugeth family. He was a confidant of the Capetian House of Anjou since his childhood. While his younger brother Philip escorted his lord, the young pretender Charles of Anjou to the Kingdom of Hungary, John entered the service of Clementia, Queen consort of France and Navarre.

References

  1. Giesey, Ralph E. (2007). Le rôle méconnu de la Loi Salique: La succession royale, XIVe-XVIe siècles. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
  2. Magnificent Monarchs (Fact Attack series) p. 23 by Ian Locke; published by Macmillan in 1999; ISBN   978-0330-374965
  3. "Histoire et Secrets – découvrir l'histoire de France et du monde – Jean Ier : un règne de quatre jours". histoire-et-secrets.com (in French). Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  4. 1 2 Carpegna Falconieri, Tommaso di (19 September 2008). The Man Who Believed He Was King of France . Translated by William McCuaig. University of Chicago Press. pp.  224. ISBN   978-0-226-14525-9. The Man Who Believed He Was King of France.
  1. Louis XIX, who reigned for 20 minutes in 1830, had a shorter reign, but the legitimacy of his succession is disputed.

Further reading

John I of France
Born: 15 November 1316 Died: 20 November 1316
Regnal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Louis the Quarreler
King of France and Navarre
15 November 20 November 1316
Succeeded by
Philip the Tall