John Jacob Astor IV

Last updated

John Jacob Astor IV
John Jacob Astor IVb.jpg
Astor in 1895
Born(1864-07-13)July 13, 1864
DiedApril 15, 1912(1912-04-15) (aged 47)
RMS Titanic, North Atlantic Ocean
Resting place Trinity Church Cemetery
Education St Paul's School
Alma mater Harvard University
Net worthIncrease2.svg US$87 million (equivalent to $2.26 billion in 2018) [1]
Spouse(s)
Ava Lowle Willing
(m. 1891;div. 1910)

Madeleine Talmage Force
(m. 1911;his death 1912)
Children Vincent Astor
Ava Alice Muriel Astor
John Jacob Astor VI
Parent(s) William Backhouse Astor, Jr.
Caroline Webster Schermerhorn
RelativesSee Astor family

John Jacob "Jack" Astor IV (July 13, 1864 – April 15, 1912) was an American businessman, real estate builder, investor, inventor, writer, lieutenant colonel in the Spanish–American War, and a prominent member of the Astor family.

Spanish–American War Conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States

The Spanish–American War was an armed conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana harbor in Cuba, leading to U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The war led to emergence of U.S. predominance in the Caribbean region, and resulted in U.S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. That led to U.S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately in the Philippine–American War.

The Astor family achieved prominence in business, society, and politics in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 19th and 20th centuries. With ancestral roots in the Italian Alps, the Astors settled in Germany, first appearing in North America in the 18th century with John Jacob Astor, one of the wealthiest people in history.

Contents

Astor died in the sinking of RMS Titanic during the early hours of April 15, 1912. [2] Astor was the richest passenger aboard the RMS Titanic and was thought to be among the richest people in the world at that time with a net worth of nearly $87 million when he died (equivalent to $2.26 billion in 2018). [1] [3]

Sinking of the RMS <i>Titanic</i> Maritime disaster that occurred on the night of Sunday 14 April through the morning of Monday 15 April 1912

RMS Titanic sank in the early morning of 15 April 1912 in the North Atlantic Ocean, four days into the ship's maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. The largest ocean liner in service at the time, Titanic had an estimated 2,224 people on board when she struck an iceberg at around 23:40 on Sunday, 14 April 1912. Her sinking two hours and forty minutes later at 02:20 on Monday, 15 April, resulted in the deaths of more than 1,500 people, making it one of history's deadliest marine disasters during peacetime.

Early life, education, and family

John Jacob Astor IV in 1909. John Jacob Astor 1909.jpg
John Jacob Astor IV in 1909.
John Jacob Astor as Henry IV of France John-Jacob-Astor1.jpg
John Jacob Astor as Henry IV of France

John Jacob Astor IV was born on July 13, 1864 at his parents' country estate of Ferncliff in Rhinebeck, New York. He was the youngest of five children and only son of businessman, collector, and race horse breeder/owner William Backhouse Astor, Jr. and socialite Caroline Webster "Lina" Schermerhorn. His four elder sisters were Emily, Helen, Charlotte, and Caroline ("Carrie").

Carrie Astor Wilson

Caroline Schermerhorn Astor Wilson was an American heiress and prominent member of New York society.

He was a great-grandson of fur-trader John Jacob Astor and Sarah Cox Todd, whose fortune made the Astor family one of the wealthiest in the United States. Astor's paternal grandfather William Backhouse Astor, Sr. was a prominent real estate businessman. Through his paternal grandmother, Margaret Alida Rebecca Armstrong, Astor was also a great-grandson of Senator John Armstrong, Jr. and Alida Livingston of the Livingston family. His maternal grandparents were Abraham Schermerhorn, a wealthy merchant, and socialite Helen Van Courtlandt White. He was also a nephew of financier and philanthropist John Jacob Astor III, and grandnephew of occasional poet John Jacob Astor, Jr. His sister Helen's husband was diplomat James Roosevelt "Rosey" Roosevelt, half-brother of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the Roosevelt family. Another sister, Carrie, a noted philanthropist, was the wife of Marshall Orme Wilson (brother of banker Richard Thornton Wilson, Jr. and socialite Grace (née Wilson) Vanderbilt). Astor was also a first cousin of William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor, with whom his mother had a notorious feud resulting in William's removal to England.

John Jacob Astor German-American businessman

John Jacob Astor was a German–American businessman, merchant, real estate mogul and investor who mainly made his fortune in fur trade and by investing in real estate in or around New York City.

Livingston family

The Livingston family of New York is a prominent family that migrated from Scotland to the Dutch Republic, and then to the Province of New York in the 17th century. Descended from the 4th Lord Livingston, its members included signers of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. Several members were Lords of Livingston Manor and Clermont Manor, located along the Hudson River in 18th-century eastern New York.

Abraham Schermerhorn

Abraham Schermerhorn was a wealthy New York City merchant who was also prominent in social affairs. He was the father of Caroline Schermerhorn Astor, known as the Mrs. Astor.

Astor attended St Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire and later attended Harvard College. [4] Astor went by the name "Jack". His ungainly appearance and the perception that he was an aimless dilettante led one newspaper to give him the name "Jack Ass-tor". [5] [6]

St. Pauls School (Concord, New Hampshire) boarding school in New Hampshire, United States

St. Paul's School is a highly selective college-preparatory, coeducational boarding school in Concord, New Hampshire, affiliated with the Episcopal Church. The 2,000-acre (8.1 km2) New Hampshire campus currently serves 534 students, who come from all over the United States and the world.

Concord, New Hampshire capital of New Hampshire

Concord is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Hampshire and the county seat of Merrimack County. As of the 2010 census, its population was 42,695.

Harvard College main undergraduate school of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world.

Career

Among Astor's accomplishments was A Journey in Other Worlds (1894), a science fiction novel about life in the year 2000 on the planets Saturn and Jupiter. [7] He also patented several inventions, including a bicycle brake in 1898, a "vibratory disintegrator" used to produce gas from peat moss, and a pneumatic road-improver, and he helped develop a turbine engine.

A Journey in Other Worlds: A Romance of the Future is a science fiction novel by John Jacob Astor IV, published in 1894.

Saturn Sixth planet from the Sun in the Solar System

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth. It has only one-eighth the average density of Earth, but with its larger volume Saturn is over 95 times more massive. Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture; its astronomical symbol (♄) represents the god's sickle.

Jupiter Fifth planet from the Sun in the Solar System

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants; the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants. Jupiter has been known to astronomers since antiquity. It is named after the Roman god Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows, and making it on average the third-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.

Like generations of Astors before him, he also made millions in real estate. In 1897, Astor built the Astoria Hotel, "the world's most luxurious hotel", [8] in New York City, adjoining the Waldorf Hotel owned by Astor's cousin and rival, William. The complex became known as the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. The Waldorf-Astoria would later be the host location to the U.S. inquiries into the sinking of the RMS Titanic, on which Astor died. [4]

Military service

From 1894 to 1896, he was a colonel on the military staff of New York Governor Levi P. Morton. [9] Shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in 1898, Astor personally financed a volunteer artillery unit known as the "Astor Battery", which saw service in the Philippines. In May 1898, Astor was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Volunteers and served as an officer on the staff of Major General William Shafter in Cuba, during the Santiago Campaign. He was later given a brevet (honorary promotion) to colonel in recognition of his services. He was mustered out of the Volunteer Army in November 1898. [10]

During the war, he allowed his yacht Nourmahal to be used by the U.S. government. He appeared in the films President McKinley's Inspection of Camp Wikoff (1898) and Col. John Jacob Astor, Staff and Veterans of the Spanish–American War (1899). [4] As a result of his military service, Astor was entitled to the Spanish Campaign Medal. After the war, Astor was often referred to as "Colonel Astor."[ citation needed ]

Astor was a member of several military and hereditary societies. He was an early member of the New York Society of Colonial Wars and was assigned membership number 138. He was also a member of the Military Order of Foreign Wars, Society of the Army of Santiago de Cuba, and the Society of the American Wars of the United States.[ citation needed ]

Personal life

Astor and his second wife Madeleine Talmage Force. JJAstorIV.jpg
Astor and his second wife Madeleine Talmage Force.

On February 17, 1891, [11] Astor married socialite Ava Lowle Willing, a daughter of Edward Shippen Willing and Alice Barton. The couple had two children:

Astor and Willing divorced in November 1909. Compounding the scandal of their divorce was Astor's announcement that he would remarry. [4] At the age of 47, Astor married 18-year-old socialite Madeleine Talmage Force, the sister of real estate businesswoman and socialite Katherine Emmons Force. Their parents were William Hurlbut Force and Katherine Arvilla Talmage. Astor and Force were married in his mother's ballroom at Beechwood, the family's Newport, Rhode Island, mansion. There was also much controversy over their 29-year age difference. [12] His son Vincent despised Force, [13] yet he served as best man at his father's wedding. [14] The couple took an extended honeymoon in Europe and Egypt to wait for the gossip to calm down. Among the few Americans who did not spurn him at this time was Margaret Brown, later fictionalized as The Unsinkable Molly Brown . She accompanied the Astors to Egypt and France. After receiving a call to return to the United States, Brown accompanied the couple back home aboard RMS Titanic. [4]

Residence

Astor's estate, "Ferncliff", north of the town center of Rhinebeck, New York, with a mile and a half of Hudson River frontage in the picturesque Lower Hudson River Valley, had been purchased piecemeal by his father in the mid-19th century; Astor was born there. [15] His father's Italianate house of 1864 was partly rebuilt in 1904 to designs by Stanford White of McKim, Mead, and White, retaining its conservative exterior, and a sports pavilion in Louis XVI style was added. [16] The "Casino" or "Astor Courts" reportedly housed the first residential indoor swimming pool in the U.S., an indoor tennis court with vaulting of Guastavino tile, and guest bedrooms; in the lower level were a bowling alley and a shooting range. [17] The estate, reduced to 50 acres (200,000 m2) and renamed "Astor Courts", eventually became a wedding venue. Chelsea Clinton was wed there on July 31, 2010.

Titanic

The New York Herald report of the sinking of Titanic. Most reports featured the Astors in the headlines. Titanic-New York Herald front page 2.jpeg
The New York Herald report of the sinking of Titanic. Most reports featured the Astors in the headlines.
Astor with his wife, Madeleine Force Astor, and their Airedale, Kitty. Madeleine JackAstor.jpg
Astor with his wife, Madeleine Force Astor, and their Airedale, Kitty.

While traveling, Madeleine Force Astor became pregnant. Wanting the child born in the U.S., the Astors boarded Titanic on her maiden voyage to New York. They embarked in Cherbourg, France, in first class and were the wealthiest passengers aboard. Accompanying the Astors were Astor's valet, Victor Robbins; Force's maid, Rosalie Bidois; and her nurse, Caroline Louise Endres. They also took their pet Airedale, Kitty. The Astors were deeply fond of their dog and had come close to losing her on a previous trip when she went missing in Egypt. Kitty did not survive the sinking. [18] [19] A short while after Titanic hit the iceberg that caused her to sink, Astor informed his wife of the collision but told her the damage did not appear to be serious. Some time later, as the ship's lifeboats for first class were being manned, Astor remained unperturbed; he and his family played with the mechanical horses in the gymnasium. At some point Astor is thought to have sliced the lining of an extra lifebelt with a pen knife to show his wife its contents, either to prove they were not of use or to reassure her that they were. He even declared: "We are safer here than in that little boat." [20] [4]

When Second Officer Charles Lightoller later arrived on A Deck to finish loading Lifeboat 4, Astor helped his wife, with her maid and nurse, into it. He then asked if he might join his wife because she was in "a delicate condition"; however, Lightoller told him men were not to be allowed to board until all the women and children had been loaded. According to Titanic passenger Archibald Gracie IV, "She was lifted up through the window, and her husband helped her on the other side, and when she got in, her husband was on one side of this window and I was on the other side, at the next window. I heard Mr Astor ask the second officer whether he would not be allowed to go aboard this boat to protect his wife. He said, "No, sir, no man is allowed on this boat or any of the boats until the ladies are off." Mr Astor then said (something to the effect of) "Well, tell me the number of this boat so I may find her afterwards" and was told "Number 4." [21] According to child survivor Betty, as quoted on Children on the Titanic (2014), Astor was boarding the final lifeboat with his pregnant wife when he saw two scared children on deck and stepped aside, giving his place to them. A conflicting news article posted in the Chicago Record Herald tells of Astor placing his wife into the final lifeboat then ordering Ida Sophia Hippach and her 17-year-old daughter Jean Gertrude to take the final two places before the boat set sail. [22]

After Lifeboat 4 was lowered at 1:55 am, Astor is said to have stood alone while others tried to free the remaining collapsible boats; [4] he was last seen alive on the starboard bridge wing, smoking a cigarette with Jacques Futrelle. A mere half hour later, the ship disappeared beneath the ocean. Survivor Philip Mock claimed to have seen Astor in the water clinging to a raft with William Thomas Stead. "Their feet became frozen," said Mock, "and they were forced to release their hold. Both were drowned." [23] Madeleine Force Astor, her nurse, and her maid survived. Colonel Astor, his valet, Victor Robbins, and Futrelle did not.

In the aftermath, ships were sent out to retrieve the bodies from the site of the sinking; of the 1,517 passengers and crew who perished in the sinking, only 333 bodies were ever recovered. Astor's body was recovered on April 22 by the cable ship Mackay-Bennett. [4] Astor was identified by the initials sewn on the label of his jacket. Among the items found on him was a gold pocket watch which his son Vincent claimed and wore the rest of his life. [24]

NO. 124 – MALE – ESTIMATED AGE 50 – LIGHT HAIR & MOUSTACHE.

CLOTHING – Blue serge suit; blue handkerchief with "A.V."; belt with gold buckle; brown boots with red rubber soles; brown flannel shirt; "J.J.A." on back of collar.

EFFECTS – Gold watch; cuff links, gold with diamond; diamond ring with three stones; £225 in English notes; $2440 in notes; £5 in gold; 7s. in silver; 5 ten franc pieces; gold pencil; pocketbook.

FIRST CLASS. NAME- J.J. ASTOR IV [4]

Astor was buried in Trinity Church Cemetery in Manhattan, New York City. Four months after Titanic sank, Madeleine Astor gave birth to his second son, John Jacob "Jakey" Astor VI. [4] [25]

Estate

Astor left $69 million of his $85 million estate (equivalent to approximately $1.75 billion in 2017 dollars) to Vincent. [26] This value included his estate in Rhinebeck and his yacht, the Noma . To Madeleine Force Astor, he left $100,000 as an outright bequest as well as a $5 million trust fund from which she was provided an income. Additionally she was given the use of his New York City mansion at 65th Street & Fifth Avenue and all its furnishings, his Newport mansion Beechwood and all its furnishings, pick of whichever luxury limousine she wanted from his collection, and five of his prized horses—as long as she did not remarry. His daughter Ava (who lived with her mother, also named Ava) received a $10 million trust fund. Upon turning 21, John Jacob VI inherited the $3 million trust fund Astor had set aside for him. [27]

Legacy

According to Walter Lord, "After [the Titanic] sank, the New York American broke the news on April 16 with a lead devoted almost entirely to John Jacob Astor; at the end it mentioned that 1800 others were also lost." [28] Astor's prominence led to the creation of many exaggerated and unsubstantiated accounts about his actions during the sinking of the Titanic. One story alleges that he opened the ship's kennel and released the dogs, including his own beloved Airedale, Kitty; in another, he placed a woman's hat on a boy to make sure the child was able to get into a lifeboat. Another legend claims that after the ship hit the iceberg, he quipped, "I asked for ice, but this is ridiculous." These stories appeared in newspapers, magazines, and even books about the sinking. In reality, none of the claims about Astor's actions were substantiated, as nobody who recognized him survived other than the women who boarded lifeboats relatively early on. [29] Wade wrote that the ice joke is almost certainly apocryphal, as Astor was not known for making jokes, and that the story about the hat (like many other "survivor stories" published shortly after the sinking) may have been invented by the reporter. [29] Another legend is that Astor was crushed to death by one of the ship's falling funnels. [30] However, this legend is not true. [31]

Astor's fame has made him a frequent character in films about the Titanic. German actor Karl Schönböck played Astor in the 1943 Nazi propaganda film Titanic . William Johnstone played Astor in the 1953 film Titanic , and in the 1997 version of Titanic he was played by Eric Braeden. In the 1996 miniseries, he was played by Canadian-born actor Scott Hylands. Astor was also portrayed by David Janssen in the 1979 film S.O.S. Titanic . Perennially, in the town of Astoria, Oregon (so named for Astor's patrilineal great-grandfather), he is portrayed by a local amateur actor in street corner vignettes. He was played by Miles Richardson in the 2012 Titanic miniseries. In April 2012, Astor was portrayed by his great-grandson Gregory Todd Astor in "Titanic the Musical". [32]

Related Research Articles

Caroline Schermerhorn Astor American socialite

Caroline Webster "Lina" Schermerhorn was a prominent American socialite of the second half of the 19th century who led the Four Hundred. Famous for being referred to later in life as "the Mrs. Astor" or simply "Mrs. Astor", she was the wife of businessman, racehorse breeder/owner, and yachtsman William Backhouse Astor Jr.. She was the mother of five children, including Colonel John Jacob Astor IV, who perished on the RMS Titanic. Through her marriage, she was a prominent member of the Astor family and matriarch of the male line of American Astors.

John Jacob Astor III Union Army officer and capitalist

John Jacob Astor III was an American financier, philanthropist and a soldier during the American Civil War. He was a prominent member of the Astor family, becoming the wealthiest family member in his generation and the founder of their English branch.

Vincent Astor Businessman and Philanthropist

William Vincent Astor was an American businessman, philanthropist, and member of the prominent Astor family.

William Waldorf Astor American politician

William Waldorf "Willy" Astor, 1st Viscount Astor, was a wealthy American-born attorney, politician, businessman, and newspaper publisher. He moved with his family to England in 1891, became a British subject in 1899, and was made a peer as Baron Astor in 1916 and Viscount Astor in 1917 for his contributions to war charities. He was a prominent member of the Astor family.

Trinity Church Cemetery cemetery in Manhattan with 3 locations

Trinity Church Cemetery consists of three separate burial grounds associated with Trinity Church in New York City. The first was established in the Churchyard located at 74 Trinity Place at Wall Street and Broadway. In 1842, the church, running out of space in its churchyard, established Trinity Church Cemetery and Mausoleum in Upper Manhattan between Broadway and Riverside Drive, at the Chapel of the Intercession, formerly the location of John James Audubon's estate. A third burial place is the Churchyard of St. Paul's Chapel.

John Jacob Astor VI American socialite, shipping businessman, and unborn Titanic survivor

John Jacob "Jakey" Astor VI was an American socialite, shipping businessman, and member of the Astor family. He was dubbed the "Titanic Baby" for his affiliation with the RMS Titanic; Astor was born four months after his father, Colonel John Jacob Astor IV, died in the sinking of the Titanic; his pregnant mother Madeleine Astor survived the sinking.

Madeleine Astor American socialite and Titanic survivor

Madeleine Talmage Force Fiermonte was an American socialite and a survivor of the RMS Titanic. She was also the second wife and widow of businessman John Jacob Astor IV.

<i>S.O.S. Titanic</i> 1979 television movie directed by William Hale

S.O.S. Titanic is a British -American 1979 television movie that depicts the doomed 1912 maiden voyage from the perspective of three distinct groups of passengers in First, Second, and Third Class. The script was written by James Costigan and directed by William Hale. It is the first Titanic film filmed and released in color.

Jack Thayer Survivor of the RMS Titanic

John Borland "Jack" Thayer III was a first-class passenger on RMS Titanic who survived and provided several first-hand accounts of the disaster. He was 17 years old when the ship sank, and was one of only a handful of passengers to survive jumping into the water.

Ava Lowle Willing American socialite

Ava Lowle Willing was an American socialite. She was the first wife of Colonel John Jacob Astor IV and later married Thomas Lister, 4th Baron Ribblesdale.

Passengers of the RMS <i>Titanic</i> Wikimedia list article

A total of 2,208 people sailed on the maiden voyage of the RMS Titanic, the second of the White Star Line's Olympic-class ocean liners, from Southampton, England, to New York City. Partway through the voyage, the ship struck an iceberg and sank in the early morning of 15 April 1912, resulting in the deaths of over 1,500 people, including about 815 of the passengers.

Ava Alice Muriel Astor American heiress

Ava Alice Muriel Astor was an American heiress, socialite, and member of the Astor family. She was the daughter of John Jacob Astor IV and Ava Lowle Willing, and sister of Vincent Astor and half-sister of John Jacob Astor VI.

William Backhouse Astor Jr. American businessman, yachtsman, and racehorse owner/breeder

William Backhouse Astor Jr. was a businessman, racehorse breeder/owner, and yachtsman who was a prominent member of the Astor family. Astor's elder brother financier and philanthropist John Jacob Astor III became head of the English line of Astors, and William Jr. was head of the male American line of Astors with his wife, Caroline Schermerhorn Astor, serving as the head of New York society's "Four Hundred" during the Gilded Age.

Katherine Emmons Force real estate businesswoman and socialite

Katherine Emmons Force Spencer was an American real estate investor and socialite. She was a member of the zoning board for Newport, Rhode Island.

"How the Mail Steamer Went Down in Mid Atlantic by a Survivor" is a short story that was published in the 22 March 1886, issue of the Pall Mall Gazette by the English investigative journalist and newspaper editor William Thomas Stead. Stead included this editorial comment: "This is exactly what might take place and will take place if liners are sent to sea short of boats".

Astor is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Dickinson Bishop Titanic survivor

Dickinson H. Bishop was an American businessman who traveled on board the ill-fated maiden voyage of the RMS Titanic while on his honeymoon with bride Helen, née Walton. They both survived the sinking of the Titanic on 15 April 1912.

Waldorf–Astoria (1893–1929) Former hotel in Manhattan, New York City

The Waldorf–Astoria originated as two hotels, built side-by-side by feuding relatives on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan. Built in 1893 and expanded in 1897, the Waldorf–Astoria was razed in 1929 to make way for construction of the Empire State Building. Its successor, the current Waldorf Astoria New York, was built on Park Avenue in 1931.

Ferncliff Forest

Ferncliff Forest is a 200-acre (0.81 km2) old-growth forest preserve of deciduous and hemlock trees located in Rhinebeck, a town in the northern part of Dutchess County, New York, USA. The property was bought by John Jacob Astor IV in 1900 and remained in the Astor family until 1963, when it was donated as a forest preserve and game refuge. The preserve is maintained by Ferncliff Forest LLC, a private, non-profit organization. Towers on the property were used for map-making, surveillance for President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's home during World War II, as well as recreational sight-seeing. Visitors can camp and hike the four miles (6.4 km) of trails free-of-charge.

John Henry Dick was an American naturalist and wildlife artist who specialized in birds.

References

  1. 1 2 Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  2. "Noted Men On The Lost Titanic. Col. Jacob Astor, with His Wife. Isidor Straus and Wife, and Benj. Guggenheim Aboard". The New York Times. April 16, 1912. Retrieved 2013-12-10. Following are sketches of a few of the well-known persons among the 1,300 passengers on the lost Titanic. The fate of most of them at this time is, of course, not known. Col. John Jacob Astor and Mrs. Astor, Isidor Straus and Mrs. Straus, J. Bruce Ismay, Managing Director of the White Star Line: Benjamin Guggenheim, and Frank D. Millet, the artist, are perhaps the most widely known of the passengers. ... .
  3. "Col. John Jacob Astor left estate worth $86,966,611". Spartanburg Herald. South Carolina. Associated Press. June 14, 1913. p. 1.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "John Jacob Astor IV". Encyclopedia Titanica . Retrieved 2010-10-27. Colonel John Jacob Astor IV was born in Rhinebeck, New York on July 13th, 1864 the son of William Astor and great-grandson of John Jacob Astor the fur trader. Astor was educated at St. Paul's School, Concord and later went to Harvard. After a period of travelling abroad (1888–91) he returned to the United States to manage the family fortune. He had homes at 840 Fifth Avenue, New York and at Ferncliff, Rhinebeck, New York. ... .
  5. "An Age of Splendor, and Hotel One-Upmanship". The New York Times . Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. June 18, 2006. His younger cousin, known as Jack, enrolled in Harvard, left without a degree, traveled and joined 'about two dozen clubs.' He tinkered with inventions, married unwisely and, inspired by Jules Verne, wrote a work of science fiction. Often ridiculed in the press, he bore the sobriquet 'Jack Ass.'
  6. William Alan Morrison, Waldorf Astoria, Arcadia Publishing - 2014, page 29
  7. Foster, John Wilson (2002). The Age of Titanic: Cross-Currents in Anglo-American Culture.
  8. Turkel, Stanley (4 April 2007). "The Original Waldorf/Astoria Hotel". hotelinteractive.com.
  9. Wikisource-logo.svg  Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Astor, John Jacob. An American capitalist, inventor, and soldier"  . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  10. The New York Times (April 16, 1912).
  11. "Colonel John Jacob Astor IV". Titanic History Website.
  12. "Titanic Survivor Stories - Madeleine Talmage Force Astor". rmstitanic.net. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  13. "Part II: Vincent, the Astor Who Gave Away the Money". NewYorkSocialDaily. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  14. "Col. Astor Weds Madeleine Force". encyclopedia titanica. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  15. Automobile Club of America (November 12, 1910). "Little Journeys to the Homes of Members: Ferncliff". The Club Journal (2). p. 1002ff.
  16. Goldberger, Paul (1985). A Monograph of the works of McKim, Mead & White, 1879–1915.
  17. "About". AstorCourts.com. Archived from the original on September 14, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2011.
  18. "Fate of the pets who sailed on the Titanic". Lostandfond.co.uk. October 2, 2010. Archived from the original on March 21, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2011.
  19. "John Jacob Astor IV". titanic-passengers.com. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
  20. Lord 1976, pp. 73–4.
  21. "Online reference". United States Senate Inquiry into the Titanic.
  22. "Chicagoans saved by Astor - Chicago Record Herald". Encyclopedia Titanica. 22 April 1912. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  23. "Stead and Astor cling to Raft". Worcester Telegram. April 20, 1912.
  24. Belcher, David (28 November 2013). "Tracing a Precious Relic of the Titanic". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  25. "Son for Mrs. Astor. Named for Father. Both Mother and Baby Said to be Very Well, the Child Strong and Well Formed". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. August 15, 1912. Retrieved June 22, 2008. Baby is the Sixth John Jacob Astor. Mrs. Madeleine Force Astor, survivor of the Titanic. ... .
  26. "Astor Bequests Have All Been Paid". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  27. "Astor Estate Goes To Son". The Evening News. 7 May 1912.
  28. https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/ice-so-funny/
  29. 1 2 Wade, Wyn Craig. Titanic: End of a Dream. New York City: Penguin Books. pp. 70–73. ISBN   978-0140166910.
  30. National Geographic, December 1985, Vol. 168, No.6 page 712
  31. "The Two Deaths of John Jacob Astor -George Behe's "Titanic" Tidbits".
  32. Hallenbeck, Brent (March 20, 2012). "Born to Play the Role". The Burlington Free Press. Archived from the original on December 4, 2013.