John MacRae-Gilstrap

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Lieutenant Colonel John MacRae-Gilstrap (31 December 1861 – January 1937) was a British army officer and a senior figure of the Clan Macrae. He contested a rival claim to the chiefship of the clan, and in 1912 he purchased and subsequently restored the Macrae stronghold of Eilean Donan Castle on Loch Duich in the west of Scotland.



John MacRae was the second son of Duncan MacRae and Grace Stewart. He was born in the Punjab where his father had served as a surgeon with the East India Company during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The family later returned to Scotland, where Duncan MacRae took up residence at Kames Castle in Bute, becoming Deputy Lieutenant of Buteshire; his older brother Stuart, though also born in India and Scottish by heritage, later played international football for England in the 1880s. [1] [2] His grandfather, Major Colin MacRae, also served in India with the 75th Highlanders. John's great-great-grandfather was John MacRae of Conchra, one of the "Four Johns of Scotland" who were killed fighting for the Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715. [3]

Military career

An incident at the Battle of Tamai, eastern Sudan, March 13, 1884 by Godfrey Douglas Giles Battle of Tamai.jpg
An incident at the Battle of Tamai, eastern Sudan, March 13, 1884 by Godfrey Douglas Giles

In 1883, MacRae joined the 1st battalion The Royal Highland Regiment (The Black Watch) as a lieutenant. The following year he was posted to Egypt where the regiment was engaged in the Mahdist War, and took part in the battle of Tamai (13 March 1884). In September he was placed in charge of a division of boats as part of the Nile Expedition under General Earle. The expedition was unsuccessful in its aim of relieving the Siege of Khartoum, and was attacked at Kirbekan in February 1885. MacRae was mentioned in despatches after the engagement, in which the Mahdists were defeated. He also received the Egypt Medal and a bronze Khedive's Star. [3]

The British subsequently withdrew from Sudan, and MacRae was sent with his regiment to Malta, returning to Perth in 1889. The following year he was promoted to Captain, [3] and in 1901 he was appointed to the Royal Company of Archers, the sovereign's ceremonial bodyguard in Scotland. [4]

Marriage to the Gilstraps

Ballimore House Ballimore House Otter Ferry - - 1273153.jpg
Ballimore House

On 4 March 1889, John MacRae married Isabella Mary Gilstrap, second daughter of the late George Gilstrap of Newark, at St Peter's, Eaton Square, London. [4] Isabella was the niece and co-heiress of Sir William Gilstrap, Bt., a wealthy maltster and philanthropist. On Sir William's death in 1896, under the terms of his will, John MacRae took the additional surname of Gilstrap and assumed a senior role in the family firm of Gilstrap, Earp & Co., then the largest malt-producing business in Britain. [4] [5] In 1897, the MacRae-Gilstraps were living at 65 Northgate, Newark, and in 1899 they purchased Ballimore House at Otter Ferry, Taynuilt, Argyll. [6]

Chiefship of Clan Macrae

John MacRae-Gilstrap was a senior member of the MacRae family of Conchra, descended from Alexander MacRae who in 1677 received a wadset (mortgage) of the lands of Conchra on Loch Long, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of Eilean Donan. [7] The MacRaes of Conchra are one of several branches of the clan tracing their ancestry back to Fionnla Dubh mac Gillechriosd, the reputed progenitor of the Clan MacRae, the other principal families being MacRae of Inverinate, MacRae of Torlysich, and the Clann Ian Charrich, who claim descent from an even earlier ancestor. [8]

Each of these principal families has claimed seniority over the others, and although the Rev. Alexander MacRae's History of the Clan MacRae, first published in 1899, places the Inverinate branch in the senior position, the matter continued to be debated. [8] Regardless of seniority, no MacRae had ever been formally recognised as chief of the clan. The MacRaes were closely allied to the Clan Mackenzie, serving as the personal bodyguard to their chief, Mackenzie of Kintail (later the Earl of Seaforth), and acquiring the nickname "Mackenzie's Shirt of Mail". [9]

In 1909, Sir Colin MacRae of Inverinate submitted a petition to Lord Lyon, the heraldic authority in Scotland, claiming the right to use a historical coat of arms as Chief of the Name of MacRae, and stating that his family had long been unofficially acknowledged as chiefs. John MacRae-Gilstrap had previously placed a "caveat" with the Lord Lyon, requesting that "should any application be presented in the Court of The Lord Lyon for matriculation of arms as Chief of The Clan MacRae", then he would be notified and offered the opportunity to speak. [10]

The petition was duly heard at the Lyon Court, at which Macrae-Gilstrap was challenged as to his right to appear, since he was not the most senior representative of his own family. He responded that "I am here to protect myself and to say that I will not acknowledge the Inverinate branch in any shape or form as the Chief of the Clan MacRae and as my Chief." [10] He continued by maintaining that "all the MacRae families are more or less on an equality", [10] and argued that the MacRaes were a clan "which had no chief other than Seaforth". [11] He also denied the seniority of the Inverinate family despite apparently conceding their seniority on a previous occasion, whereby he was accused by Sir Colin's counsel of picking and choosing his evidence. [10]

In coming to a decision, announced in April 1909, the Lord Lyon, James Balfour Paul, confined himself to questions of heraldry. He found that Sir Colin had failed to prove his right to the use of chiefly arms, and did not therefore explore the question of the chiefship itself. [12] Debates continued as to the merits of recognising a clan chief, with Sir Colin continuing to refer to himself as chief, and MacRae-Gilstrap continuing to reiterate his opposition to Sir Colin's claim. [13]

Restoration of Eilean Donan

Eilean Donan Castle Eilean Donan castle - 95mm.jpg
Eilean Donan Castle

Eilean Donan Castle, probably first built in the 13th century, was a stronghold of the Mackenzies of Kintail who appointed several generations of the Clan MacRae as constables. The last constable, Rev. Farquhar MacRae who was removed in 1651, was an ancestor of John MacRae-Gilstrap. During the failed Jacobite rising of 1719 the castle was occupied by Spanish troops and was demolished by government forces after the Spaniards surrendered. By 1912 the castle, located on an island in Loch Duich on the western coast of Lochalsh, had been reduced to a few fragments of masonry. [14]

In 1912 MacRae-Gilstrap purchased Eilean Donan Castle from Sir Keith Fraser of Inverinate, becoming the first MacRae for many years to hold land in the traditional clan territory of Kintail. [15] Initially MacRae-Gilstrap intended to preserve the ruins as they were and employed a local stonemason, Farquhar MacRae, to clear the site. He was engaged during the First World War, but returning to Kintail in 1919 he found Farquhar MacRae making preparations for a full restoration of the castle. Farquhar "claimed to have had a dream in which he saw, in the most vivid detail, exactly the way the castle originally looked". [16] MacRae-Gilstrap agreed to go ahead with the reconstruction, and commissioned architect George Mackie Watson to prepare plans. The castle was fully rebuilt between the years 1920 and 1932. In the latter year the bridge to the mainland was completed, and a formal opening ceremony was held on 22 July 1932. The total cost of the restoration was around £250,000, largely funded by the Gilstrap inheritance. [17]

Death and descendants

John MacRae-Gilstrap died in January 1937 at Eilean Donan, and was buried at the historic MacRae cemetery at Clachan Duich, at the head of Loch Duich. Isabella lived on until 1949. [4] John and Isabella had five daughters and one son. [3] His estates passed to his son, Captain Duncan MacRae (1890–1966), and then to his son, John MacRae (1925–1988). John MacRae opened Eilean Donan to the public in 1955, and established the Conchra Charitable Trust in 1983 to care for the castle. [18] His daughter Baroness Miranda van Lynden, great-granddaughter of John MacRae-Gilstrap, is the present head of the MacRaes of Conchra. [19]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eilean Donan</span> Small tidal island in the western Highlands of Scotland

Eilean Donan is a small tidal island situated at the confluence of three sea lochs in the western Highlands of Scotland, about 1 kilometre from the village of Dornie. It is connected to the mainland by a footbridge that was installed early in the 20th century and is dominated by a picturesque castle that frequently appears in photographs, film and television. The island's original castle was built in the thirteenth century; it became a stronghold of the Clan Mackenzie and their allies, the Clan MacRae. However, in response to the Mackenzies' involvement in the Jacobite rebellions early in the 18th century, government ships destroyed the castle in 1719. The present-day castle is Lieutenant-Colonel John Macrae-Gilstrap's 20th-century reconstruction of the old castle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clan Mackenzie</span> Scottish clan

Clan Mackenzie is a Scottish clan, traditionally associated with Kintail and lands in Ross-shire in the Scottish Highlands. Traditional genealogies trace the ancestors of the Mackenzie chiefs to the 12th century. However, the earliest Mackenzie chief recorded by contemporary evidence is Alexander Mackenzie of Kintail who died some time after 1471. Traditionally, during the Wars of Scottish Independence, the Mackenzies supported Robert the Bruce, but feuded with the Earls of Ross in the latter part of the 14th century. During the 15th and 16th-centuries the Mackenzies feuded with the neighboring clans of Munro and MacDonald. In the 17th century the Mackenzie chief was made Earl of Seaforth in the peerage of Scotland. During the Scottish Civil War of the 17th century the Mackenzies largely supported the Royalists. During the Jacobite rising of 1715 the chief and clan of Mackenzie supported the Jacobite cause. However, during the Jacobite rising of 1745 the clan was divided with the chief, Kenneth Mackenzie, Lord Fortrose, supporting the British-Hanoverian Government and his relative, George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie, supporting the Jacobites.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clan Macrae</span> Highland Scottish clan

The Clan Macrae is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan has no chief; it is therefore considered an armigerous clan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clan MacLennan</span> Highland Scottish clan

Clan MacLennan, also known as Siol Ghillinnein, is a Highland Scottish clan which historically populated lands in the north-west of Scotland. The surname MacLennan in Scottish Gaelic is Mac Gille Fhinnein, meaning the son of the follower of St Finnan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clan Matheson</span> Highland Scottish clan

Clan Matheson is a Highland Scottish clan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ardelve</span> Human settlement in Scotland

Ardelve is a village in Highland, Scotland, on Loch Alsh. It overlooks the Eilean Donan Castle, which is in Dornie, also on Loch Alsh, to the east of Skye. A caravan park, several guest houses, a bakery, and pizzeria are located within Ardelve.

MacRae or Macrae may refer to:

Donnchadh MacRath, also known as Duncan MacRae of Inverinate and Donnchadh nam Pìos, was a Scottish Gaelic poet and the compiler of the Fernaig manuscript which he committed to paper using an English-influenced system of orthography.

Colin Mackenzie, 1st Earl of Seaforth (1596/97–1633), was a Highland clan chief and Scottish nobleman, possessed of vast estates and wealth.

Hector Roy Mackenzie of Gairloch was a Scottish clan chieftain of the Clan Mackenzie, who acquired vast estates in and around Gairloch, Wester Ross as a result of his services to the Scottish crown and challenged his nephew for the chiefship of the clan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inverinate</span> Human settlement in Scotland

Inverinate is a small linear village on the north shore of Loch Duich in Lochalsh, Scottish Highlands and is in the Scottish council area of Highland.

John Mackenzie, or "John of Killin", traditionally reckoned 9th of Kintail, was a Highland chief and head of the Clan Mackenzie.

Fionnla Dubh mac Gillechriosd is purported to have been a 15th-century Scotsman, who lived in the north-west of Scotland. The Gaelic Fionnla Dubh mac Gillechriosd translates into English as "Fionnla the black, son of Gillechriosd". Fionnla Dubh is known from a late 17th-century traditional account of Clan Macrae; within that account he presented as a prominent ancestor of the clan. The tradition relates that for a time the chief of Clan Mackenzie was absent, and during that time his bastard uncles were causing trouble in the Mackenzies' territories of Kintail and Kinlochewe. Fionnla Dubh was then ordered to retrieve the chief and was successful in his task. From that time onward, says the tradition, the Macraes from the Kintail area rose in prominence amongst their Mackenzie lords. Tradition also states that Fionnla Dubh is an ancestor of the leading lines of the Macraes from Kintail.

Leod Macgilleandrais is purported to have been a 14th-century Scotsman, who lived in the north-west of Scotland. He is known from clan traditions, which date to the late 17th century. According to these traditions, Leod was a follower of the Earl of Ross, and that he was an enemy of the Mackenzies of Kintail. He is said to have captured one of the early Mackenzie chiefs, and was then later killed by the slain chief's son sometime in the 14th century. His memory is preserved in the place where he is said to have been slain. According to at least one version of the tradition, Leod was survived by a son named Paul. Several historians in 19th and early 20th centuries equated this son to Paul Mactire.

Stuart Macrae was an English international footballer, who played as a half back.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Capture of Eilean Donan Castle</span>

The Capture of Eilean Donan Castle was an land-based naval engagement that took place in 1719 during the British Jacobite rising of that year, and the War of the Quadruple Alliance. A British naval reconnaissance force of three ships attacked the castle of Eilean Donan on the west coast of Scotland, which was held by Spanish troops. After a naval bombardment, the British government forces stormed the castle, and the defenders surrendered. The castle was subsequently destroyed with gunpowder.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lochalsh</span>

Lochalsh is a district of mainland Scotland that is currently part of the Highland council area. The Lochalsh district covers all of the mainland either side of Loch Alsh - and of Loch Duich - between Loch Carron and Loch Hourn, ie. from Stromeferry in the north on Loch Carron down to Corran on Loch Hourn and as (south-)west as Kintail. It was sometimes more narrowly defined as just being the hilly peninsula that lies between Loch Carron and Loch Alsh. The main settlement is Kyle of Lochalsh, located at the entrance to Loch Alsh, opposite the village of Kyleakin on the adjacent island of Skye. A ferry used to connect the two settlements but was replaced by the Skye Bridge in 1995.

The Murchison family of Loch Alsh, Ross-shire, Scotland were a minor Scottish clan, and a sept of the larger Clan Mackenzie. In modern times the Murchison surname is still considered a sept of the Clan Mackenzie by the Clan Mackenzie Society of Scotland & the UK.

Farquhar Macrae (1580-1662) was a Scottish minister in the parishes of Gairloch and Kintail, Ross and Cromarty. He is known for the cultural improvement he brought to the north of Scotland in the seventeenth century.

Iain mac Mhurchaidh, alias John MacRae, was a Scotland-born Bard from Kintail, a member of Clan Macrae, and an early immigrant to the Colony of North Carolina. MacRae has been termed one of the "earliest Scottish Gaelic poets in North America about whom we know anything."


  1. "Profile". England Football Online.
  2. Stuart MacRae, Scots Football Worldwide
  3. 1 2 3 4 Macrae, Alexander (July 1896). "Captain John Macrae". The Celtic Monthly. IV (10).
  4. 1 2 3 4 Gilstrap, Ron. "Descendants of William (Gilstrap) Gelsthorpe". Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  5. Clark, Christine (2004). "Gilstrap, Sir William, baronet (1816–1896)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/53563.(subscription or UK public library membership required)
  6. "Ballimore House". Otter Ferry. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  7. Macrae (1910), p. 152
  8. 1 2 Macrae (1910), pp. vii–viii
  9. Macrae (1910), p.8
  10. 1 2 3 4 MacRae, Peter (1999). "Clan without a Chief" . Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  11. Eyre-Todd (1923), p.426
  12. MacRae, Peter (1999). "The 1909 Petition of Sir Colin Macrae of Inverinate" . Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  13. MacRae-Gilstrap, John (20 August 1927). "The Clan Macrae Chiefship". Oban Times.
  14. Gifford (1992), pp.531–533
  15. "Sgurr Uaran Special Edition: Eilean Donan Castle" (PDF). Clan Macrae Society of North America. p. 13. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  16. Marigold MacRae, quoted in "Historic Places: Eilean Donan". Clan Macrae Society of North America. Archived from the original on 11 May 2002. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  17. "Historic Places: Eilean Donan". Clan Macrae Society of North America. Archived from the original on 11 May 2002. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  18. Field Archaeology Specialists Ltd. (February 2009). Archaeological Evaluation: Eilean Donan Castle, Ross-shire (part 1) (PDF). Conchra Charitable Trust. p. 4.
  19. "Conchra Charitable Trust". Eilean Donan Castle. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.

Further reading