John McCloskey

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His Eminence

John McCloskey
Cardinal, Archbishop of New York
Cardinal McCloskey Napoleon Sarony.jpg
See New York
AppointedMay 6, 1864
InstalledAugust 27, 1864
Term endedOctober 10, 1885
Predecessor John Hughes
Successor Michael Corrigan
Other posts Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria sopra Minerva
OrdinationJanuary 12, 1834
ConsecrationMarch 10, 1844
by  John Joseph Hughes
Created cardinalMarch 15, 1875
by Pius IX
Personal details
Born(1810-03-10)March 10, 1810
Brooklyn, New York
DiedOctober 10, 1885(1885-10-10) (aged 75)
New York, New York
Previous post
(In hope of eternal life)
Coat of arms Coat of arms of John McCloskey.svg

John McCloskey (March 10, 1810 – October 10, 1885) was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He was the first American born Archbishop of New York from 1864 until his death in 1885, having previously served as Bishop of Albany (1847–64). In 1875, McCloskey became the first American cardinal. He served as the first president of St. John's College, now Fordham University, beginning in 1841.

Prelate High-ranking member of the clergy

A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries. The word derives from the Latin prælatus, the past participle of præferre, which means 'carry before', 'be set above or over' or 'prefer'; hence, a prelate is one set over others.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York Archdiocese of the Catholic Church

The Roman CatholicArchdiocese of New York is a Latin Catholic archdiocese in New York State. It encompasses the boroughs of Manhattan, the Bronx and Staten Island in New York City and the counties of Dutchess, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster, and Westchester in New York. The Archdiocese of New York is the second-largest diocese in the United States, encompassing 296 parishes that serve around 2.8 million Catholics in addition to hundreds of Catholic schools, hospitals and charities. The Archdiocese also operates the well-known St. Joseph's Seminary, commonly referred to as Dunwoodie. The Archdiocese of New York is the metropolitan see of the ecclesiastical province of New York which includes the suffragan dioceses of Albany, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Ogdensburg, Rochester, Rockville Centre and Syracuse.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Albany diocese of the Catholic Church

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Albany covers all or part of 14 counties in Eastern New York. Its Mother Church is the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in the city of Albany.


Early life and education

John McCloskey was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Patrick and Elizabeth (née Hassan) McCloskey, who had immigrated to the United States from County Londonderry, Ireland, shortly after their marriage in 1808. He was baptized by Rev. Benedict Joseph Fenwick, S.J., on May 6, 1810, at St. Peter's Church in Manhattan. [1] At that time Brooklyn did not yet have a Catholic church, so the family would row across the East River to Manhattan to attend Mass. At age 5, he was enrolled at a boarding school for boys in Brooklyn; [2] even in his advanced years, he attributed his distinct enunciation to his training there. He moved with his family to Manhattan in 1817, and then entered the Latin school run by Thomas Brady, father of Judge John R. Brady. [3] Following his father's death in 1820, the family moved to a farm in Bedford, Westchester County, adjoining to the estate of statesman John Jay. [4] He also became the ward of Cornelius Heeney, a wealthy merchant and family friend. [5]

Brooklyn Borough in New York City and county in New York state, United States

Brooklyn is a borough of New York City, coterminous with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York, the most populous county in the state, and the second-most densely populated county in the United States. It is New York City's most populous borough, with an estimated 2,504,700 residents in 2010. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, and the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects it with Staten Island.

County Londonderry Place in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

County Londonderry, also known as County Derry, is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland. Prior to the partition of Ireland, it was one of the counties of the Kingdom of Ireland from 1613 onward and then of the United Kingdom after the Acts of Union 1800. Adjoining the north-west shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 2,074 km² and today has a population of about 247,132.

Baptism Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water

Baptism is a Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. The synoptic gospels recount that John the Baptist baptised Jesus. Baptism is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. Baptism is also called christening, although some reserve the word "christening" for the baptism of infants. It has also given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations.

The 11-year-old McCloskey, after a brief visit with Rev. John Dubois, entered Mount St. Mary's College in Emmitsburg, Maryland, in September 1821. As a student at Mount St. Mary's, he was described as having "won the admiration and esteem of his teachers and the respect and love of his college-mates by the piety and modesty of his character, his gentleness, and sweet disposition, the enthusiasm with which he threw himself into his studies, and his prominent standing in class." [5] In his graduating year, he delivered a speech on patriotism that doubled as a defense of Horace's phrase, "It is sweet and fitting to die for one's country". [4] Following his graduation in 1826, he returned to his mother's farm in Bedford.

John Dubois Roman Catholic Bishop of New York

John Dubois, S.S., served as the third bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of New York. He was the first non-Irish born Bishop of New York.

Mount St. Marys University American private, liberal arts, Catholic university in Maryland

Mount St. Mary's University is a Catholic liberal arts university near Emmitsburg, Maryland. The campus includes the second largest Catholic seminary in the United States. Lay students can pursue a Master of Arts in Theology at the seminary.

Emmitsburg, Maryland Town in Maryland, United States

Emmitsburg is a town in Frederick County, Maryland, United States, just south of the Mason-Dixon line separating Maryland from Pennsylvania. Founded in 1785, Emmitsburg is the home of Mount St. Mary's University. The town has two Catholic pilgrimage sites: the National Shrine Grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes, which is on the campus of Mount St. Mary's, and the Basilica and National Shrine of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton, who was the first native born United States citizen to be canonized as a saint. The Seton Shrine is one of the top eight Catholic pilgrimage destinations in the United States.


In a dramatic event during the spring of 1827, McCloskey was attempting to drive a team of oxen drawing a heavy load of logs when the wagon overturned and he was buried under the logs for several hours. [2] [5] After being discovered and taken to the house, he was completely blind and unconscious for several days. Although he regained his eyesight, he tired easily and was generally in poor health throughout the rest of his life. [2] During his convalescence, however, McCloskey decided upon a vocation to the priesthood and later returned to Mount St. Mary's in September 1827 for his seminary training. [2] In addition to his studies, he became a professor of Latin in 1829 and a prefect of discipline in 1831. [5] He received the tonsure, minor orders, and subdiaconate all from Bishop Francis Kenrick.

Ox common bovine draft and riding animal

An ox, also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal. Oxen are commonly castrated adult male cattle; castration makes the animals easier to control. Cows or bulls may also be used in some areas.

Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination to serve as clergy, in academics, or in Christian ministry. The English word is taken from the Latin seminarium, translated as seed-bed, an image taken from the Council of Trent document Cum adolescentium aetas which called for the first modern seminaries. In the West, the term now refers to Catholic educational institutes and has widened to include other Christian denominations and American Jewish institutions.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

On January 12, 1834, McCloskey was ordained a priest for the Diocese of New York by Bishop John Dubois, at St. Patrick's Old Cathedral. [6] He thus became the first native New Yorker to enter the diocesan priesthood. [3] He then served as a parochial vicar at St. Patrick's Cathedral and a chaplain at Bellevue Hospital until February 1834, when he became professor of philosophy and vice-president at the newly established St. Joseph's Seminary in Nyack. [5] However, the seminary was destroyed by a fire in August of that same year. [3]

St. Patricks Old Cathedral former Catholic cathedral in New York City

The Basilica of Saint Patrick's Old Cathedral, or Old St. Patrick's, is located at 260–264 Mulberry Street between Prince and Houston Streets in the Nolita neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, with the primary entrance currently located on Mott Street. Built between 1809 and 1815, and designed by Joseph-François Mangin in the Gothic Revival style, it was the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York until the current Saint Patrick's Cathedral opened in 1879. Liturgies are celebrated in English, Spanish, and Chinese.

Curate person who is invested with the care or cure (cura) of souls of a parish

A curate is a person who is invested with the care or cure (cura) of souls of a parish. In this sense, "curate" correctly means a parish priest; but in English-speaking countries the term curate is commonly used to describe clergy who are assistants to the parish priest. The duties or office of a curate are called a curacy.

Nyack, New York Village in New York, United States

Nyack is a village located primarily in the town of Orangetown in Rockland County, New York, United States. Incorporated in 1872, it retains a very small western section in Clarkstown. It is an inner suburb of New York City lying approximately 19 miles (31 km) north of the Manhattan boundary near the west bank of the Hudson River, situated north of South Nyack, east of Central Nyack, south of Upper Nyack, and southeast of Valley Cottage.

McCloskey expressed his desire to minister to the victims of the cholera epidemic in New York City, but Bishop Dubois instead sent him to Rome to strengthen his health and to further his studies at the Pontifical Gregorian University and University of the Sapienza (1834–1837). [1] While in Rome, he befriended the likes of Père Lacordaire and Cardinals Thomas Weld and Joseph Fesch. [5] Abandoning his pursuit of the degree of Doctor of Divinity in Rome, and departing from there in February 1837, he visited Germany, Belgium, France and England before returning to New York that summer. [4] From August 1837 to March 1844, McCloskey served as pastor of St. Joseph's Church in Greenwich Village. His tenure at the parish was initially a rather contentious one, with the trustees refusing to pay him a salary or furnish his house; one of his younger parishioners was Eugene Casserly, later a U.S. Senator from California. [5] He also showed concern for the needs of the homeless children living in Greenwich Village. [2] In addition to his duties at St. Joseph's, McCloskey was the first President of St. John's College in Fordham from 1841 to 1842. [1]

Cholera Bacterial infection of the small intestine

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. Dehydration can cause the skin to turn bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure.

Pontifical Gregorian University pontifical university located in Rome, Italy

The Pontifical Gregorian University is a higher education ecclesiastical school located in Rome, Italy. It was originally a part of the Roman College founded in 1551 by Ignatius of Loyola, and included all grades of schooling. The university division of philosophy and theology of the Roman College was given Papal approval in 1556, making it the first university founded by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). In 1584 the Roman College was given a grandiose new home by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom it was renamed. It was already making its mark not only in sacred but also in natural science.

Sapienza University of Rome Italian university founded in Rome in 1303

The Sapienza University of Rome, also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university that is located in Rome, Italy. Formally known as Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", it is one of the largest European universities by enrollments and one of the oldest in history, founded in 1303. The University is one of the most prestigious Italian universities and in the world, commonly ranking first in national rankings and in Southern Europe. On 2018 it ranked 1st in the world for Classics and Ancient history.

Episcopal ministry

Coadjutor Bishop of New York

On November 21, 1843, McCloskey was appointed Coadjutor Bishop of New York and Titular Bishop of Axieri by Pope Gregory XVI. He received his episcopal consecration on March 10, 1844—his 34th birthday—from Bishop John Hughes, with Bishops Benedict Fenwick (who had baptized him as a child) and Richard Vincent Whelan serving as co-consecrators, at St. Patrick's Cathedral. [6] Whereas Bishop Hughes was active and aggressive, his coadjutor was more meek and gentle. [7] McCloskey busied himself primarily with a visitation of the entire diocese, and was also instrumental in the conversion of Isaac Hecker, founder of the Paulist Fathers, and of James Roosevelt Bayley, later Archbishop of Baltimore. [1]

Bishop of Albany

St. Mary's Church, Albany St. Mary's Church, Albany.jpg
St. Mary's Church, Albany

McCloskey was named the first Bishop of the newly erected Diocese of Albany by Pope Pius IX on May 21, 1847. [6] He was formally installed by Bishop Hughes on the following September 19. [5] At the time of his arrival, the Upstate New York diocese covered 30,000 square miles (78,000 km2), containing 60,000 Catholics, 25 churches, 34 priests, 2 orphanages, and 2 free schools. [3] McCloskey first selected St. Mary's Church as his episcopal see but it soon proved unsuitable, leading him to construct the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, whose cornerstone was laid in July 1848 and dedication took place in November 1852. [8]

He attended the First Plenary Council of Baltimore in 1852, convened the first diocesan synod in October 1855, and was named an Assistant at the Pontifical Throne in 1862. [1] During his tenure, he increased the number of parishes to 113 and the number of priests to 84, and established three academies for boys and one for girls, four orphanages, fifteen parochial schools, and St. Joseph's Provincial Seminary in Troy. [3] He also introduced the Augustinians, Jesuits, Franciscans, Capuchins, Religious of the Sacred Heart, Sisters of Charity, Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of St. Joseph, and Christian Brothers into the diocese. [9]

Styles of
John McCloskey
Coat of arms of John McCloskey.svg
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal style Cardinal
See New York

Archbishop of New York

Lithograph of McCloskey, 1878 Drawing of John Cardinal McCloskey (cropped).jpg
Lithograph of McCloskey, 1878

Following the death of Archbishop Hughes in January 1864, McCloskey was widely expected to be named his successor. [3] Distressed by the rumors, he wrote to Cardinal Karl von Reisach of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, objecting, "I possess neither the learning, nor prudence, nor energy, nor firmness, nor bodily health or strength." [10] Nevertheless, he was appointed the second Archbishop of New York on May 6, 1864 and installed on August 27. [6] McCloskey, following the end of the Civil War in 1865, resumed the construction of the new cathedral begun under his predecessor; he later dedicated it in May 1879. In 1866 he attended the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, where he preached the opening sermon with remarkable self-control and composure given the fact he had learned only moments before that St. Patrick's Old Cathedral had been gutted by a fire. [4] However, the Trustees of the Cathedral immediately affirmed their intention to rebuild the Cathedral, and under the supervision of the Archbishop, the Cathedral was rebuilt sufficiently enough to celebrate Mass by Easter Sunday, April 21, 1867, just six months after the conflagration. The Cathedral rebuilding project was completed in full by March 13, 1868, and rededicated four days later on St. Patrick's Day by Archbishop McCloskey, and assisted by the pastor of the Cathedral, Father William Starrs. McCloskey participated in the First Vatican Council from 1869 to 1870, and voted in favor of papal infallibility despite his feelings that such a declaration was "untimely." [10] In 1873, he solemnly dedicated the Archdiocese of New York to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. [5]

Imposing the Cardinal's Berretta, lithograph depicting McCloskey receiving the Cardinal's biretta from Archbishop James Roosevelt Bayley. Imposing the Cardinal's Berretta.jpg
Imposing the Cardinal's Berretta, lithograph depicting McCloskey receiving the Cardinal's biretta from Archbishop James Roosevelt Bayley.

McCloskey was created Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria sopra Minerva by Pius IX in the consistory of March 15, 1875, thus becoming the first American cardinal. The news of his elevation was well received by Catholics and non-Catholics alike, and was viewed as a sign of the growing prestige of the United States. [4] He received the red biretta from Archbishop Bayley in a ceremony at the rebuilt St. Patrick's Cathedral on Mott Street on the following April 27. The Cardinal declared, "Not to my poor merits but to those of the young and already vigorous and most flourishing Catholic Church of America has this honor been given by the Supreme Pontiff. Nor am I unaware that, when the Holy Father determined to confer me this honor he had regard to the dignity of the See of New York, to the merits and devotion of the venerable clergy and numerous laity, and that he had in mind even the eminent rank of this great city and the glorious American nation." [5] Following the death of Pius IX in February 1878, McCloskey left for Rome but arrived too late to participate in the papal conclave, which elected Pope Leo XIII. The new Pope bestowed the red hat upon him on March 28, 1878. [1]

When Thomas Ewing Sherman, son of the famed Civil War general William Tecumseh Sherman, expressed his desire to become a Jesuit to his father, the elder Sherman wrote a letter to McCloskey in 1879 telling him to dissuade his son from such a course of action. However, the Cardinal encouraged the boy in his vocation after visiting with him. In response, the General condemned McCloskey in a St. Louis, Missouri newspaper in offensive terms and accused him of robbing him of a son. When pressed for comment by the newspaper's editor, McCloskey simply replied: "General Sherman's letter was marked 'personal and confidential.'" [7] In 1880, he received Michael Corrigan, Bishop of Newark, as his coadjutor. His last major public appearance was in January 1884 for the Golden Jubilee celebration of his priestly ordination, for which Leo XIII sent him a jeweled chalice. [4] In March 1884, with the help of President Chester A. Arthur and Secretary of State Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, the Cardinal helped save the Pontifical North American College from spoilation by the Italian government. [3]

McCloskey's 21-year-long tenure as Archbishop of New York was a productive one. In response to the growing Catholic population in New York, he established 88 additional parishes (for a total of 229) in the Archdiocese, 25 of them in Manhattan, four in the Bronx, and one in Staten Island; the remaining were established outside the city. [11] Among these was the first parish for African American Catholics. The number of priests also rose from 150 to 400 during his tenure. [10] An advocate of Catholic education, at the time of his death there were 37,000 children enrolled at archdiocesan schools. He established several charitable societies for children and a hospital for the mentally ill. [2]


Throughout 1885 McCloskey suffered from bouts of fever, intense pain, loss of sight, and a recurrence of malaria that aggravated what appeared to be signs of Parkinson's disease. [4] Within a few months, he was hospitalized and later died at 75. His funeral Mass was held at St. Patrick's Cathedral on October 25, 1885; during the eulogy, Archbishop James Gibbons described him as "a kind father, a devoted friend, a watchful shepherd, a fearless leader and, above all, an impartial judge." [5]

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  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Miranda, Salvador. "McCloskey, John". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "John Cardinal McCloskey". Cardinal McCloskey Services.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "John McCloskey"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Thornton, Francis. "John Cardinal McCloskey". Our American Princes.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Farley, John Murphy. "The Life of John Cardinal McCloskey, 1918".
  6. 1 2 3 4 "John Cardinal McCloskey".
  7. 1 2 Palmo, Rocco. "The First Prince... and His Patrons", Whispers in the Loggia, March 15, 2009
  8. Walsh, John. "Albany." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. October 4, 2015
  9. Carthy, O.S.U., Mother Mary Peter (1947). Old St. Patrick's – New York's First Cathedral. The United States Catholic Historical Society.
  10. 1 2 3 Egan, Edward (January 3, 2008). "Our First Cardinal". Catholic New York.[ dead link ]
  11. "John Cardinal McCloskey (1864–1885)". Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York. Archived from the original on June 13, 2012.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière
Titular Bishop of Axieri
Succeeded by
Florentin-Étienne Jaussen, SS.CC.
Preceded by
Diocese Erected
Bishop of Albany
Succeeded by
John J. Conroy
Preceded by
John Hughes
Archbishop of New York
Succeeded by
Michael Corrigan
Preceded by
Matteo Eustachio Gonella
Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria sopra Minerva
Succeeded by
Zeferino González, O.P