|Sir John Paston|
|Born||before 15 April 1442|
|Died|| November 1479 (aged 37)|
Sir John Paston (before 15 April 1442 – November 1479), was the eldest son of John Paston and Margaret Mautby. He succeeded his father in 1466, and spent a considerable part of his life attempting to make good his father's claim to the lands of Margaret Mautby's kinsman, Sir John Fastolf. A number of his letters survive among the Paston Letters, a rich source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period. Although long betrothed to Anne Haute, a first cousin of Elizabeth Woodville, he never married, and was succeeded by his younger brother, also named John.
John Paston I was an English country gentleman and landowner. He was the eldest son of the judge William Paston, Justice of the Common Pleas. After he succeeded his father in 1444, his life was marked by conflict occasioned by a power struggle in East Anglia between the dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk, and by his involvement in the affairs of his wife's kinsman, Sir John Fastolf. A number of his letters survive among the Paston Letters, a rich source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period.
Sir John Fastolf was a late medieval English landowner and knight who fought in the Hundred Years' War. He has enjoyed a more lasting reputation as the prototype, in some part, of Shakespeare's character Sir John Falstaff. Many historians consider, however, that he deserves to be famous in his own right, not only as a soldier, but as a patron of literature, a writer on strategy and perhaps as an early industrialist.
The Paston Letters are a collection of correspondences between members of the Paston family of Norfolk gentry and others connected with them in England between the years 1422 and 1509. The collection also includes state papers and other important documents.
John Paston, born before 15 April 1442,was the eldest son and heir of John Paston and Margaret Mautby, daughter and heir of John Mautby of Mautby, Norfolk. He had a younger brother, also named John (1444–1504), who later succeeded him, as well as three other brothers, Edmund, Walter and William, and two sisters, Margery and Anne.
Mautby is a civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. The parish comprises a largely rural area along the north bank of the River Bure, and includes the small villages of Mautby, Runham and Thrigby. It is located some 10 km (6.2 mi) west of the town of Great Yarmouth and 30 km (19 mi) east of the city of Norwich.
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles (5,370 km2) and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a largely rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich (213,000), Great Yarmouth (63,000), King's Lynn (46,000) and Thetford (25,000).
Sir John Paston, was the second son of John Paston and Margaret Mautby. He succeeded his elder brother, Sir John Paston, in 1479. He fought at Barnet and Stoke with John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, served as his deputy when Oxford was appointed Lord High Admiral of England, and was a member of the Earl's council. A number of his letters survive among the Paston Letters, a rich source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period.
Although nothing is known of John Paston's education, it is clear from his correspondence, and from the surviving inventory of his books in his own hand, that he had been well educated.He became a courtier in the household of Edward IV in 1461, and was knighted when he reached the age of majority in 1463. In November 1463 he angered his father by leaving home without his parents' consent, perhaps to join the King in the north of England, and in December 1464 a further quarrel with his father resulted in their complete estrangement, with his father terming him 'a drone among bees'; they were not reconciled until May 1465.
Edward IV was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 to reign in peace until his sudden death. Before becoming king, he was Duke of York, Earl of March, Earl of Cambridge and Earl of Ulster.
Much of his father's time from the mid-1450s had been taken up by his position as adviser to Sir John Fastolf'.In June 1459 Fastolf had made a written will in which he appointed ten executors and charged them with founding a college in Caister. However after Fastolf died on 5 November 1459, Paston's father claimed that on 3 November Fastolf had made a nuncupative will giving Paston exclusive authority over the foundation of the college, and providing that, after payment of 4000 marks, Paston was to have all Fastolf's lands in Norfolk and Suffolk. Relying on the nuncupative will, Paston took possession of the Fastolf estates, and resided at times at Fastolf's manors of Caister and Hellesdon. However his claim to the Fastolf lands was challenged by John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, by William Yelverton and Gilbert Debenham, by John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, and by Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, and in 1464 a legal challenge to Paston's executorship under the nuncupative will was mounted by William Yelverton; the lawsuit was still undecided at the time of his death.
Caister Castle is a 15th-century moated castle situated in the parish of West Caister, some 5 km (3.1 mi) north of the town of Great Yarmouth in the English county of Norfolk.
Hellesdon is a village and suburb of Norwich in the District of Broadland in Norfolk, England. It lies approximately four miles (6 km) north-west of Norwich and has a population of 11,132, according to the 2011 Census. Norwich International Airport is located near the village.
Sir William Yelverton was a judge in Norfolk, England and twice a member of parliament for Great Yarmouth, Norfolk.
The 'defining feature of Sir John Paston's career' was thus the 'struggle to make good his father's claim to inherit the estates of Sir John Fastolf'.According to Tait, however, he was temperamentally ill-suited to the task, and although in July 1466, only two months after his father's death, he was confirmed in his possession of Caister and other lands by Edward IV, he was seldom afterwards in Norfolk, although he was occasionally appointed to administrative offices there, serving as Member of Parliament in 1467 and as a Justice of the Peace in 1469. He preferred to reside in London, first in Fleet Street, and then at the George near Paul's Wharf, and left the task of defending the family's East Anglian possessions to his mother and younger brother, John. In April 1467 he participated in a tournament at Eltham Palace with Edward IV and his brother-in-law, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, and it is owing to Paston that we have an account of a famous tournament in England between Paston's friend, Earl Rivers, and the Bastard of Burgundy. In the following year Paston and his brother John were among those who accompanied Edward IV's sister, Margaret of York, to Bruges for her marriage to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy,
Fleet Street is a major street mostly in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall and the River Fleet from which the street was named.
Jousting is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament. The primary aim was to replicate a clash of heavy cavalry, with each participant trying hard to strike the opponent while riding towards him at high speed, breaking the lance on the opponent's shield or jousting armour if possible, or unhorsing him. The joust became an iconic characteristic of the knight in Romantic medievalism. The participants experience close to three and a quarter times their body weight in G-forces when the lances collide with their armour.
Eltham Palace is a large house in Eltham in the Royal Borough of Greenwich, in south-east London, England. It is an unoccupied former royal residence owned by the Crown Estate, and managed since 1995 by English Heritage which restored the building in 1999 and opened it to the public. The interior of the Art Deco house has been critiqued as a "masterpiece of modern design".
During this period Paston was occasionally appointed to administrative offices in Norfolk, serving as Member of Parliament in 1467 and as a Justice of the Peace in 1469.
In August 1467 Paston and Fastolf's former chaplain, Thomas Howes, were granted probate of Fastolf's will. Howes then defected to the trustees who had been appointed under Fastolf's written will, and who were continuing to oppose the Paston family's claims. In October 1468 several of these trustees, including Howes and William Yelverton, sold Caister to John Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk, whose father, John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, had attempted to seize it in 1461. In August 1469 Norfolk laid siege to Caister Castle, and after five weeks Paston's younger brother, John, was forced to surrender it.
In 1470 the ongoing dispute over the Fastolf lands was partially settled via an agreement between Paston and one of Fastolf's trustees under his written will, William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester. The agreement provided that Paston would be entitled to the manors of Caister, Hellesdon and Drayton, as well as certain other properties, while Waynflete would take possession of the rest of the Fastolf lands to provide payment to priests and poor men to pray for Fastolf's soul as part of the Bishop's new foundation of Magdalen College, Oxford. Implementation of the agreement was delayed by the fact that Caister still remained in the hands of the Duke of Norfolk. However at the Readeption of Henry VI in the fall of 1470 Paston's connections to John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, then Lord High Constable of England, were instrumental in forcing Norfolk to surrender possession of Caister to Paston.
Paston and his brother, John, fought with Oxfordon the losing side at the Battle of Barnet in April 1471, and although they were both pardoned by Edward IV, Norfolk once again seized Caister, and the Pastons were also forced to give up the manor of Drayton to John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk. From 1473 to 1477 Paston was frequently in Calais, serving under Lord Hastings, then Lieutenant of Calais. In 1473 he went to Bruges, where he had himself measured for a complete set of armour by the armourer of Anthony, Bastard of Burgundy. After Norfolk's death without issue in January 1476, the Pastons finally regained possession of Caister.
Paston made his will 31 October 1477. In October 1479 he was in London, in great fear of 'the sickness’. He died in November, and was buried in the chapel of Our Lady at the Whitefriars, London. As he had no legitimate issue, he was succeeded by his younger brother, John.
According to Tait, Paston's correspondence is the liveliest in the Paston Letters, and his literary interests ranged from Ovid's Ars Amatoria to works of theology:
His letters and those of his friends, with their touches of sprightly if somewhat broad humour, light up the grave and decorous pages of the Paston ‘Correspondence.’ Disliking the business details forced upon him by his position, he is happier when matchmaking for his brother, or stealing a lady's muskball on his behalf, sending his mother salad oil or treacle of Genoa with appropriate comments, or rallying the Duchess of Norfolk not over delicately on her interesting condition. His taste for literature seems to have been real and catholic, ranging from the ‘Ars Amoris’ to treatises on wisdom, not excluding theology; on the death of his mother's chaplain he wrote to secure his library. He employed a transcriber, one piece of whose handiwork, a ‘great book’ containing treatises on knighthood and war, Hoccleve's ‘De Regimine Principum,’ an account of the tournament between Lord Scales and the Bastard and other items, is still preserved in the British Museum (Lansdowne MS. 285).
Paston never married. He was long betrothed to Anne Haute, the daughter of William Haute, Esquire, M.P. (died 1462), of Bishopsbourne, Kent, and Joan Woodville, daughter of Richard Woodville. Sir William Haute and Richard Haute Esq. of Ightham Mote were two of her brothers. Anne Haute's sister, Alice Haute (born c.1444), was the second wife of Sir John Fogge, and both Anne and Alice were first cousins of Elizabeth Woodville, wife of Edward IV, and of Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers. From 1471 both Anne Haute and Sir John Paston sought to be released from the marriage contract; however it was not abrogated until sometime after the end of 1477. In 1478 it was said that Paston was to marry another kinswoman of the Queen.
By a mistress, Constance Reynforth, Paston had an illegitimate daughter, Constance.
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was a prominent Tudor politician. He was an uncle of two of the wives of King Henry VIII of England, namely Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, both of whom were beheaded, and played a major role in the machinations affecting these royal marriages. After falling from favour in 1546, he was stripped of the dukedom and imprisoned in the Tower of London, avoiding execution when King Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547.
Sir William Brandon of Soham, Cambridgeshire was Henry Tudor's standard-bearer at the Battle of Bosworth, where he was killed by King Richard III. He was the father of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk.
John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk, KG, known as 1st Earl of Surrey between 1451 and 1461, was the only son of John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk and Eleanor Bourchier. His maternal grandparents were William Bourchier, Count of Eu and Anne of Gloucester.
Sir John Tyrrell lord of the manor of Heron in the parish of East Horndon, Essex, was Knight of the Shire for Essex, Speaker of the House of Commons, and Treasurer of the Royal Household.
Lionel de Welles, 6th Baron Welles, KG was an English peer who served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Joint Deputy of Calais. He was slain fighting on the Lancastrian side at the Battle of Towton, and was attainted on 21 December 1461. As a result of the attainder, his son, Richard Welles, 7th Baron Welles, did not succeed him in the barony of Welles until the attainder was reversed by Parliament in June 1467.
Lord Edmund Howard was the third son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, and his first wife, Elizabeth Tilney. His sister, Elizabeth, was the mother of Henry VIII's second wife, Anne Boleyn, and he was the father of the king's fifth wife, Catherine Howard. His first cousin, Margery Wentworth, was the mother of Henry's third wife, Jane Seymour.
John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, was the son of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford, and his second wife, Alice Sergeaux (1386–1452). A Lancastrian loyalist during the latter part of his life, he was convicted of high treason and beheaded on Tower Hill on 26 February 1462.
Thomas Scales, 7th Baron Scales was an English nobleman and one of the main English military commanders in the last phase of the Hundred Years' War. The son of Robert de Scales, 5th Baron Scales, he succeeded his brother Robert de Scales, 6th Baron Scales as baron.
Sir Thomas Tuddenham was an influential Norfolk landowner, official and courtier. He served as Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, and Keeper of the Great Wardrobe. During the Wars of the Roses he allied himself with the Lancastrian side, and after the Yorkist victory in 1461 was charged with treason and beheaded on Tower Hill on 23 February 1462.
William Paston, the only son of Clement Paston and Beatrice Somerton, had a distinguished career as a lawyer and Justice of the Common Pleas. He acquired considerable property, and is considered "the real founder of the Paston family fortunes".
Sir George Browne was the eldest surviving son and heir of Sir Thomas Browne, beheaded 20 July 1460. He took part in Buckingham's rebellion, and was beheaded on Tower Hill on 4 December 1483.
Sir Henry Heydon was the son of John Heydon of Baconsthorpe, Norfolk, 'the well-known opponent of the Paston family'. He married Anne Boleyn, the daughter of Sir Geoffrey Boleyn, great-grandfather of Henry VIII's queen Anne Boleyn.
John Heydon alias Baxter of Baconsthorpe, Norfolk, was of humble origins, the son of a yeoman, William Baxter of Heydon. He became a successful lawyer, and is known, through the Paston Letters, as one of the principal agents in East Anglia of William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, and one of the chief opponents of the Paston family.
Elizabeth Paston was a member of the English gentry who is regularly referred to in the extensive collection of Paston Letters. She was the only daughter of a Norfolk lawyer, William Paston and Agnes Barry. In her late teens and twenties she resisted marriage to several men proposed by her mother and brothers, before marrying Sir Robert Poynings in 1458, with whom she had a son Edward Poynings.