John Robert Gregg

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John Robert Gregg
John Robert Gregg LOC 33970.jpg
BornJune 17, 1867 (1867-06-17)
Monaghan, Ireland
DiedFebruary 23, 1948(1948-02-23) (aged 80)
New York City, New York, United States
Occupation Educator, publisher, Humanitarian, inventor
Language English, Irish
Citizenship Irish
Notable works Gregg Shorthand

Signature John Robert Gregg Signature.svg

John Robert Gregg (17 June 1867 – 23 February 1948) was an educator, publisher, humanitarian, and the inventor of the eponymous shorthand system Gregg Shorthand.

An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method, form, device or other useful means that becomes known as an invention. The word inventor comes from the Latin verb invenire, invent-, to find. The system of patents was established to encourage inventors by granting limited-term, limited monopoly on inventions determined to be sufficiently novel, non-obvious, and useful. Although inventing is closely associated with science and engineering, inventors are not necessarily engineers nor scientists.

Shorthand abbreviated symbolic writing method

Short is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. The process of writing in shorthand is called stenography, from the Greek stenos (narrow) and graphein. It has also been called brachygraphy, from Greek brachys (short) and tachygraphy, from Greek tachys, depending on whether compression or speed of writing is the goal.

Contents

Life

Childhood

John Robert Gregg was born in Shantonagh, Ireland, as the youngest child of Robert and Margaret Gregg, where they remained until 1872, when they moved to Rockcorry, County Monaghan. [1] Robert Gregg, who was of Scottish ancestry, was station-master at the Bushford railway station in Rockcorry. He and his wife raised their children as strict Presbyterians, and sent their children to the village school in Rockcorry, which John Robert Gregg joined in 1872. [2] On his second day of class, John Robert was caught whispering to a schoolmate, which prompted the schoolmaster to hit the two children's heads together. [2] This incident profoundly damaged Gregg's hearing for the rest of his life, rendering him unable to participate fully in school, unable to understand his teacher. [3] [4] This ultimately led to John Robert unnecessarily being perceived as dull or mentally challenged by his peers, teachers, and family. [5]

In 1877, one of Robert Gregg's friends, a journalist named Annesley, visited the village for a weekend. He was versed in Pitman Shorthand, and took verbatim notes of the sermon at the village church, causing the preacher to sweat and studder,[ clarification needed ] out of fear that his sermon, which he had plagiarized from a famous preacher, would be made public through Annesley's notes. [5] That day, Robert Gregg saw the shorthand skill as a powerful asset, so he made it mandatory for his children to learn Pitman shorthand, with the exception of John, who was considered by his family too "simple" to learn it. [6] None of the children succeeded in fully learning the system. [5] On his own, John Robert learned a different shorthand system, that of Samuel Taylor, published in a small book by Odell. He taught himself the system fully, since he did not require the ability to hear in order to learn from the book. [6]

Due to hardships on the family, Gregg had to leave school before the age of 13 in order to support his family's income. [7] He worked in a law office, earning five shillings a week. [7]

Career

Gregg said he initially set out to improve the English adaptation by John Matthew Sloan of the French Prévost Duployé Shorthand, while working with one of Sloan's sales agents, Thomas Malone. [8] Malone published a system called Script Phonography, of which Gregg asserted a share in authorship was owed to him. [9] Angered by Malone, Gregg resigned from working with him and, encouraged by his older brother Samuel, published and copyrighted his own system of shorthand in 1888. [10] It was put forth in a brochure entitled Light-Line Phonography: The Phonetic Handwriting which he published in Liverpool, England. [10]

Duployan shorthand shorthand system for French created by Émile Duployé in 1860, and subsequently adapted for English, German, Spanish, Romanian, and Chinook Jargon

The Duployan shorthand, or Duployan stenography, was created by Father Émile Duployé in 1860 for writing French. Since then, it has been expanded and adapted for writing English, German, Spanish, Romanian, and Chinook Jargon. The Duployan stenography is classified as a geometric, alphabetic, stenography and is written left-to-right in connected stenographic style. The Duployan shorthands, including Chinook writing, Pernin's Universal Phonography, Perrault's English Shorthand, the Sloan-Duployan Modern Shorthand, and Romanian stenography, were included as a single script in version 7.0 of the Unicode Standard / ISO 10646

Liverpool City and metropolitan borough in England

Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. The population of the Liverpool is 494,814 (mid-2018 est.) Liverpool is the ninth-largest English district by population, and the largest in Merseyside, and the Liverpool City Region. It lies within the United Kingdom's sixth-most populous urban area, and at the centre of the 5th largest metropolitan area with a population of 2.24 million.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

In 1893, he emigrated to the United States. That year he published Gregg Shorthand. [11] with great success. Gregg settled in Chicago where he wrote many books for the Gregg Publishing Company on shorthand and business practices.

Chicago city and county seat of Cook County, Illinois, United States

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,705,994 (2018), it is also the most populous city in the Midwestern United States. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the US, with portions of the northwest side of the city extending into DuPage County near O'Hare Airport. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland. At nearly 10 million people, the metropolitan area is the third most populous in the nation.

See also

Notes

  1. Cowan, Leslie (1984). John Robert Gregg: A Biography. Oxford: The Pre-Raphaelite Press. p. 11.
  2. 1 2 Cowan, 11.
  3. Cowan, 11
  4. Gannon, Jack. 1981. Deaf Heritage–A Narrative History of Deaf America, Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf, p. 169 (PDF Archived 2012-04-24 at the Wayback Machine )
  5. 1 2 3 Cowan, 12.
  6. 1 2 Cowan, 13.
  7. 1 2 Cowan, 14.
  8. Cowan, 18.
  9. Cowan, 21.
  10. 1 2 Cowan, 30.
  11. Cowan, 43.

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