John Robertson Henderson
|Superintendent of the Government Museum, Chennai and Connemara Public Library|
|Preceded by||Edgar Thurston|
|Succeeded by||F. H. Gravely|
|Born||21 May 1863|
|Died||26 October 1925 62) (aged|
|Alma mater||University of Edinburgh|
John Robertson Henderson CIE FRSE FZS FLS (21 May 1863 – 26 October 1925) was a Scottish zoologist who specialized in the taxonomy of marine crustaceans, particularly the decapods, and worked on specimens collected by the oceanic research vessels Investigator and Challenger. From 1892 until 1911 he was Professor of Zoology at Madras Christian College in India. From 1908 to 1920 he was Superintendent of the Government Museum in Madras.He also took an interest in numismatics and Indian history.
Henderson was born on 21 May 1863 in Melrose the son of Inland Revenue official Edward Henderson (1825–1894) and Jessie Louttit Henderson (née Robertson) (1834–1894). He was educated at both Dulwich College and Dollar Academy. He then studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh graduating with an MB ChB in 1884. He was influenced by Sir Wyville Thomson and took an interest in marine zoology. He worked at the Firths of Forth and Clyde and examined the collections obtained from the Challenger expedition while working at the Scottish Marine Station, Granton.
He moved to India in 1885-6 to become a professor of zoology at the Madras Christian College where he worked until 1911. Additional duties included being in charge of the Government Museum , the principal librarian at the Connemara Public Library and as Keeper of the Madras Aquarium. In 1896 he worked on the Paguridae (hermit crabs) obtained by the Royal Indian Marine Survey ship Investigator.He retired in 1911 and returned to Scotland in 1919. In 1918 he was created a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE). In 1923 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. His proposers were Arthur Crichton Mitchell, James Hartley Ashworth, D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson and James Ritchie.
Henderson married Alice Roberta Sinclair (1868–1915) in Madras in 1888. They had a son and a daughter. After her death, he married Elizabeth (“Lizzie”) Beatrice Adie (1882–1936) at Delting in 1921. They had no children.He died in Edinburgh on 26 October 1925 at a nursing home from a malignant liver tumour. He is buried with his wife in Dean Cemetery in western Edinburgh.
The genus Hendersonida Cabezas & Macpherson, 2014 and several species are named after him including:
Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans of the superfamily Paguroidea.
The Decapoda or decapods are an order of crustaceans within the class Malacostraca, including many familiar groups, such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns, and shrimp. Most decapods are scavengers. The order is estimated to contain nearly 15,000 species in around 2,700 genera, with around 3,300 fossil species. Nearly half of these species are crabs, with the shrimp and Anomura including hermit crabs, porcelain crabs, squat lobsters making up the bulk of the remainder. The earliest fossil decapod is the Devonian Palaeopalaemon.
Eucarida is a superorder of the Malacostraca, a class of the crustacean subphylum, comprising the decapods, krill, Amphionides and Angustidontida. They are characterised by having the carapace fused to all thoracic segments, and by the possession of stalked eyes.
The Diogenidae are a family of hermit crabs, sometimes known as "left-handed hermit crabs" because in contrast to most other hermit crabs, its left chela (claw) is enlarged instead of the right. It comprises 429 extant species, and a further 46 extinct species, making it the second-largest family of marine hermit crabs, after the Paguridae.
The Parapaguridae are a family of Marine hermit crabs from deep waters. Instead of carrying empty gastropod shells like other hermit crabs, they carry colonies of dozen or more sea anemones or zoanthids. Some genera, such as Bivalvopagurus and Tylaspis, do not inhabit shells. The following genera are included:
Dromiacea is a group of crabs, ranked as a section. It contains 240 extant and nearly 300 extinct species. Where they are considered to form a monophyletic group, Dromiacea and two other groups of crabs, namely the Raninoida and Cyclodorippoidea, may be collected together into the Podotremata, each at the rank of subsection; morphological and molecular evidence argue against such a grouping.
Dardanus pedunculatus, the anemone hermit crab, is a species of hermit crab from the Indo-Pacific region. It lives at depths of up to 27 m and collects sea anemones to place on its shell for defence.
Pagurus sinuatus is a large species of hermit crab found in Australia and the Kermadec Islands. It is red or orange in colour with coloured bands on the legs and patches on the body.
The Pylojacquesidae are a small family of hermit crabs, comprising only two species in two genera. The family was erected in 2001, after two specimens at Museum für Naturkunde at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin were recognised as being quite distinct from other described hermit crabs. The family members differ from other hermit crabs in that their mandibles are chitinous and toothed.
Hepatella is a genus of crabs in the family Aethridae, containing these species:
Porcellanopagurus edwardsi is a species of hermit crab that lives in the waters around New Zealand and its subantarctic islands.
Oregonia is a genus of crabs, comprising two extant species and one fossil species: It is classified in the family Oregoniidae under the spider crab superfamily Majoidea.
Oregonia bifurca, commonly known as the split-nose crab or the split-nose decorator crab, is a species of crabs belonging to the genus Oregonia. It is a rare deep-water species that inhabits the tops of seamounts and guyots in the northeastern Pacific Ocean; from the Aleutian Islands, the Bering Sea, the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, to the waters off British Columbia. It is closely related to the more common shallow-water species Oregonia gracilis, the graceful decorator crab.
Crustaceans form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimps, prawns, krill, woodlice, and barnacles. The crustacean group can be treated as a subphylum under the clade Mandibulata; because of recent molecular studies it is now well accepted that the crustacean group is paraphyletic, and comprises all animals in the clade Pancrustacea other than hexapods. Some crustaceans are more closely related to insects and other hexapods than they are to certain other crustaceans.
The Camptandriidae are a family of crabs, with 38 species in 21 genera:
Armases is a genus of true crabs in the family Sesarmidae. There are about 13 described species in Armases.
Labidochirus splendescens, commonly known as the splendid hermit crab, is a species of hermit crab found in the northeastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of North America. It is more heavily calcified and inhabits smaller mollusc shells than most hermit crabs.
William Stephenson MBE (1916–1996) was a British/Australian marine biologist and academic.
Ovalipidae is a family of sand crabs in the order Decapoda. There are at least 3 genera and more than 20 described species in Ovalipidae. These were formerly members of the family Portunidae
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