The Duke of Bedford
The Duke of Bedford, by Sir Joshua Reynolds
|Lord President of the Council|
9 September 1763 –12 July 1765
|Prime Minister||George Grenville|
|Preceded by||The Earl Granville|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Winchilsea|
|British Ambassador to France|
4 April 1762 –1 June 1763
The Earl of Albemarle recalled due to the Seven Years' War
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Hertford|
|Lord Privy Seal|
25 November 1761 –22 April 1763
|Prime Minister|| The Duke of Newcastle |
The Earl of Bute
|Preceded by||In Commission|
The Earl Temple, 5 October 1761
|Succeeded by||The Duke of Marlborough|
|Lord Lieutenant of Ireland|
3 January 1757 –3 April 1761
|Monarch|| George II |
|Preceded by||The Duke of Devonshire|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Halifax|
|Secretary of State for the Southern Department|
12 February 1748 –13 June 1751
|Prime Minister||Henry Pelham|
|Preceded by||The Duke of Newcastle|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Holderness|
|First Lord of the Admiralty|
27 December 1744 –26 February 1748
|Prime Minister||Henry Pelham|
|Preceded by||The Earl of Winchilsea|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Sandwich|
30 September 1710
Kingdom of Great Britain
|Died||5 January 1771 60) (aged|
Kingdom of Great Britain
|Resting place|| Chenies, Buckinghamshire |
|Spouse(s)|| Lady Diana Spencer |
Lady Gertrude Leveson-Gower
|Children||John Russell, Marquess of Tavistock |
Francis Russell, Marquess of Tavistock
Caroline Spencer, Duchess of Marlborough
|Parents|| Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford |
John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford, –5 January 1771) was an 18th-century British statesman. He was the fourth son of Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford, by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John Howland of Streatham, Surrey. Known as Lord John Russell, he married in October 1731 Diana Spencer, daughter of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland; became Duke of Bedford on his brother's death a year later; and having lost his first wife in 1735, married in April 1737 Lady Gertrude Leveson-Gower (died 1794), daughter of John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower.(30 September 1710
In the House of Lords he joined the Patriot Whig opposition hostile to the Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, took a fairly prominent part in public business, and earned the dislike of George II. When Carteret, now Earl Granville, resigned office in November 1744, Bedford became First Lord of the Admiralty in the administration of Henry Pelham, and was made a privy councillor. He was very successful at the admiralty, but was not equally fortunate after he became Secretary of State for the Southern Department in February 1748. Pelham accused him of idleness and he was constantly at variance with his colleague The Duke of Newcastle. Newcastle, who had previously admired The Earl of Sandwich, Bedford's successor as First Lord of the Admiralty, for his forthright and hardline views, had increasingly begun to distrust him and his relationship with Bedford. Newcastle engineered the dismissal of both of them, by sacking Sandwich in June 1751. Bedford resigned in protest, as Newcastle had calculated, allowing him to replace them with men he considered more loyal personally to him. During his time in the post he was accused of spending far too much time at his country estate playing cricket and shooting pheasants.
Bedford was very keen on cricket. The earliest surviving record of his involvement in the sport comes from 1741 when he hosted Bedfordshire v Northamptonshire & Huntingdonshire at Woburn Park. The combined Northamptonshire & Huntingdonshire team won. Bedford arranged the match with his friends George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax (Northants) and John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (Hunts).A few days later, there was a return match at Cow Meadow, Northampton, and the combined team won again.
By 1743, Bedford had developed Woburn Cricket Club into a leading team that was able to compete against London. The team was prominent in 1743 and 1744 but, after that, there is no further mention of it in the surviving sources.
Instigated by his friends, he was active in opposition to the government, becoming the leader of a faction named after him, the Bedford Whigs. After Newcastle's resignation in November 1756, Bedford became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the new government led by William Pitt and the Duke of Devonshire. He retained this office after Newcastle, in alliance with Pitt, returned to power in June 1757. In Ireland he favoured a relaxation of the penal laws against Roman Catholics, but did not keep his promises to observe neutrality between the rival parties, and to abstain from securing pensions for his friends. His own courtly manners and generosity, and his wife's good qualities, however, seem to have gained for him some popularity, although Horace Walpole says he disgusted everybody (the word "disgusting" then had a much wider range of meanings than it has today, and at its mildest meant simply "reserved"). He oversaw the Irish response to the threatened French invasion in 1759, and the landing of a small French force in northern Ireland. In March 1761 he resigned this office.
Having allied himself with the Earl of Bute and the party anxious to bring the Seven Years' War to a close, Bedford was noticed as the strongest opponent of Pitt, and became Lord Privy Seal under Bute after Pitt resigned in October 1761. The cabinet of Bute was divided over the policy to be pursued with regard to the war, but pacific counsels prevailed, and in September 1762 Bedford went to France to treat for peace. He was considerably annoyed because some of the peace negotiations were conducted through other channels, but he signed the Peace of Paris in February 1763. Resigning his office as Lord Privy Seal soon afterwards, various causes of estrangement arose between Bute and Bedford, and the subsequent relations of the two men were somewhat virulent.
The duke refused to take office under George Grenville on Bute's resignation in April 1763, and sought to induce Pitt to return to power. A report, however, that Pitt would only take office on condition that Bedford was excluded, incensed him and, smarting under this rebuff, he joined the cabinet of Grenville as Lord President of the Council in September 1763. His haughty manner, his somewhat insulting language, and his attitude with regard to the regency bill in 1765 offended George III, who sought in vain to supplant him, and after this failure was obliged to make humiliating concessions to the ministry. In July 1765, however, he was able to dispense with the services of Bedford and his colleagues, and the duke became the leader of a political party, distinguished for rapacity, and known as the Bedford party, or the Bloomsbury gang.
During his term of office he had opposed a bill to place high import duties on Italian silks. He was consequently assaulted and his London residence attacked by a mob. He took some part in subsequent political intrigues, and although he did not return to office, his friends, with his consent, joined the ministry of the Duke of Grafton in December 1767. This proceeding led "Junius" to write his "Letter to the Duke of Bedford," one of especial violence. Bedford was hostile to John Wilkes, and narrowly escaped from a mob favourable to the agitator at Honiton in July 1769.
Child of John Russell and his first wife Lady Diana Spencer:
Children of John Russell and his second wife Hon. Gertrude Leveson-Gower:
His health had been declining for some years, and in 1770 he became partially paralysed. He died at Woburn on 5 January 1771, and was buried in the 'Bedford Chapel' at St. Michael's Church, Chenies, Buckinghamshire. His sons all predeceased him, and he was succeeded in the title by his grandson, Francis.
The duke held many public offices: lord-lieutenant of Bedfordshire and Devon, and chancellor of Dublin University among others, and was a Knight of the Garter. Bedford was a proud and conceited man, but possessed both ability and common-sense. The important part which he took in public life, however, was due rather to his wealth and position than to his personal taste or ambition. He was neither above nor below the standard of political morality of the time, and was influenced by his duchess, who was very ambitious, and by followers who were singularly unscrupulous.
He served as the twelfth Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin from 1765 to 1770.
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, PC, FRS was a British statesman who succeeded his grandfather Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich as the Earl of Sandwich in 1729, at the age of ten. During his life, he held various military and political offices, including Postmaster General, First Lord of the Admiralty, and Secretary of State for the Northern Department. He is also known for the claim that he was the eponymous inventor of the sandwich.
Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple, was a British politician. He is best known for his association with his brother-in-law William Pitt who he served with in government during Britain's participation in the Seven Years War between 1756 and 1761. He resigned along with Pitt in protest at the cabinet's failure to declare war on Spain.
Duke of Bedford is a title that has been created six times in the Peerage of England. The first and second creations came in 1414 in favour of Henry IV's third son, John, who later served as regent of France. He was made Earl of Kendal at the same time and was made Earl of Richmond later the same year. The titles became extinct on his death in 1435. The third creation came in 1470 in favour of George Neville, nephew of Warwick the Kingmaker. He was deprived of the title by Act of Parliament in 1478. The fourth creation came 1478 in favour of George, the third son of Edward IV. He died the following year at the age of two. The fifth creation came in 1485 in favour of Jasper Tudor, half-brother of Henry VI and uncle of Henry VII. He had already been created Earl of Pembroke in 1452. However, as he was a Lancastrian, his title was forfeited between 1461 and 1485 during the predominance of the House of York. He regained the earldom in 1485 when his nephew Henry VII came to the throne and was elevated to the dukedom the same year. He had no legitimate children and the titles became extinct on his death in 1495.
George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, was a British statesman of the Georgian era. Due to his success in extending American commerce he became known as "father of the colonies". President of the Board of Trade from 1748 to 1761, he aided the foundation of Nova Scotia, 1749, the capital Halifax being named after him.
George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough,, styled Marquess of Blandford until 1758, was a British courtier, nobleman, and politician from the Spencer family. He served as Lord Chamberlain between 1762 and 1763 and as Lord Privy Seal between 1763 and 1765. He is the great-great-great grandfather of Sir Winston Churchill.
William Pitt the Younger led the government of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1783 to 1801.
The article lists the records of Prime Ministers of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom since 1721.
Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford, PC, known as Viscount Trentham from 1746 to 1754 and as The Earl Gower from 1754 to 1786, was a British politician from the Leveson-Gower family.
Henry Bilson-Legge was an English statesman. He notably served three times as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the 1750s and 1760s.
Lord John Philip Sackville was the second son of Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset. He was a keen cricketer who was closely connected with the sport in Kent.
The 1741 English cricket season was the 45th cricket season since the earliest recorded eleven-aside match was played. Details have survived of nine significant matches, including the first known appearance of Slindon Cricket Club. The earliest known tie in an elevel-a-side match occurred.
The Bedford Whigs were an 18th-century British political faction, led by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford. Other than Bedford himself, notable members included John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich; Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Gower; Richard Rigby, who served as principal Commons manager for the group; Thomas Thynne, 3rd Viscount Weymouth; Edward Thurlow; and George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough
Francis Russell, Marquess of Tavistock was a British politician and the eldest son of the 4th Duke of Bedford and his second wife Hon. Gertrude Leveson-Gower.
Thomas Villiers, 1st Earl of Clarendon, PC was a British politician and diplomat from the Villiers family.
John Proby, 1st Baron Carysfort KB PC was a British Whig politician.
Sir John Wrottesley, 8th Baronet, of Wrottesley Hall in Staffordshire, was a British army officer and politician who was a Member of the British House of Commons from 1768 to 1787.
The Chatham ministry was a British government led by William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham that ruled between 1766 and 1768. Because of Pitt's former prominence before his title, it is sometimes referred to as the Pitt ministry. Unusually for a politician considered to be Prime Minister, Pitt was not First Lord of the Treasury during the administration, but instead held the post of Lord Privy Seal.
Rear-Admiral John Leveson-Gower was a Royal Navy officer and politician from the Leveson-Gower family. As a junior officer he saw action at the Battle of Lagos in August 1759 during the Seven Years' War. As captain of HMS Valiant he was present at the Battle of Ushant on 17 July 1778 during the American War of Independence. He went on to be a junior Lord of the Admiralty and then First Naval Lord. He also sat as Member of Parliament for several constituencies.
Richard Vernon was a British horse breeder and trainer and a politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1754 and 1790.
Gertrude Russell, Duchess of Bedford, formerly the Hon. Gertrude Leveson-Gower, was the second wife of John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford. She was the eldest daughter of John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower, and his wife, the former Lady Evelyn Pierrepont. She married the Duke of Bedford on 2 April 1737.
| President of the Foundling Hospital |
Title last held byThe Duke of Kent
| Lord Lieutenant of Bedfordshire |
The Earl of Upper Ossory
The Earl of Orford
| Lord Lieutenant of Devon |
The Earl Poulett
Title last held byTheophilus Fortescue
| Vice-Admiral of Devon |
Title next held byThe Earl Fortescue
The Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham
| First Lord of the Admiralty |
The Earl of Sandwich
The Duke of Newcastle
| Secretary of State for the Southern Department |
The Earl of Holdernesse
The Duke of Devonshire
| Lord Lieutenant of Ireland |
The Earl of Halifax
The Earl Temple
| Lord Privy Seal |
The Duke of Marlborough
The Earl Granville
| Lord President of the Council |
The Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham
None due to Seven Years' War
| British Ambassador to France |
The Earl of Hertford
The Duke of Cumberland
| Chancellor of the University of Dublin |
The Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
|Peerage of England|
| Duke of Bedford |