John Sharp Williams

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John Williams
John Sharp Williams 1923.jpg
House Minority Leader
In office
March 4, 1903 March 4, 1909
Deputy James Tilghman Lloyd
Preceded by James D. Richardson
Succeeded by Champ Clark
Leader of the House Democratic Caucus
In office
March 4, 1903 March 4, 1909
Preceded by James D. Richardson
Succeeded by Champ Clark
United States Senator
from Mississippi
In office
March 4, 1911 March 4, 1923
Preceded by Hernando Money
Succeeded by Hubert D. Stephens
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Mississippi's 8th district
In office
March 4, 1903 March 4, 1909
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded by James Collier
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Mississippi's 5th district
In office
March 4, 1893 March 4, 1903
Preceded by Joseph H. Beeman
Succeeded by Adam M. Byrd
Personal details
Born(1854-07-30)July 30, 1854
Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
DiedSeptember 27, 1932(1932-09-27) (aged 78)
Yazoo City, Mississippi, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Education University of the South
University of Virginia, Charlottesville (LLB)

John Sharp Williams (July 30, 1854 September 27, 1932) was a prominent American politician in the Democratic Party from the 1890s through the 1920s, and served as the Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives from 1903 to 1908.

Contents

Early life

Williams was born in Memphis, Tennessee, but raised in Yazoo County, Mississippi, after he was orphaned during the American Civil War. After graduating from the Kentucky Military Institute in 1870, he studied at the University of the South before transferring to the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, where he was Phi Beta Kappa but did not complete all his science courses for his bachelor's degree. [1] He spent two years in Europe at the University of Heidelberg and what is now the University of Burgundy before returning to the University of Virginia to receive his law degree in 1876. [1] After a brief return to Memphis (where he married Elizabeth Dial Webb in 1877), Williams returned to Yazoo County, where from 1878 to 1893 he ran the family plantation and kept a law practice.

Political career

Elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1893, Williams soon became a leader of the Democratic minority, renowned for his speaking skill and wit. Like most other Southern Democrats of the day, he was a proponent of coining silver and an opponent of high tariffs; unlike them, he refused to use racebaiting to build political popularity. In 1906, when Great Britain launched HMS Dreadnought, Congressman Williams introduced a bill to change the name of USS Michigan to USS Skeered O' Nothin' as a challenge to the prestigious English.

During his time as ranking Democrat in the Republican-controlled House, Williams was given the privilege of choosing the Democrats assigned to committees by the House Speaker Joseph Gurney Cannon (by the rules of the House, Cannon was entitled to make all appointments himself), giving him tremendous power within the minority party. In gratitude, Williams was known to omit Democrats whom Cannon found particularly objectionable from committee assignments. Recognizing his status vis-à-vis Cannon, Williams jokingly described his relative political impotence in the Cannon-dominated Committee on Rules, "I am invited to the seances but I am never consulted about the spiritualistic appearances." [2]

By beating one of Mississippi's leading racebaiters, James K. Vardaman, Williams moved to the United States Senate in 1911. He became one of Woodrow Wilson's strongest supporters, from Wilson's nomination for the Presidency in 1912 to the losing battle to ratify American participation in the League of Nations in 1920. During his time as a senator, he also served as a chairman of the Committee to Establish a University of the United States.

He gave a classic denunciation of the black race when he declared on December 20, 1898: "You could ship-wreck 10,000 illiterate white Americans on a desert island, and in three weeks they would have a fairly good government, conceived and administered upon fairly democratic lines. You could ship-wreck 10,000 negroes, every one of whom was a graduate of Harvard University, and in less than three years, they would have retrograded governmentally; half of the men would have been killed, and the other half would have two wives apiece." [3]

After retiring from the Senate in 1923, Williams returned to his family plantation, where he spent the last decade of his life.

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References

  1. 1 2 Mississippi History Now – The Political Career of John Sharp Williams (1854–1932)
  2. Bolles, Blair. Tyrant from Illinois: Uncle Joe Cannon's Experiment with Personal Power, W. W. Norton & Company, 1951, p. 54
  3. Logan, Rayford W. The Betrayal of the Negro: From Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson, Da Capo Press, 1965, p. 90. ISBN   9780306807589
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Joseph H. Beeman
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Mississippi's 5th congressional district

1893–1903
Succeeded by
Adam M. Byrd
New constituency Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Mississippi's 8th congressional district

1903–1909
Succeeded by
James Collier
Preceded by
James D. Richardson
House Minority Leader
1903–1908
Succeeded by
Champ Clark
Party political offices
Preceded by
James D. Richardson
House Democratic Leader
1903–1909
Succeeded by
Champ Clark
Preceded by
Charles S. Thomas
Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention
1904
Succeeded by
Theodore Bell
First Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Mississippi
(Class 1)

1916
Succeeded by
Hubert D. Stephens
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Hernando Money
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Mississippi
1911–1923
Served alongside: LeRoy Percy, James K. Vardaman, Pat Harrison
Succeeded by
Hubert D. Stephens