John Snow

Last updated

John Snow
John Snow.jpg
Born(1813-03-15)15 March 1813
Died16 June 1858(1858-06-16) (aged 45)
London, United Kingdom
NationalityEnglish
Citizenship British
Alma materUniversity of London
Known for Anaesthesia
Locating source of a cholera outbreak (thus establishing the disease as water-borne)
Scientific career
Fields Anaesthesia
Epidemiology

John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858 [1] ) was an English physician and a leader in the development of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. He is considered one of the fathers of modern epidemiology, in part because of his work in tracing the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, in 1854. Oxford University researchers state that Snow's findings inspired the adoption of anaesthesia as well as fundamental changes in the water and waste systems of London, which led to similar changes in other cities, and a significant improvement in general public health around the world. [2]

Hygiene set of practices performed for the preservation of health

Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases." Personal hygiene refers to maintaining the body's cleanliness.

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak

The Broad Street cholera outbreak was a severe outbreak of cholera that occurred in 1854 near Broad Street in the Soho district of the City of Westminster, London, England, and occurred during the 1846–1860 cholera pandemic happening worldwide. This outbreak, which killed 616 people, is best known for the physician John Snow's study of its causes and his hypothesis that germ-contaminated water was the source of cholera, rather than particles in the air. This discovery came to influence public health and the construction of improved sanitation facilities beginning in the mid-19th century. Later, the term "focus of infection" started to be used to describe sites, such as the Broad Street pump, in which conditions are good for transmission of an infection. Snow's endeavor to find the cause of the transmission of cholera caused him to unknowingly create a double-blind experiment.

Contents

Early life and education

Snow was born on 15 March 1813 in York, England, the first of nine children born to William and Frances Snow in their North Street home, and was baptised at All Saints' Church, North Street, York. His father was a labourer [3] who worked at a local coal yard, by the Ouse, constantly replenished from the Yorkshire coalfield by barges, but later was a farmer in a small village to the north of York. [4]

York Historic city in the north of England

York is a historic walled city in North Yorkshire, England. At the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, it is the historic county town of the historic county of Yorkshire. York Minster and a variety of cultural and sporting activities make it a popular tourist destination.

All Saints Church, North Street, York Church in York, England

All Saints' Church is a Church of England parish church on North Street, York, North Yorkshire. The church is a Grade I listed building.

The neighbourhood was one of the poorest in the city, and was frequently in danger of flooding because of its proximity to the River Ouse. Growing up, Snow experienced unsanitary conditions and contamination in his hometown. Most of the streets were unsanitary and the river was contaminated by runoff water from market squares, cemeteries and sewage. [5]

River Ouse, Yorkshire river in North Yorkshire, England

The River Ouse is a river in North Yorkshire, England. Hydrologically, the river is a continuation of the River Ure, and the combined length of the River Ure and River Ouse makes it, at 129 miles (208 km), the sixth longest river of the United Kingdom and the longest to flow entirely in one county. The length of the Ouse alone is about 52 miles (84 km).

All Saints, North Street, York Allsaintsnorthstreetyork.jpg
All Saints, North Street, York

From a young age, Snow demonstrated an aptitude for mathematics. In 1827, when he was 14, he obtained a medical apprenticeship with William Hardcastle in the area of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. In 1832, during his time as a surgeon-apothecary apprentice, he encountered a cholera epidemic for the first time in Killingworth, a coal-mining village. [6] Snow treated many victims of the disease thus and gained experience. Additionally, while he was an apprentice, Snow could not drink, gamble or marry. Eventually he adjusted to teetotalism and led a life characterized by abstinence, signing an abstinence pledge in 1835. Snow was also a vegetarian and tried to only drink distilled water that was “pure”. [5] Between 1833 and 1836 Snow worked as an assistant to a colliery surgeon, first in Burnopfield, County Durham, and then in Pateley Bridge, West Riding of Yorkshire. In October 1836 he enrolled at the Hunterian school of medicine on Great Windmill Street, London. [7]

Killingworth a town in England, United Kindom

Killingworth, formerly Killingworth Township, is a town north of Newcastle Upon Tyne, in North Tyneside, England.

Teetotalism Practice or promotion of complete personal abstinence from alcoholic beverages

Teetotalism is the practice or promotion of complete personal abstinence from alcoholic beverages. A person who practices teetotalism is called a teetotaler or is simply said to be teetotal. The teetotalism movement was first started in Preston, England, in the early 19th century. The Preston Temperance Society was founded in 1833 by Joseph Livesey, who was to become a leader of the temperance movement and the author of The Pledge: "We agree to abstain from all liquors of an intoxicating quality whether ale, porter, wine or ardent spirits, except as medicine."

Burnopfield village in United Kingdom

Burnopfield is a village in County Durham, in England. It is situated north of Stanley and Annfield Plain, close to the River Derwent and is 564 feet above sea level. There are around 5,001 inhabitants in Burnopfield. It is located 10 miles from Newcastle upon Tyne and 15 miles from Durham.

Career

In the 1830s, Snow's colleague at the Newcastle Infirmary was surgeon Thomas Michael Greenhow. Both surgeons worked together conducting research on England's cholera epidemics, both continuing to do so for many years. [8] [9]

Thomas Michael Greenhow MD MRCS FRCS was an English surgeon.

Cholera Bacterial infection of the small intestine

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. Dehydration can cause the skin to turn bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure.

In 1837, Snow began working at the Westminster Hospital. Admitted as a member of the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 2 May 1838, he graduated from the University of London in December 1844 and was admitted to the Royal College of Physicians in 1850. Snow was a founding member of the Epidemiological Society of London which was formed in May 1850 in response to the cholera outbreak of 1849. By 1856, Snow and Greenhow's nephew, Dr. E.H. Greenhow were some of a handful of esteemed medical men of the society who held discussions on this "dreadful scourge, the cholera". [10] [11] [12]

Westminster Hospital Hospital in Westminster, London

Westminster Hospital was a hospital in London, England, founded in 1719. In 1834 a medical school attached to the hospital was formally founded. In 1939 a newly built hospital and medical school opened in Horseferry Road, Westminster. In 1994 the hospital closed, and its resources were moved to the new Chelsea and Westminster Hospital at the old St Stephen's Hospital site in Fulham Road.

Royal College of Surgeons of England professional body in England, United Kingdom

The Royal College of Surgeons of England, is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales. The College is located at Lincoln's Inn Fields in London. It publishes multiple medical journals including the Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Faculty Dental Journal, and the Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

University of London federal public university in London, United Kingdom

The University of London is a collegiate federal research university located in London, England. As of October 2018, the university contains 18 member institutions, central academic bodies and research institutes. The university has over 52,000 distance learning external students and 161,270 campus-based internal students, making it the largest university by number of students in the United Kingdom.

In 1857, Snow made an early and often overlooked [13] contribution to epidemiology in a pamphlet, On the adulteration of bread as a cause of rickets . [14]

Anaesthesia

John Snow was one of the first physicians to study and calculate dosages for the use of ether and chloroform as surgical anaesthetics, allowing patients to undergo surgical and obstetric procedures without the distress and pain they would otherwise experience. He designed the apparatus to safely administer ether to the patients and also designed a mask to administer chloroform. [15] He personally administered chloroform to Queen Victoria when she gave birth to the last two of her nine children, Leopold in 1853 and Beatrice in 1857 and was still not yet knighted, [16] leading to wider public acceptance of obstetric anaesthesia. Snow published an article on ether in 1847 entitled On the Inhalation of the Vapor of Ether. [17] A longer version entitled On Chloroform and Other Anaesthetics and Their Action and Administration was published posthumously in 1858. [18]

After finishing his medical studies in the University of London, he earned his MD in 1844. Snow set up his practice at 54 Frith Street in Soho as a surgeon and general practitioner. John Snow contributed to a wide range of medical concerns including anaesthesiology. He was a member of the Westminster Medical Society, an organisation dedicated to clinical and scientific demonstrations. Snow gained prestige and recognition all the while being able to experiment and pursue many of his scientific ideas. He was a speaker multiple times at the society’s meetings and he also wrote and published articles. He was especially interested in patients with respiratory diseases and tested his hypothesis through animal studies. In 1841, he wrote, On Asphyxiation, and on the Resuscitation of Still-Born Children, which is an article that discusses his discoveries on the physiology of neonatal respiration, oxygen consumption and the effects of body temperature change. [19] Therefore, his interest in anaesthesia and breathing was evident since 1841 and beginning in 1843, Snow experimented with ether to see its effects on respiration. [5] Only a year after ether was introduced to Britain, in 1847, he published a short work titled, On the Inhalation of the Vapor of Ether, which served as a guide for its use. At the same time, he worked on various papers that reported his clinical experience with anaesthesia, noting reactions, procedures and experiments.

Though he thoroughly worked with ether as an anaesthetic, he never attempted to patent it; instead he continued to work and publish written works on his observations and research. Within two years after ether was introduced, Snow was the most accomplished anaesthetist in Britain. London’s principal surgeons suddenly wanted his assistance. [5]

John Snow studied chloroform as much as he studied ether, which was introduced in 1847 by James Young Simpson, a Scottish obstetrician. He realised that chloroform was much more potent and required more attention and precision when administering it. Snow first realised this with Hannah Greener, a 15-year-old patient who died on 28 January 1848 after a surgical procedure that required the cutting of her toenail. She was administered chloroform by covering her face with a cloth dipped in the substance. However, she quickly lost pulse and died. After investigating her death and a couple of deaths that followed, he realized that chloroform had to be administered carefully and published his findings in a letter to The Lancet. [5]

Obstetric anaesthesia

Snow’s work and findings were related to both anaesthesia and the practice of childbirth. His experience with obstetric patients was extensive and used different substances including ether, amylene and chloroform to treat his patients. However, chloroform was the easiest drug to administer. He treated 77 obstetric patients with chloroform. He would apply the chloroform at the second stage of labour and controlled the amount without completely putting the patients to sleep. Once the patient was delivering the baby, they would only feel the first half of the contraction and be on the border of unconsciousness, but not fully there. Regarding administration of the anaesthetic, Snow believed that it would be safer if another person that was not the surgeon applied it. [19]

The use of chloroform as an anaesthetic for childbirth was seen as unethical by many physicians and even the Church of England. However, on 7 April 1853, Queen Victoria asked John Snow to administer chloroform during the delivery of her eighth child. He then repeated the procedure for the delivery of her daughter three years later. Medical and religious acceptance of obstetrical anaesthesia came after in the 19th century. [5]

Cholera

Map of a later cholera outbreak in London, in 1866 Chol an.gif
Map of a later cholera outbreak in London, in 1866
Legend for the map above Choleramaplondon1866.png
Legend for the map above

Snow was a skeptic of the then-dominant miasma theory that stated that diseases such as cholera and bubonic plague were caused by pollution or a noxious form of "bad air". The germ theory of disease had not yet been developed, so Snow did not understand the mechanism by which the disease was transmitted. His observation of the evidence led him to discount the theory of foul air. He first publicised his theory in an 1849 essay, On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, [20] followed by a more detailed treatise in 1855 incorporating the results of his investigation of the role of the water supply in the Soho epidemic of 1854. [21] [22]

By talking to local residents (with the help of Reverend Henry Whitehead), he identified the source of the outbreak as the public water pump on Broad Street (now Broadwick Street). Although Snow's chemical and microscope examination of a water sample from the Broad Street pump did not conclusively prove its danger, his studies of the pattern of the disease were convincing enough to persuade the local council to disable the well pump by removing its handle (force rod). This action has been commonly credited as ending the outbreak, but Snow observed that the epidemic may have already been in rapid decline:

There is no doubt that the mortality was much diminished, as I said before, by the flight of the population, which commenced soon after the outbreak; but the attacks had so far diminished before the use of the water was stopped, that it is impossible to decide whether the well still contained the cholera poison in an active state, or whether, from some cause, the water had become free from it. [21] :51–52

Original map by John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854, drawn and lithographed by Charles Cheffins. Snow-cholera-map-1.jpg
Original map by John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854, drawn and lithographed by Charles Cheffins.

Snow later used a dot map to illustrate the cluster of cholera cases around the pump. He also used statistics to illustrate the connection between the quality of the water source and cholera cases. He showed that the Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company was taking water from sewage-polluted sections of the Thames and delivering the water to homes, leading to an increased incidence of cholera. Snow's study was a major event in the history of public health and geography. It is regarded as the founding event of the science of epidemiology.[ citation needed ]

Snow wrote:

On proceeding to the spot, I found that nearly all the deaths had taken place within a short distance of the [Broad Street] pump. There were only ten deaths in houses situated decidedly nearer to another street-pump. In five of these cases the families of the deceased persons informed me that they always sent to the pump in Broad Street, as they preferred the water to that of the pumps which were nearer. In three other cases, the deceased were children who went to school near the pump in Broad Street...

With regard to the deaths occurring in the locality belonging to the pump, there were 61 instances in which I was informed that the deceased persons used to drink the pump water from Broad Street, either constantly or occasionally...

The result of the inquiry, then, is, that there has been no particular outbreak or prevalence of cholera in this part of London except among the persons who were in the habit of drinking the water of the above-mentioned pump well.

I had an interview with the Board of Guardians of St James's parish, on the evening of the 7th inst [7 September], and represented the above circumstances to them. In consequence of what I said, the handle of the pump was removed on the following day.

John Snow, letter to the editor of the Medical Times and Gazette[ citation needed ]
John Snow memorial and public house on Broadwick Street, Soho John Snow memorial and pub.jpg
John Snow memorial and public house on Broadwick Street, Soho

Researchers later discovered that this public well had been dug only 3 feet (0.9 m) from an old cesspit, which had begun to leak faecal bacteria. The cloth nappy of a baby, who had contracted cholera from another source, had been washed into this cesspit. Its opening was originally under a nearby house, which had been rebuilt farther away after a fire. The city had widened the street and the cesspit was lost. It was common at the time to have a cesspit under most homes. Most families tried to have their raw sewage collected and dumped in the Thames to prevent their cesspit from filling faster than the sewage could decompose into the soil. [23]

Thomas Shapter had conducted similar studies and used a point-based map for the study of cholera in Exeter, seven years before John Snow, although this did not identify the water supply problem that was later held responsible. [24]

Political controversy

After the cholera epidemic had subsided, government officials replaced the Broad Street pump handle. They had responded only to the urgent threat posed to the population, and afterward they rejected Snow's theory. To accept his proposal would have meant indirectly accepting the fecal-oral route of disease transmission, which was too unpleasant for most of the public to contemplate. [25]

It wasn't until 1866 that William Farr, one of Snow's chief opponents, realized the validity of his diagnosis when investigating another outbreak of cholera at Bromley by Bow and issued immediate orders that unboiled water was not to be drunk. [26]

Farr denied Snow's explanation of how exactly the contaminated water spread cholera, although he did accept that water had a role in the spread of the illness. In fact, some of the statistical data that Farr collected helped promote John Snow's views. [27]

Public health officials recognise the political struggles in which reformers have often become entangled. [28] During the Annual Pumphandle Lecture in England, members of the John Snow Society remove and replace a pump handle to symbolise the continuing challenges for advances in public health. [29]

Later life

In 1830 Snow became a member of the Temperance Movement, and lived for a decade or so as a vegetarian and teetotaler. In the mid-1840s his health deteriorated, and he returned to meat-eating and drinking wine. He continued drinking pure water (via boiling) throughout his adult life. He never married. [30]

Snow lived at 18 Sackville Street, London, from 1852 to his death in 1858. [31]

Snow suffered a stroke while working in his London office on 10 June 1858. He was 45 years old at the time. [32] He never recovered, dying on 16 June 1858. He was buried in Brompton Cemetery. [33]

Legacy and honours

Funerary monument, Brompton Cemetery, London JohnSnowBrompton.jpg
Funerary monument, Brompton Cemetery, London
Blue plaque erected by the Royal Society of Chemistry Dr John Snow (24023399742).jpg
Blue plaque erected by the Royal Society of Chemistry

See also

Related Research Articles

Anesthesiology medical speciality that focuses on anesthesia and perioperative medicine

Anesthesiology, anaesthesiology, anaesthesia or anaesthetics is the medical speciality concerned with the total perioperative care of patients before, during and after surgery. It encompasses anesthesia, intensive care medicine, critical emergency medicine, and pain medicine, with the study and use of anesthesia and anesthetics being its core element. A physician specialised in this field of medicine is called an anesthesiologist, anaesthesiologist or anaesthetist, depending on the country.

Anaesthetic machine medical device used to generate a fresh gas flow for anaesthesia

An anaesthetic machine or anesthesia machine is a medical device used to generate and mix a fresh gas flow of medical gases and inhalational anaesthetic agents for the purpose of inducing and maintaining anaesthesia.

James Young Simpson British obstetrician

Sir James Young Simpson, 1st Baronet, FRCPE was a Scottish obstetrician and a significant figure in the history of medicine. He was the first physician to demonstrate the anaesthetic properties of chloroform on humans and helped to popularise the drug's use in medicine.

Sir Ivan Whiteside Magill was an Irish born anaesthetist who is famous for his involvement in much of the innovation and development in modern anaesthesia. He helped to establish the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. Several medical devices are named after him.

Edward Headlam Greenhow British doctor

Edward Headlam Greenhow FRS, FRCP was an English physician, epidemiologist, sanitarian, statistician, clinician and lecturer.

Benjamin Ward Richardson British doctor

Sir Benjamin Ward Richardson was an eminent British physician, anaesthetist, physiologist, sanitarian, and a prolific writer on medical history. He was the recipient of the Fothergill gold medal, awarded by the Medical Society of London in 1854 and of the Astley Cooper triennial prize for an essay in physiology.

Edwin Lankester British scientist

Edwin Lankester FRS, FRMS, MRCS was an English surgeon and naturalist who made a major contribution to the control of cholera in London: he was the first public analyst in England.

<i>The Ghost Map</i> book by Steven Johnson

The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic – and How it Changed Science, Cities and the Modern World is a book by Steven Berlin Johnson in which he describes the most intense outbreak of cholera in Victorian London The book incorporated the idea of gemeinschaft, dealing with the effects of an epidemic in a city of common values, language, and traditions. The two central protagonists are Dr. John Snow, who created a map of the cholera cases, and the Reverend Henry Whitehead, whose extensive knowledge of the local community helped determine the initial cause of the outbreak. Dr. John Snow was a revered anesthetist who carried out epidemiological work in Soho, London. Around the mid-1850s Snow figured out the source of cholera contamination to be the drinking water from the Broad Street pump. The book was released on 19 October 2006. The cholera outbreak from 1848-49 killed approximately 54,000-62,000 in London, and the outbreak from 1853-54 killed an estimated 31,000 in London.

Henry Edmund Gaskin Boyle OBE was a pioneering anaesthetist best remembered for the development of early anaesthetic machines.

Henry Whitehead (priest) English epidemologist

Henry Whitehead was a Church of England priest and the assistant curate of St Luke's Church in Soho, London, during the 1854 cholera outbreak.

1846–1860 cholera pandemic pandemic

The third cholera pandemic (1846–60) was the third major outbreak of cholera originating in India in the nineteenth century that reached far beyond its borders, which researchers at UCLA believe may have started as early as 1837 and lasted until 1863. In Russia, more than one million people died of cholera. In 1853–54, the epidemic in London claimed over 10,000 lives, and there were 23,000 deaths for all of Great Britain. This pandemic was considered to have the highest fatalities of the 19th-century epidemics.

Joseph Thomas Clover English doctor and pioneer of anaesthesia

Joseph Thomas Clover was an English doctor and pioneer of anaesthesia. He invented a variety of pieces of apparatus to deliver anaesthetics including ether and chloroform safely and controllably. By 1871 he had administered anaesthetics 13,000 times without a fatality.

A.C.E. mixture is a historical anaesthetic agent for general anaesthesia. It was first suggested by Dr. George Harley and first used in England around 1860. In 1864 it was recommended for use by the Royal Medical and Surgical Society's Chloroform Committee. It was rarely used after the 19th century, except in Germany, where it was used for slightly longer.

The Chloroform Committee was commissioned by the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in 1864 to investigate the use of chloroform. The committee recommended the use of chloroform in the same year. It was the first of such committees and concluded that chloroform depresses the action of the heart and frequently kills. One of the members, Joseph Clover, during his time on the committee developed apparatus for using chloroform called the Clover bag.

Robert Mortimer Glover British surgeon

Dr Robert Mortimer Glover FRSE (1815-1859) was a British physician. In 1838 he co-founded the Paris Medical Society and served as its first Vice President. He won the Medical Society of London’s Fothergill Gold Medal in 1846 for his lecture "On the Pathology and Treatment of Scrofula". Some 5 years prior to James Young Simpson’s use of chloroform on human patients in 1842 Glover discovered its anaesthetic qualities on laboratory animals. He is sometimes called "the true discoverer of chloroform". In an ironic twist of fate he died from a chloroform overdose.

George Warwick Bampfylde Daniell was medical practitioner and anaesthesiologist who practised in South Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Obstetric anesthesia or obstetric anesthesiology, also known as ob-gyn anesthesia or ob-gyn anesthesiology is a sub-specialty of anesthesiology that provides peripartum pain relief (analgesia) for labor and anesthesia for cesarean deliveries ('C-sections').

Edinburgh Obstetrical Society

The Edinburgh Obstetrical Society is a medical society in Edinburgh devoted to obstetrics. It was founded in 1840 by Robert Bowes Malcolm and boasts James Young Simpson as their most eminent past member.

References

  1. "John Snow". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018-03-08. Retrieved 2018-03-12.
  2. Brody, H. "Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow". Oxford University Press, 1 May 2003. Retrieved 18 March 2019. A Life of John Snow Peter Vinten-Johansen, Howard Brody, Nigel Paneth, Stephen ... The senior surgeon was Thomas Michael Greenhow (1792–1881)....Consider also T. M. Greenhow: “When patients rally from collapse, it is often most difficult to ascertain on what causes....
  3. Wedding Record of William Snow and Frances Empson, Huntington All Saints, 24/05/1812
  4. Census 1841
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ramsay, Michael A.E. (January 6, 2009). "John Snow, MD: anaesthetist to the Queen of England and pioneer epidemiologist". Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center). 19 (1): 24–28. doi:10.1080/08998280.2006.11928120. PMC   1325279 . PMID   16424928.
  6. Ball, Laura (2009). "Cholera and the Pump on Broad Street: The Life and Legacy of John Snow".
  7. Thomas, KB. John Snow. In: Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Vol 12. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons; 1973:502–503.
  8. Smith, D. "Water-Supply and Public Health Engineering". Routledge, 15 May 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2019. ....Dr T.M. Greenhow, a Newcastle colleague of Dr John Snow, had published: Cholera: its non–contagious nature, and the best means of arresting its progress shortly ...
  9. Brody, H. "Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow". Oxford University Press, 1 May 2003. Retrieved 18 March 2019. A Life of John Snow Peter Vinten-Johansen, Howard Brody, Nigel Paneth, Stephen ... The senior surgeon was Thomas Michael Greenhow (1792–1881)....Consider also T. M. Greenhow: “When patients rally from collapse, it is often most difficult to ascertain on what causes....
  10. "London Epidemiology Society". UCLA. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  11. "The Lancet London: A Journal of British and Foreign Medicine ..., Volume 1... Epidemiological Society". Elsevier, 1856. p. 167. Retrieved 18 March 2018. The following members of the Epidiological Society (10 gentleman) took part in the discussion....Drs. Snow, Greenhow...
  12. Frerichs, R. "London Epidemiological Society". Depatment of Epidemiological (UCLA). Retrieved 18 March 2019. ...dreadful scourge, the cholera ....Snow was q founding member of .....(Tucker's) stimulating words lead to a meeting on March 6, 1850 in Hanover Square, within walking distance of the Broad Street pump in the Soho region of London. It was here that the London Epidemiological Society was born.
  13. Dunnigan, M. (2003). "Commentary: John Snow and alum-induced rickets from adulterated London bread: an overlooked contribution to metabolic bone disease". International Journal of Epidemiology. 32 (3): 340–1. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg160. PMID   12777415.
  14. Snow, J. (1857). "On the Adulteration of Bread As a Cause of Rickets". The Lancet. 70 (1766): 4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)21130-7.
    Reedited in Snow, J. (2003). "On the adulteration of bread as a cause of rickets" (PDF). International Journal of Epidemiology. 32 (3): 336–7. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg153. PMID   12777413.
  15. John Snow (1813–58). sciencemuseum.org.uk
  16. "Anesthesia and Queen Victoria". John Snow. Department of Epidemiology UCLA School of Public Health . Retrieved 21 August 2007.
  17. Snow, John (1847) On the Inhalation of the Vapor of Ether. ph.ucla.edu
  18. Snow, John (1858) On Chloroform and Other Anaesthetics and Their Action and Administration. London: John Churchill
  19. 1 2 Caton, Donald (January 2000). "John Snow's Practice of Obstetric Anesthesia".
  20. Snow, John (1849). On the Mode of Communication of Cholera (PDF). London: John Churchill.
  21. 1 2 Snow, John (1855). On the Mode of Communication of Cholera (2nd ed.). London: John Churchill.
  22. Gunn, S. William A.; Masellis, Michele (23 October 2007). Concepts and Practice of Humanitarian Medicine. Springer. pp. 87–. ISBN   978-0-387-72264-1.
  23. Klein, Gary. Seeing What Others Don't. p. 73.
  24. Shapter, Thomas (1849). The History of the Cholera in Exeter in 1832. London: John Churchill.
  25. Chapelle, Frank (2005) Wellsprings. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. ISBN   0-8135-3614-6. p. 82
  26. Cadbury, Deborah (2003). Seven Wonders of the Industrial World. London and New York: Fourth Estate. pp. 189–192.
  27. Eyler, John M. (April 1973). "William Farr on the Cholera: The Sanitarian's Disease Theory and the Statistician's Method". Journal of the History of Medicine.
  28. Donaldson, L.J. and Donaldson, R.J. (2005) Essential Public Health. Radcliffe Publishing. ISBN   1-900603-87-X. p. 105
  29. "Pumphandle Lectures". johnsnowsociety.org. The John Snow Society. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  30. Snow, Stephanie J. (2004) "Snow, John (1813–1858)" in Oxford Dictionary of Biography
  31. JOHN SNOW'S HOMES. UCLA Department of Epidemiology, 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  32. Johnson, Steven (2006). The Ghost Map. Riverhead Books. p. 206. ISBN   1-59448-925-4.
  33. "List of notable occupants". Brompton Cemetery. Archived from the original (HTTP) on 23 August 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2007.
  34. Punt, Steve (12 May 2014). "Birmingham". The 3rd Degree. Season 3. Episode 6. Event occurs at 7:05. BBC Radio 4 . Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  35. "The College Crest". The Royal College of Anaesthetists. 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  36. S. William Gunn; M. Masellis (2008). Concepts and practice of humanitarian medicine. ISBN   0-387-72263-7.
  37. Couvrier R, Edwards G (July 1959). "John Snow and the Institute of France". Med Hist. 3 (3): 249–251. doi:10.1017/s0025727300024662. PMC   1034490 .
  38. Hempel, S. (2013). "John Snow". The Lancet. 381 (9874): 1269. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60830-2.

Sources