John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (c. 1440 –15 September 1512), also known as Sir John Stewart of Balveny, was a Scottish nobleman and ambassador.
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain, with a border with England to the southeast, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
He was the oldest child of Joan Beaufort, widow of James I of Scotland, and her second husband Sir James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn.
James I, the youngest of three sons, was born in Dunfermline Abbey to King Robert III and his wife Annabella Drummond and reigned as King of Scotland from 1406 to 1437. His older brother David, Duke of Rothesay, died under suspicious circumstances while being detained by their uncle, Robert, Duke of Albany. Fears for James's safety grew through the winter of 1405/6 and plans were made to send him to France. In February 1406, James was forced to take refuge in the castle of the Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth after his escort was attacked by supporters of Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas. He remained there until mid-March when he boarded a vessel bound for France. On 22 March English pirates captured the ship and delivered the prince to Henry IV of England. The ailing Robert III died on 4 April and the 11-year-old James, now the uncrowned King of Scotland, would not regain his freedom for another eighteen years.
He was created Earl of Atholl in around 1457,the first earl of the eighth creation of the title. He is believed to have had a hand in suppressing the rebellion of John Macdonald, 11th Earl of Ross, the last of the Lords of the Isles. According to legend, the Earl of Atholl had whisky, honey and oats added to Macdonald's water well, which so entranced or intoxicated him that Macdonald was easily captured. The mixture became a drink named Atholl Brose.
The Mormaer or Earl of Atholl was the title of the holder of a medieval comital lordship straddling the highland province of Atholl, now in northern Perthshire. Atholl is a special Mormaerdom, because a King of Atholl is reported from the Pictish period. The only other two Pictish kingdoms to be known from contemporary sources are Fortriu and Circinn. Indeed, the early 13th century document known to modern scholars as the de Situ Albanie repeats the claim that Atholl was an ancient Pictish kingdom. In the 11th century, the famous Crínán of Dunkeld may have performed the role of Mormaer.
The Lord of the Isles is a title of Scottish nobility with historical roots that go back beyond the Kingdom of Scotland. It emerged from a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, who wielded sea-power with fleets of galleys (birlinns). Although they were, at times, nominal vassals of the Kings of Norway, Ireland, or Scotland, the island chiefs remained functionally independent for many centuries. Their territory included the Hebrides, Knoydart, Ardnamurchan, and the Kintyre peninsula. At their height they were the greatest landowners and most powerful lords in Britain after the Kings of England and Scotland.
He became ambassador to England in 1484.
Stewart was buried in Dunkeld Cathedral in Perthshire.
Dunkeld Cathedral is a Church of Scotland place of worship which stands on the north bank of the River Tay in Dunkeld, Perth and Kinross, Scotland. Built in square-stone style of predominantly grey sandstone, the cathedral proper was begun in 1260 and completed in 1501. It stands on the site of the former Culdee Monastery of Dunkeld, stones from which can be seen as an irregular reddish streak in the eastern gable.
Perthshire, officially the County of Perth, is a historic county and registration county in central Scotland. Geographically it extends from Strathmore in the east, to the Pass of Drumochter in the north, Rannoch Moor and Ben Lui in the west, and Aberfoyle in the south; its borders the counties of Inverness-shire and Aberdeenshire to the north, Angus to the east, Fife, Kinross-shire, Clackmannanshire, Stirlingshire and Dunbartonshire to the south and Argyllshire to the west. It was a local government county from 1890 to 1930.
John Stewart married twice and had several children. However, the exact number, names, and the attribution of his children to their mothers is unclear.
His first wife was Lady Margaret Douglas, Fair Maid of Galloway, daughter of Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Douglas and Lady Eupheme Graham. Margaret had been married already to William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas, and to James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas which marriage was annulled by the Pope. She married John Stewart about 1459 or 1460. She died between 1473 and 1475. and they had three daughters:
Margaret Douglas, Countess of Douglas, known as the Fair Maid of Galloway, was a Scottish noblewoman, a member of the Black Douglas family towards the end of the family's position as a major force in Scotland.
Archibald Douglas was a Scottish nobleman and General during the Hundred Years' War.
William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas, 2nd Earl of Avondale was a late Medieval Scottish nobleman, Lord of Galloway, and Lord of the Regality of Lauderdale, and the most powerful magnate in Southern Scotland.
Alexander Gordon, 3rd Earl of Huntly was a Scottish nobleman. He was a member of Parliament, a member of the Privy Council, a regent and Lieutenant of the kingdom.
Sometime before April 1475, he married as his second wife, Lady Eleanor Sinclair (died 21 March 1518), daughter of William Sinclair, 3rd Earl of Orkney and Marjory Sutherland. They had two sons and nine daughters:
|Ancestors of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl|
John Stewart, 4th Earl of Atholl was a Scottish noble. He was favoured by Mary, Queen of Scots, but later turned against her.
William Sinclair (1410–1484), 1st Earl of Caithness (1455–1476), last Earl (Jarl) of Orkney, Baron of Roslin, was a Norwegian and Scottish nobleman and the builder of Rosslyn Chapel, in Midlothian.
Baron Strange is a title that has been created several times in the Peerage of England. Two creations, one in 1295 and another in 1326, had only one holder each, upon the death of whom they became extinct. Two of the creations are extant. All four baronies of Strange have been created by writ, which means that they can pass through both male and female lines.
Gillespie Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll was a Scottish nobleman and politician who was killed at the Battle of Flodden.
Colin Campbell, 6th Earl of Argyll was a Scottish nobleman and politician. He was appointed to the Lord Chancellorship of Scotland.
Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany was a leading Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland, who founded the Stewart dynasty. In 1389, he became Justiciar North of the Forth. In 1402, he was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill and would spend 12 years in captivity in England.
George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly was a Scottish nobleman.
James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran and 2nd Lord Hamilton was a Scottish nobleman, naval commander and first cousin of James IV of Scotland.
Henry Stewart, 1st Lord Methven was Master of the Scottish Artillery and last husband of Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York.
Sir David Carnegie, 1st Earl of Southesk, 1st Baron Carnegie of Kinnaird, 1st Baron Carnegie, of Kinnaird and Leuchards (1575–1658) was a Scottish nobleman. He was a member of the Privy Council of Scotland and held the office of Lord of Session. He was created an Earl in 1633.
John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox was a prominent Scottish magnate. He was the son of Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox and Lady Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton and Mary Stewart, Princess of Scotland, daughter of King James II of Scotland.
Colin Mackenzie of Kintail, nicknamed “Cam”, was a Highland chief of the Scottish clan Mackenzie who greatly increased his ancestral estates through royal favour and a career of vigorous self-aggrandisement.
William Graham, 3rd Earl of Menteith was a Scottish magnate and third Earl of Menteith.
James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorne (c.1399–c.1451) was a Scottish nobleman.
John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Atholl was the second Earl of Atholl. He fought in the Battle of Flodden on 9 September 1513.
Kenneth Mackenzie, was the 10th laird of Kintail and he was nicknamed Coinneach na Cuirc in Scottish Gaelic, was a Highland chief, head of the Clan Mackenzie, who flourished in the turbulent Scottish politics of the mid-16th century.
Thomas Erskine, 2nd Lord Erskine, was a Scottish peer. His family was claimant to the earldom of Mar; this was recognized in 1565 for Thomas' descendant, John Erskine. Following a dynastic dispute in the 19th century, Thomas was acknowledged, retrospectively, as the 14th Earl.
John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Atholl (1507-1542) was the son of John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Atholl and Lady Janet Campbell, a daughter of Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll and Elizabeth Stuart.
William Hay, 1st Earl of Erroll was a Scottish peer. His was the first Earl of Erroll and the second Lord Hay of Erroll.
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| Earl of Atholl |