John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute

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The Earl of Bute

KG PC
3rd Earl of Bute by Sir Joshua Reynolds.jpg
3rd Earl of Bute by Sir Joshua Reynolds
Prime Minister of Great Britain
In office
26 May 1762 8 April 1763
Monarch George III
Preceded by The Duke of Newcastle
Succeeded by George Grenville
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
26 May 1762 8 April 1763
MonarchGeorge III
Prime Ministerhimself
Preceded byThe Duke of Newcastle
Succeeded byunknown
Secretary of State for the Northern Department
In office
25 March 1761 27 May 1762
MonarchGeorge III
Prime MinisterThe Duke of Newcastle
Preceded by The Earl of Holdernesse
Succeeded byGeorge Grenville
Personal details
Born
John Stuart

(1713-05-25)25 May 1713
Died10 March 1792(1792-03-10) (aged 78)
Resting placeSt Mary's Chapel, Rothesay, Isle of Bute
Nationality Scottish and British
Political party Tory
Spouse(s)
Children11, including
Parents James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute
Lady Anne Campbell
Alma mater Leiden University

John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, KG , PC ( /bjt/ ; 25 May 1713 – 10 March 1792) was a British nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1762 to 1763 under George III. He was arguably the last important favourite in British politics. He was the first Prime Minister from Scotland following the Acts of Union in 1707 and the first Tory to have held the post. He was also elected as the first President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland when it was founded in 1780.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

The British nobility is the peerage of the United Kingdom. The nobility of its four constituent home nations has played a major role in shaping the history of the country, although in the present day they retain only the rights to stand for election to the House of Lords, dining rights in the House of Lords, position in the formal order of precedence, the right to certain titles, and the right to an audience with the monarch. Still, more than a third of British land is in the hands of aristocrats and traditional landed gentry.

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Head of UK Government

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, and together with their Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate. The office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State. The current holder of the office, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016.

Contents

Biography

Early life and rise to prominence

He was born in Parliament Close, close to St Giles Cathedral on the Royal Mile in Edinburgh on 25 May 1713, the son of James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute, and his wife, Lady Anne Campbell. [1] He attended Eton College from midsummer 1724 to Whitsun 1730. [2] He went on to study law at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands (1728–1732). [3]

Royal Mile succession of streets forming the main thoroughfare of the Old Town of the city of Edinburgh in Scotland

The Royal Mile is a succession of streets forming the main thoroughfare of the Old Town of the city of Edinburgh in Scotland. The term was first used descriptively in W M Gilbert's Edinburgh in the Nineteenth Century (1901), "...with its Castle and Palace and the royal mile between", and was further popularised as the title of a guidebook, published in 1920.

Edinburgh Capital city in Scotland

Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore.

James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute was the son of James Stuart, 1st Earl of Bute and Agnes Mackenzie.

A close relative of the Clan Campbell (his mother was a daughter of the 1st Duke of Argyll), Bute succeeded to the Earldom of Bute (named after the Isle of Bute) upon the death of his father, James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute, in 1723. He was brought up thereafter by his maternal uncles, the 2nd Duke of Argyll and Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll, 1st and only Earl of Ilay. In August 1735, he eloped with Mary Wortley Montagu, whose parents Sir Edward and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu were slow to consent to the marriage. [4] In 1737, he was elected a Scottish representative peer; despite being in London in December of that year, he did not participate in deliberations in the House of Lords. [4] Because of his support for Argyll against Walpole, he was not re-elected in 1741. [5] For the next several years he retired to his estates in Scotland to manage his affairs and indulge his interest in botany. [ citation needed ]

Clan Campbell Highland Scottish clan

Clan Campbell is a Highland Scottish clan. Historically one of the largest and most powerful of the Highland clans, their lands were in Argyll and the chief of the clan became the Earl and later Duke of Argyll.

Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll British Army general

Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll, 10th Earl of Argyll was a Scottish peer.

Marquess of Bute Scottish title of nobility

Marquess of the County of Bute, shortened in general usage to Marquess of Bute, is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1796 for John Stuart, 4th Earl of Bute.

Bute (1770) John Stuart, Earl of Bute.jpg
Bute (1770)

In 1745, Bute moved to Westminster, London, where his family rented a house at Twickenham for forty-five pounds per annum. [6] He met Frederick, Prince of Wales in 1747 at the Egham Races and became a close friend to the Prince. [7] After the Prince's death in 1751, Bute was appointed tutor to Prince George, the new Prince of Wales. [8] Bute arranged for the Prince and his brother Prince Edward to follow a course of lectures on natural philosophy by the itinerant lecturer Stephen Demainbray. This led to an increased interest in natural philosophy on the part of the young prince and was one in a series of events that led to the establishment of the George III Collection of natural philosophical instruments.[ citation needed ] Furthermore, following the death of the Prince Frederick, Bute became close to his widow, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, the Dowager Princess of Wales. It was rumoured that the couple were having an affair, and indeed soon after John Horne Tooke (an associate of the Prince of Wales) published a scandalous pamphlet alluding to a liaison between Bute and the Princess. Rumours of this affair were almost certainly untrue, as Bute was by all indications happily married, and he held sincere religious beliefs against adultery.[ citation needed ]

Westminster area of central London, within the City of Westminster

Westminster is an area in central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Westminster's concentration of visitor attractions and historic landmarks, one of the highest in London, includes the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral.

Frederick, Prince of Wales heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death

Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG, was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44 in 1751. He was the eldest but estranged son of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach, and the father of King George III.

George III of the United Kingdom King of Great Britain and Ireland

George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.


In 1780 Bute was elected as the first President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. [9]

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland is the senior antiquarian body of Scotland, with its headquarters in the National Museum of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh. The Society's aim is to promote the cultural heritage of Scotland.

Premiership

Because of the influence he had over his pupil, Bute expected to rise quickly to political power following George's accession to the throne in 1760, but his plans were premature. It would first be necessary to remove both the incumbent Prime Minister (the Duke of Newcastle) and arguably the even more powerful Secretary of State for the Southern Department (William Pitt the Elder). [10] The Government of the day, buoyed by recent successes in the Seven Years' War, was popular, however, and did well at the general election which, as was customary at the time, took place on the accession of the new monarch. [11]

Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle Prime Minister of Great Britain

Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. He is commonly known as the Duke of Newcastle.

William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham 18th-century British statesman

William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, was a British statesman of the Whig group who served twice as Prime Minister of Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century. Historians call him Pitt of Chatham, or William Pitt the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, William Pitt the Younger, who also was a prime minister. Pitt was also known as The Great Commoner, because of his long-standing refusal to accept a title until 1766.

Seven Years War Global conflict between 1756 and 1763

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions: one was led by the Kingdom of Great Britain and included the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and other small German states; while the other was led by the Kingdom of France and included the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, and the Swedish Empire. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal.

Supported by the king, Bute manoeuvred himself into power by first allying himself with Newcastle against Pitt over the latter's desire to declare war on Spain which, when defeated, precipitated Pitt's resignation and then forcing Newcastle's resignation when the Prime Minister found himself in a small minority within the Government over the level of funding and direction of the war. [12] Re-elected as a Scottish representative peer in 1760, Bute was indeed appointed the de facto Prime Minister, thus ending a long period of Whig dominance. [ citation needed ]

Bute's premiership was notable for the negotiation of the Treaty of Paris (1763) which concluded the Seven Years' War. In so doing, Bute had to soften his previous stance in relation to concessions given to France, in that he agreed that the important fisheries in Newfoundland be returned to France without Britain's possession of Guadeloupe in return. [13]

After peace was concluded, Bute and the King decided that Britain's military expenditure should not exceed its pre-war levels but they thought a large presence was necessary in America to deal with the French and Spanish threat. They therefore charged the colonists for the increased military levels, thus catalysing the resistance to taxes which led to the American Revolution. [14] Bute also introduced a Cider tax that charged 4 shillings per hogshead in 1763 to help finance the Seven Years' War. [15]

King George began to see through Bute, and turned against him after being criticised for an official speech which the press recognised as Bute's own work. [ citation needed ]

The journalist John Wilkes published a newspaper called The North Briton , in which both Bute and the Dowager Princess of Wales were savagely satirised. Bute resigned as prime minister shortly afterwards, although he remained in the House of Lords as a Scottish representative peer until 1780. He remained friendly with the Dowager Princess of Wales, but her attempts to reconcile him with George III proved futile.[ citation needed ]

Post-premiership

For the remainder of his life, Bute remained at his estate in Hampshire, where he built himself a mansion called High Cliff near Christchurch. [16] From there he continued his pursuit of botany and became a major literary and artistic patron. Among his beneficiaries were Samuel Johnson, Tobias Smollett, Robert Adam, William Robertson and John Hill. He also gave considerably to the Scottish universities. [ citation needed ] His botanical work culminated in the publication of Botanical Tables Containing the Families of British Plants in 1785. Even after his retirement, Bute was accused by many Americans in the years leading up to the American Revolutionary War as having an undue corrupting influence over the British government. [17] He died at his home in South Audley Street, Grosvenor Square, Westminster, from complications of a fall suffered while staying at Highcliffe, and was buried at Rothesay on the Isle of Bute. [16]

The flowering plant genus Stuartia is named after him. [ citation needed ] According to historian John Naish, the 18th-century expression "Jack Boot" meaning a stupid person originated as disparagement of Stuart's performance as Prime Minister. [18]

Luton Hoo

Luton Hoo mansion in 2009 Luton Hoo mansion-3375179309.jpg
Luton Hoo mansion in 2009

Bute purchased Luton Hoo, or Luton Park, from Francis Herne MP in 1763 for the sum of £94,700. [19] Recognising that the existing buildings were unsuitable, Bute commissioned the neoclassical architect Robert Adam to oversee the redesign of the estate house. [20] Initial designs were unsatisfactory and, coupled with the sale of Bute House, Adams submitted new designs for a larger complex, which Bute further adjusted to include five book rooms and seven water closets. [21] A fire in March 1771 "did considerable damage" according to contemporary reports. [22] The project was completed by 1773, but not according to the full plan, the second phase of which was abandoned. [23] Dr. Samuel Johnson visiting the house in 1781 is quoted as saying, "This is one of the places I do not regret coming to see...in the house magnificence is not sacrificed to convenience, nor convenience to magnificence". [ citation needed ]

Death

He died on 10 March 1792 at his London address, South Audley Street off Grosvenor Square. [24]

Family

In 1736 he married Mary Wortley Montagu. They had at least ten children:

  1. Lady Mary Stuart (c.1741 – 5 April 1824), married James Lowther, later created Earl of Lonsdale, on 7 September 1761
  2. John Stuart, Lord Mount Stuart (30 June 1744 16 November 1814), politician who succeeded as 4th Earl of Bute and was later created Marquess of Bute
  3. Lady Anne Stuart (born c.1745), married Hugh Percy, Lord Warkworth, later the 2nd Duke of Northumberland, on 2 July 1764
  4. The Hon. James Archibald Stuart (19 September 1747 1 March 1818), politician and author
  5. Lady Jane Stuart (c.1748 28 February 1828), married George Macartney, later created Earl Macartney, on 1 February 1768
  6. The Hon. Frederick Stuart (1751–1802), politician [25]
  7. The Hon. Charles Stuart (January 1753 25 May 1801), soldier and politician
  8. The Hon. William Stuart (March 1755 6 March 1822), Anglican prelate who served as Archbishop of Armagh
  9. Lady Caroline Stuart (before 1763 20 January 1813), married The Hon John Dawson, later the 1st Earl of Portarlington, on 1 January 1778
  10. Lady Louisa Stuart (12 August 1757 4 August 1851), writer, who died unmarried [26]

Styles of address

John Stuart was variously styled:

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References

  1. Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN   0 902 198 84 X.
  2. Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute: Patron & Collector. London: Merrion Press. p. 3. ISBN   0951259512.
  3. Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute : patron & collector. London: Merrion Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN   0951259512. OCLC   56640554.
  4. 1 2 Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute : patron & collector. London: Merrion Press. p. 7. ISBN   0951259512. OCLC   56640554.
  5. Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute : patron & collector. London: Merrion Press. p. 8. ISBN   0951259512. OCLC   56640554.
  6. Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute : patron & collector. London: Merrion Press. p. 16. ISBN   0951259512. OCLC   56640554.
  7. Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute : patron & collector. London: Merrion Press. p. 17. ISBN   0951259512. OCLC   56640554.
  8. "John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (Whig 1762-1763) - History of government". history.blog.gov.uk. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  9. Smellie, William (1792). "An Historical Account of the Society of the Antiquaries of Scotland" (PDF). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 1: iii.
  10. Browning, Reed (1975). The Duke of Newcastle. London: Yale University Press Ltd. p. 271. ISBN   978-0300017465.
  11. Browning 1975, pp. 272-274.
  12. Browning 1975, pp. 275-88.
  13. Schweizer, Karl (1988). Lord Bute – Essays in Reinterpretation. Great Britain: Leicester University Press. pp. 27–29. ISBN   978-0718512613.
  14. Schweizer 1988, pp. 17-35.
  15. "John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (Whig 1762-1763) - History of government". history.blog.gov.uk. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  16. 1 2 Schweizer (2009).
  17. Bailyn, Bernard (1992). The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN   978-0-674-44302-0.
  18. Naish, John (1996). The Interwoven Lives of George Vancouver, Archibald Menzies, Joseph Whidbey and Peter Puget: The Vancouver Voyage of 1791–1795. The Edward Mellen Press, Ltd. ISBN   978-0-7734-8857-1.
  19. Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute : patron & collector. London: Merrion Press. p. 155. ISBN   0951259512. OCLC   56640554.
  20. Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute : patron & collector. London: Merrion Press. pp. 156–157. ISBN   0951259512. OCLC   56640554.
  21. Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute : patron & collector. London: Merrion Press. pp. 156–157. ISBN   0951259512. OCLC   56640554.
  22. Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute : patron & collector. London: Merrion Press. p. 164. ISBN   0951259512. OCLC   56640554.
  23. Russell, Francis (2004). John, 3rd Earl of Bute : patron & collector. London: Merrion Press. pp. 163–165. ISBN   0951259512. OCLC   56640554.
  24. Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN   0 902 198 84 X.
  25. Schweizer, Karl Wolfgang (October 2009) [2004]. "Stuart, John, third earl of Bute (1713–1792)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26716.|access-date= requires |url= (help)(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  26. Miller, Karl (January 2006) [2004]. "Stuart, Lady Louisa (1757–1851)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/42015.|access-date= requires |url= (help)(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  27. IPNI.  Stuart.

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Holdernesse
Secretary of State for the Northern Department
1761–1762
Succeeded by
George Grenville
Preceded by
The Duke of Newcastle
Prime Minister of Great Britain
26 May 1762 – 8 April 1763
First Lord of the Treasury
1762–1763
Court offices
Preceded by
Edward Finch
Keeper of the Privy Purse
1760–1763
Succeeded by
William Breton
Records
Preceded by
The Earl of Chatham
Oldest living Prime Minister of Great Britain
1778–1792
Succeeded by
Lord North
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
James Stuart
Earl of Bute
1723–1792
Succeeded by
John Stuart