John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury

Last updated

John Talbot
1st Earl of Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury Book f.2 (Talbot-Dog).jpg
Detail of illuminated miniature from the Talbot Shrewsbury Book showing John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, KG, with his dog, presenting the book to Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England, 1445. His robe displays several encircled Garters.
Tenure20 May 1442 17 July 1453
Other titles
Known forMilitary activity during the Hundred Years' War
Bornc.1387
Blackmere castle, Shropshire
52°58′40″N2°39′24″W / 52.97767°N 2.65680°W / 52.97767; -2.65680
Died17 July 1453 (aged 6566)
Castillon-la-Bataille, Gascony
Cause of death Slain in battle
Buried St Alkmund's Church, Whitchurch
Offices Lieutenant of Ireland
Lord High Steward of Ireland
Constable of France
Spouse(s)
  • Maud Neville, 6th Baroness Furnivall
    (m.c.1407, d.1422)
(m. 1425)
Issue
OccupationSoldier
Military career
Allegiance Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Kingdom of England
Service/branch English army
Years of service1404–1453
Conflicts
Awards Order of the Garter (1424)
MemorialsNear Castillon-la-Bataille
"The right noble knight John Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury". Imaginary engraving made by Thomas Cecill c. 1625-32, British Museum, Cat.no. 1862,1011.234 The right noble knight John Talbot E of Shrewsbury by Thomas Cecill.jpg
"The right noble knight John Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury". Imaginary engraving made by Thomas Cecill c. 1625–32, British Museum, Cat.no. 1862,1011.234
Arms of Sir John Talbot, 7th Baron Talbot, at the time of his installation into the Most Noble Order of the Garter Coat of Arms of Sir John Talbot, 7th Baron Talbot, KG.png
Arms of Sir John Talbot, 7th Baron Talbot, at the time of his installation into the Most Noble Order of the Garter

John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, 1st Earl of Waterford, 7th Baron Talbot, KG (c. 1387 17 July 1453), known as "Old Talbot", was an English nobleman and a noted military commander during the Hundred Years' War. He was the most renowned in England and most feared in France of the English captains in the last stages of the conflict. Known as a tough, cruel, and quarrelsome man, [1] Talbot distinguished himself militarily in a time of decline for the English. Called the "English Achilles" and the "Terror of the French", he is lavishly praised in the plays of Shakespeare. The manner of his death, leading an ill-advised charge against field artillery, has come to symbolize the passing of the age of chivalry. [2] He also held the subsidiary titles of 10th Baron Strange of Blackmere and 6th Baron Furnivalljure uxoris.

Contents

Origins

He was descended from Richard Talbot, the son of William "Le Sire" Talbot, whose estate (wife and infant son Hugh) was a tenant in 1086 of Walter Giffard at Woburn and Battlesden in Bedfordshire. The Talbot Family descends from William Hiemois, the illegitimate son of Richard I, Duke of Normandy. William's son Hugh, Bishop of Lisieux, was the father of William "Le Sire" Talbot (1046-1066). The Talbots were cousins of William "The Conqueror", King of England, and also the Giffard family. It is incorrect to suggest that the Talbot family were vassals of the Giffards in Normandy. [3] Hugh Talbot, Richard's son, made a grant to Beaubec Abbey, confirmed by his son Richard Talbot in 1153. This Richard (died 1175) is listed in 1166 as holding three fees of the Honour of Giffard in Buckinghamshire. He also held a fee at Linton in Herefordshire, for which his son Gilbert Talbot (died 1231) obtained a fresh charter in 1190. [4] Gilbert's grandson Gilbert (died 1274) married Gwenlynn Mechyll, daughter and sole heiress of the Welsh Prince Rhys Mechyll, whose armorials the Talbots thenceforth assumed in lieu of their own former arms. Their son Sir Richard Talbot, who signed the Barons' Letter of 1301, held the manor of Eccleswall in Herefordshire in right of his wife Sarah, sister of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. In 1331 Richard's son Gilbert Talbot (1276–1346) was summoned to Parliament, which is considered evidence of his baronial status – see Baron Talbot. [5] Gilbert's son Richard married Elizabeth Comyn, bringing with her the inheritance of Goodrich Castle.

John Talbot was born in about 1384 [6] or more likely around 1387, [7] the second son of Richard Talbot, 4th Baron Talbot of Goodrich Castle, by Ankaret, daughter and sole heiress of the 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere. [8] His birthplace was Black Mere Castle (the caput of his mother's estates) near Whitchurch, Shropshire, which is now a scheduled monument listed as Blakemere Moat, site of the demolished fortified manor house. His younger brother Richard became Archbishop of Dublin and Lord Chancellor of Ireland: he was one of the most influential Irish statesmen of his time, and his brother's most loyal supporter during his often troubled years in Ireland. John also had an elder brother, Gilbert (born 1383), who was heir to their parents' baronies of Talbot and Strange.

His father died in 1396 when Talbot was around nine years old, and so it was Ankaret's second husband, Thomas Neville, 5th Baron Furnivall, who became the major influence in his early life. The marriage (1401) also gave the opportunity of a title for her second son, as Neville had no sons, with the title Baron Furnivall going through his eldest daughter Maud [9] (Talbot's stepsister), who would become John's first wife. Their marriage resulted in John styling himself as John Talbot, 6th Baron Furnivall.

Marriages and issue

Talbot was married before 12 March 1407 to Maud Neville, 6th Baroness Furnivall, daughter and heiress of his stepfather Thomas Neville, 5th Baron Furnivall, the son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby. The couple are thought to have had six children:

By the death of his niece in 1421 he acquired the Baronies of Talbot and Strange. His first wife, Maud, died on 31 May 1422. It has been suggested that she died as an indirect result of giving birth to her daughter Joan, although there is a lack of evidence about Joan's life before her marriage to Lord Berkeley. There is even a theory that she was actually Talbot's daughter-in-law through marriage to Sir Christopher Talbot.

On 6 September 1425, in the chapel at Warwick Castle, he married Lady Margaret Beauchamp, eldest daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and Elizabeth de Berkeley. They had five children:

Talbot is known to have had at least one illegitimate child, Henry. He may have served in France with his father as it is known that a bastard son of the Earl of Shrewsbury was captured by the Dauphin Louis on 14 August 1443. [13]

Early career and service in Ireland

From 1404 to 1413 he served with his elder brother Gilbert in the Welsh revolt or the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr. Meanwhile, he was summoned to Parliament in his wife's right from 1409. [14] Then for five years from February 1414 he was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, where he did some fighting. He had a dispute with James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormond and Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn over the inheritance for the honour of Wexford which he held. [15] Complaints were made against him both for his harsh government in Ireland and for acts of violence in Herefordshire, where he was a friend of the Lollard Sir John Oldcastle, and for land disputes with retainers of the Earl of Arundel. [14]

The dispute with the Earl of Ormond escalated into a long-running feud between Talbot and his brother, the Archbishop of Dublin, on the one hand, and the Butler family and their allies the Berkeleys on the other. Relations between the two sides became so poisonous that it was said that real hatred was involved. The feud reached its height in the 1440s, and in the end just about every senior official in Ireland had taken sides in the quarrel. Both sides were reprimanded by the Privy Council for weakening English rule in Ireland: the Council implored them to make up their differences. Friendly relations were finally achieved by the marriage of Talbot's son and heir to Ormond's daughter, Lady Elizabeth Butler. [16]

During John's first term in Ireland, his elder brother Gilbert was serving as a soldier in France. Gilbert died on 19 October 1418 at the siege of Rouen, and his lands were inherited by his only daughter and heiress Ankaret Talbot, John's niece. Ankaret, 6th Baroness Talbot, died shortly after on 13 December 1421 and the Talbot family lands were thus inherited by her uncle John, who became 7th Baron Talbot.

From 1420 to 1424 he served in France, apart from a brief return at the end of the first year to organise the festivities of celebrating the coronation of Catherine of Valois, the bride of Henry V. [17] He returned to France in May 1421 and took part in the Battle of Verneuil on 17 August 1424 earning him the Order of the Garter.

In 1425, he was lieutenant again for a short time in Ireland; [14] he served again in 1446–7. On the latter appointment he was made Earl of Waterford and hereditary Lord High Steward of Ireland.

Service in France

So far his career was that of a turbulent Marcher Lord, employed in posts where a rough hand was useful. [14] It was for his actions in France that he would acquire his fame, however.

In 1427 he went again to France, where he fought alongside the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Warwick with distinction in Maine and at the Siege of Orléans. [18] He fought at the Battle of Patay on 18 June 1429 where he was captured and held prisoner for four years. He was released in exchange for the French leader Jean Poton de Xaintrailles and returned to England in May 1433. He stayed until July when he returned to France under the Earl of Somerset. [19]

Talbot was a daring and aggressive soldier, perhaps the most audacious captain of the age. He and his forces were ever ready to retake a town and to meet a French advance. His trademark was rapid aggressive attacks. He was rewarded by being appointed governor and lieutenant general in France and Normandy and, in 1434, the Duke of Bedford made him Count of Clermont. He also reorganized the army with captains and lieutenants, trained the men for sieges, and equipped them accordingly. But when the Duke of Bedford died in 1435, the Burgundian government in Paris defected to the French, leaving Talbot, known as le roi talbot ("king Talbot") as the main English general in the field. [20] [21]

On 2 February 1436, he led a small force including Sir Thomas Kyriell and Sir Thomas Scales and routed La Hire and Xaintrailles at the battle of Ry near Rouen. Later that year, he did much to recover large portions of land on the Pays de Caux in eastern Normandy which had been lost to the French a few months earlier. On the dawn of 13 February 1437, in spectacular fashion, he took the town of Pontoise north of Paris by surprise, threatening the capital itself for a time. The same year at Crotoy, after a daring passage of the Somme, he put a numerous Burgundian force to flight. At night on 22–23 December 1439, following a surprise flank attack on their camp, he dispersed the 6000-strong army of the Constable Richemont, and on 7 July 1440 he retook Harfleur. In 1441, he pursued the French army four times over the Seine and Oise rivers in an unavailing attempt to bring it to battle.

Lord Shrewsbury

Around February 1442, Talbot returned to England to request urgent reinforcements for the Duke of York in Normandy. In March, under king's orders, ships were requisitioned for this purpose with Talbot himself responsible for assembling ships from the Port of London and from Sandwich. [22]

On Whit Sunday, 20 May, Henry VI created him Earl of Shrewsbury. Just five days later, with the requested reinforcements, Talbot returned to France where in June they mustered at Harfleur. During that time, he met his six-year-old daughter Eleanor for the first time and almost certainly left the newly created Countess Margaret pregnant with another child. [23]

In June 1443, Talbot again returned to England on behalf of the Duke of York to plead for reinforcements, but this time the English Council refused, instead sending a separate force under Shrewsbury's brother-in-law, Edmund Beaufort. His son, Sir Christopher, stayed in England where shortly afterwards he was murdered with a lance at the age of 23 by one of his own men, Griffin Vachan of Treflidian on 10 August at "Cawce, County Salop" (Caus Castle). [24]

The English Achilles

The Death of Shrewsbury at the Battle of Castillon, as portrayed by Charles-Philippe Lariviere. Battle of Castillon.jpg
The Death of Shrewsbury at the Battle of Castillon, as portrayed by Charles-Philippe Larivière.
Effigy of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, KG (died 1453), Whitchurch, Shropshire. A talbot dog is shown as the crest (head missing) on his helmet on which his head rests and also as his footrest. JohnTalbotEarlOfShrewsbury.jpg
Effigy of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, KG (died 1453), Whitchurch, Shropshire. A talbot dog is shown as the crest (head missing) on his helmet on which his head rests and also as his footrest.

He was appointed in 1445 by Henry VI (as the disputed king of France) as Constable of France. Taken hostage at Rouen in 1449 he promised never to wear armour against the French King again. He was true to the letter of his word, but continued to command English forces against the French without personally fighting. In England, he was widely renowned as the best general King Henry VI had. The king relied upon his support at Dartford in 1452, and in 1450 to suppress Cade's Revolt. In 1452 he was ordered to Bordeaux as the king's lieutenant of the Duchy of Aquitaine, and landed there on 17 October. He repaired castle garrisons facing mounting pressure from France, when some reinforcements arrived with his son John, Viscount Lisle in spring 1453, and he captured Fronsac. [25]

Death

Monument to John Talbot at the battlefield of Castillon TalbotMonumentCastillon.jpg
Monument to John Talbot at the battlefield of Castillon

Talbot was decisively defeated and killed on 17 July 1453 at the Battle of Castillon near Bordeaux, which effectively ended English rule in Aquitaine, a principal cause of the Hundred Years' War. It was reported at the time that when his horse was fatally struck by enemy ordinance, it fell on top of Talbot and pinned him down, enabling a French soldier to finish him off with a battleaxe. His heart was buried in the doorway of St Alkmund's Church, Whitchurch, Shropshire. [26]

The victorious French generals raised a monument to Talbot on the field called Notre Dame de Talbot and a French Chronicler paid him handsome tribute:

"Such was the end of this famous and renowned English leader who for so long had been one of the most formidable thorns in the side of the French, who regarded him with terror and dismay" – Matthew d'Escourcy

Although Talbot is generally remembered as a great soldier, some have raised doubts as to his generalship. In particular, charges of rashness have been raised against him. Speed and aggression were key elements in granting success in medieval war, and Talbot's numerical inferiority necessitated surprise. Furthermore, he was often in the position of trying to force battle on unwilling opponents. At his defeat at Patay in 1429 he was advised not to fight there by Sir John Fastolf, who was subsequently blamed for the debacle, but the French, inspired by Joan of Arc, showed unprecedented fighting spirit – usually they approached an English position with trepidation. The charge of rashness is more justifiable at Castillon, where Talbot, misled by mistaken reports of a French retreat, attacked their entrenched camp frontally with his advance force, facing wheel to wheel field artillery and refusing to temporarily back off and allow his full force to arrive.

On a political level, his governorship of Ireland degenerated into bitter feuding and personal hatreds. The Crown itself reprimanded him for weakening English rule in Ireland, though in fairness he was far from being the only culprit.

Cultural influence

He is portrayed heroically in Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 1 : "Valiant Lord Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, Created, for his rare success in arms". Talbot's failures are all blamed on Fastolf and feuding factions in the English court. Thomas Nashe, commenting on the play in his booklet Pierce Penniless , stated that Talbot's example was inspiring Englishmen anew, two centuries after his death,

How would it have joyed brave Talbot, the terror of the French, to think that after he had lain two hundred years in his tomb, he should triumph again on the stage, and have his bones new embalmed with the tears of ten thousand spectators at least (at several times) who in the tragedian that represents his person imagine they behold him fresh bleeding. I will defend it against any collian or clubfisted usurer of them all, there is no immortality can be given a man on earth like unto plays.

Fiction

John Talbot is shown as a featured character in Koei's video game Bladestorm: The Hundred Years' War , appearing as the left-arm of Edward, the Black Prince, in which he assists the former[ clarification needed ] and the respective flag of England throughout his many portrayals.

Talbot appears as one of the primary antagonists in the PSP game Jeanne d'Arc .

See also

Ancestry

Footnotes

  1. Pollard 2015, p. 835.
  2. Pollard 2004.
  3. Williams & Martin 2002 , p. 568; Keats-Rohan 1999 , p. 368
  4. Keats-Rohan 2002, p. 1123.
  5. Cokayne 1953, p. 610.
  6. 1 2 3 Cokayne 1949, p. 698.
  7. Pollard 1968, p. 11.
  8. Tait 1898, p. 319.
  9. Ashdown-Hill 2009, p. 14.
  10. Bartlett, Josiah Gardner; French, Elizabeth (2011). English Origins of New England Families, From The New England Historical and Genealogical Register (1847-2004). 2nd series. Vol. 3. Clearfield. p. 801?. ISBN   978-0-8063-1916-2. <>
  11. Tait 1898, p. 323.
  12. Nicolas 1826, pp.  409–10.
  13. Ashdown-Hill 2009, p. 35.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Kingsford 1911, p. 1017.
  15. Ashdown-Hill 2009, p. 16.
  16. Otway-Ruthven, A. (16 August 1993). History of Mediaeval Ireland. Sterling Publishing. ISBN   978-1-56619-216-3.
  17. Ashdown-Hill 2009, p. 15.
  18. Kingsford 1911, pp. 1017–1018.
  19. Ashdown-Hill 2009, p. 17.
  20. Talbot, Rev Hugh,
  21. A J Pollard
  22. Ashdown-Hill 2009, p. 26.
  23. Ashdown-Hill 2009, p. 29.
  24. PRO 1908, pp. 397–8, 220.
  25. Kingsford 1911, p. 1018.
  26. "Whitchurch". Shropshire Tourism. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
  27. Cokayne 1953, p. 612.
  28. 1 2 3 Cokayne 1953, p. 614.
  29. Marriage: Cokayne 1953, p. 612
  30. Cokayne 1953, p. 616.
  31. Marriage: Cokayne 1953, pp. 613–4
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 Cokayne 1953, p. 615.
  33. Cokayne 1953, p. 343.
  34. Cokayne 1953, p. 344.
  35. Marriage: Cokayne 1953, p. 343
  36. Cokayne 1953, p. 345.
  37. Marriage: Cokayne 1953, p. 343
  38. "Some corrections and additions to the Complete Peerage: Volume 1: Arundel".

Related Research Articles

Henry Percy (Hotspur) 14th-century English noble

Sir Henry Percy, nicknamed Hotspur, was an English knight who fought in several campaigns against the Scots in the northern border and against the French during the Hundred Years' War. The nickname "Hotspur" was given to him by the Scots as a tribute to his speed in advance and readiness to attack. The heir to a leading noble family in northern England, Hotspur was one of the earliest and prime movers behind the deposition of King Richard II in favour of Henry Bolingbroke in 1399. He later fell out with the new regime and rebelled, and was slain at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403 at the height of his fame.

John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset English nobleman and military commander (1404–1444)

John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, 3rd Earl of Somerset was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years War. He was the maternal grandfather of Henry VII.

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland 14th/15th-century English nobleman

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of WestmorlandEarl Marshal, was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.

Earl of Shrewsbury Title in the English peerage

Earl of Shrewsbury is a hereditary title of nobility created twice in the Peerage of England. The second earldom dates to 1442. The holder of the Earldom of Shrewsbury also holds the title of Earl of Waterford (1446) in the Peerage of Ireland and Earl Talbot (1784) in the Peerage of Great Britain. Shrewsbury and Waterford are the oldest earldoms in their peerages held by someone with no higher title, and as such the Earl of Shrewsbury is sometimes described as the premier earl of England and Ireland.

John Fitzalan, 7th Earl of Arundel English noble

John Fitzalan, 7th Earl of Arundel, 4th Baron MaltraversKG was an English nobleman and military commander during the later phases of the Hundred Years' War. His father, John Fitzalan, 3rd Baron Maltravers, fought a long battle to lay claim to the Arundel earldom, a battle that was not finally resolved until after the father's death, when John Fitzalan the son was finally confirmed in the title in 1433.

Baron Furnivall is an ancient title in the Peerage of England. It was originally created when Thomas de Furnivall was summoned to the Model Parliament on 24 June 1295 as Lord Furnivall. The barony eventually passed to Thomas Nevill, who had married the first baron's descendant Joan de Furnivall, and he was summoned to parliament in her right. Their daughter, Maud de Neville, married John Talbot, who was also summoned to parliament in her right. He was later created Earl of Shrewsbury. On the death of the seventh earl in 1616, the barony fell into abeyance. The abeyance was terminated naturally in favour of the earl's daughter Alethea Howard in 1651 and passed through her to the Dukes of Norfolk. On the death of the ninth Duke in 1777, the barony again fell into abeyance. In 1913 the abeyance was terminated again in favour of Mary Frances Katherine Petre, daughter of Bernard Petre, 14th Baron Petre. Through her father she was a great-great-great-granddaughter of the ninth Baron Petre and his first wife Anne Howard, niece of the ninth Duke of Norfolk, who became co-heir to the Barony on her uncle's death in 1777. On Lady Furnivall's death in 1968 the barony fell into abeyance for the third time.

Battle of Castillon 1453 battle that ended the Hundred Years War

The Battle of Castillon between the forces of England and France took place on 17 July 1453 in Gascony near the town of Castillon-sur-Dordogne. Historians regard this decisive French victory as marking the end of the Hundred Years' War.

George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury

George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, 4th Earl of Waterford, 10th Baron Talbot, KG, KB, PC was the son of John Talbot, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, and Lady Catherine Stafford, daughter of the 1st Duke of Buckingham. He also held the subsidiary titles of 13th Baron Strange of Blackmere and 9th Baron Furnivall.

The Lord High Steward of Ireland is a hereditary Great Officer of State in the United Kingdom, sometimes known as the Hereditary Great Seneschal. The Earls of Shrewsbury have held the office since the 15th century. Although the Irish Free State, later the Republic of Ireland, became independent in 1922, the title remained the same, rather than reflecting the region of Northern Ireland, which remains within the United Kingdom.

Margaret Beauchamp, Countess of Shrewsbury

Margaret Beauchamp was the eldest daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and his first wife Elizabeth de Berkeley. As the eldest child of a family without male issue, Margaret was expected to inherit from her father until her stepmother Isabel le Despenser gave him a son.

Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury English politician and Earl (1552–1616)

Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury, 7th Earl of Waterford, 13th Baron Talbot, KG, styled Lord Talbot from 1582 to 1590, was a peer in the peerage of England. He also held the subsidiary titles of 16th Baron Strange of Blackmere and 12th Baron Furnivall.

John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury English nobleman

John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury, 2nd Earl of Waterford, 8th Baron Talbot, KG was an English nobleman and soldier. He was the son of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, 1st Earl of Waterford, 7th Baron Talbot, 10th Baron Strange of Blackmere, and Maud Neville, 6th Baroness Furnivall.

Baron Strange of Blackmere is an abeyant title in the Peerage of England. It was created on 13 January 1309 when Fulk le Strange was summoned to parliament. On the death of the fifth baron in 1375, it was inherited by Elizabeth Mowbray, née le Strange. On her death in the year 1383, it was inherited by Ankaret Talbot, née le Strange, daughter of the fourth Baron. On her son's death in 1419, the baron was inherited by Ankaret Talbot, his daughter. On her death in 1421, the barony was inherited by her uncle, John Talbot who was created Earl of Shrewsbury, Earl of Waterford and hereditary Lord High Steward of Ireland. On the death of the 7th earl in 1616, the barony fell into abeyance between his three daughters Mary, Elizabeth and Alethea. In 1651 Alethea became sole heir and therefore, Baroness Strange of Blackmere. The title continued in her descendants until the death of Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk and 22nd Baron Strange of Blackmere in 1777, when it again fell into abeyance. The co-heirs are the descendants of his nieces Winifred, Lady Stourton, and Ann, Lady Petre.

Baron Talbot British peerages

Baron Talbot is a title that has been created twice. The title was created first in the Peerage of England. On 5 June 1331, Sir Gilbert Talbot was summoned to Parliament, by which he was held to have become Baron Talbot.

Edward de Courtenay, 3rd/11th Earl of Devon

Edward de Courtenay, 3rd/11th Earl of Devon, known by the epithet the "Blind Earl", was the son of Sir Edward de Courtenay and Emeline Dawnay, and in 1377 succeeded his grandfather, Hugh Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon, as Earl of Devon. The ordinal number given to the early Courtenay Earls of Devon depends on whether the earldom is deemed a new creation by the letters patent granted 22 February 1334/5 or whether it is deemed a restitution of the old dignity of the de Redvers family. Authorities differ in their opinions, and thus alternative ordinal numbers exist, given here.

Hugh de Courtenay, 4th/12th Earl of Devon

Hugh de Courtenay, 4th/12th Earl of Devon was an English nobleman, son of the 3rd/11th Earl of Devon, and father of the 5th/13th Earl. The ordinal number given to the early Courtenay Earls of Devon depends on whether the earldom is deemed a new creation by the letters patent granted 22 February 1334/5 or whether it is deemed a restitution of the old dignity of the de Redvers family. Authorities differ in their opinions, and thus alternative ordinal numbers exist, given here.

Anne Hastings, Countess of Shrewsbury English noblewoman

Anne Hastings, Countess of Shrewsbury was an English noblewoman who served as a lady-in-waiting to Queen consort Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of King Henry VIII of England. Anne was the first wife of George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, by whom she had 11 children. Her maternal half-sister was Cecily Bonville, Baroness Harington and Bonville, the wealthiest heiress in late 15th-century England, making Anne the half-great-great-aunt of Jane Grey.

Richard Talbot was an English-born statesman and cleric in fifteenth-century Ireland. He was a younger brother of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. He held the offices of Archbishop of Dublin and Lord Chancellor of Ireland. He was one of the leading political figures in Ireland for more than thirty years, but his career was marked by controversy and frequent conflicts with other statesmen. In particular, the Talbot brothers' quarrel with the powerful Earl of Ormonde was the main cause of the Butler–Talbot feud, which dominated Irish politics for decades, and seriously weakened the authority of the English Crown in Ireland.

Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset 15th-century English noble

Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, 4th Earl of Somerset, 1st Earl of Dorset, 1st Marquess of Dorset styled 1st Count of Mortain, KG, was an English nobleman and an important figure during the Hundred Years' War. His rivalry with Richard, Duke of York, was a leading cause of the Wars of the Roses.

Gilbert Talbot, 5th Baron Talbot

Gilbert Talbot, 5th Baron Talbot, 8th Baron Strange of Blackmere, KG of Blakemere, Whitchurch, Shropshire, was an English Knight of the Garter.

References

Other sources

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by Lieutenant of Ireland
1414–1419
Succeeded by
Preceded by Constable of France
1445–1453
Succeeded by
New office Lord High Steward of Ireland
1446–1453
Succeeded by
Peerage of England
New creation Earl of Shrewsbury
20 May 1442 17 July 1453
Succeeded by
Preceded by Baron Talbot
13 December 1421 17 July 1453
Baron Strange of Blackmere
13 December 1421 17 July 1453
Preceded by
Thomas Neville
Baron Furnivall
jure uxoris (primae)
1407 31 May 1422
Peerage of Ireland
New creation Earl of Waterford
17 July 1446 17 July 1453
Succeeded by