John V, Count of Oldenburg

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John V
Count of Oldenburg
Johann V XIIII Graf von Oldenburg.jpg
Born 1460
Oldenburg
Died 10 February 1526 (aged 6566)
Oldenburg
Noble family House of Oldenburg
Spouse(s) Anna of Anhalt-Zerbst
Father Gerhard VI, Count of Oldenburg
Mother Adelheid of Tecklenburg

John V, Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst (also counted as John XIV, including also non-ruling namesake siblings; 1460, Oldenburg 10 February 1526, Oldenburg) was a member of the House of Oldenburg. He was the ruling Count of Oldenburg from 1500 to 1526. His parents were Gerhard VI, Count of Oldenburg and Adelheid of Tecklenburg.

Oldenburg Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Oldenburg is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. The city is officially named Oldenburg (Oldb) to distinguish from Oldenburg in Holstein.

House of Oldenburg dynasty

The House of Oldenburg is a European dynasty of North German origin. It is one of Europe's most influential royal houses, with branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Iceland, Greece, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Schleswig, Holstein, and Oldenburg. The current Queen of Denmark and King of Norway, the former King of Greece, the consort of the monarch of the United Kingdom, as well as the first thirteen persons in the line of succession to the British throne, are all patrilineal members of the Glücksburg branch of this house.

County of Oldenburg countship

The County of Oldenburg was a county of the Holy Roman Empire.

Contents

Life

After his father resigned, John V prevailed against his brothers and became Count of Oldenburg. In his effort to become the ruling count John V invaded the Weser and North Sea marshes of Stadland and Butjadingen with mercenaries in April 1499, to both of which the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen claimed its overlordship, in order to subject their free peasants. [1] John had hired parts of the Black Guard, a free-lance troop of mercenaries, commanded by Ulrich von Dornum, who defeated the free peasants in two battles. [2] Already in November Magnus of Saxe-Lauenburg, then regent in the Land of Hadeln, hired the Black Guard, too expensive for John, in order to conquer the Land of Wursten. [2]

Weser river in north-western Germany

The Weser is a river in Northwestern Germany. Formed at Hannoversch Münden by the confluence of the rivers Fulda and Werra, it flows through Lower Saxony, then reaching the Hanseatic city of Bremen, before emptying 50 km (31 mi) further north at Bremerhaven into the North Sea. On the opposite (west) bank is the town of Nordenham at the foot of the Butjadingen Peninsula; thus, the mouth of the river is in Lower Saxony. The Weser has an overall length of 452 km (281 mi). Together with its Werra tributary, which originates in Thuringia, its length is 744 km (462 mi).

North Sea marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean

The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north. It is more than 970 kilometres (600 mi) long and 580 kilometres (360 mi) wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres (220,000 sq mi).

Stadland Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Stadland is a municipality in the district of Wesermarsch, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the left bank of the Weser, approx. 32 km northeast of Oldenburg, and 42 km northwest of Bremen. On the west side Stadland bordered to the Jade Bight. Its seat is in the village Rodenkirchen, which is also part of this municipality as the villages Schwei, Seefeld and Kleinensiel. There are also many little Bauernschaften (hamlets) in Stadland.

This was the start of a series of campaigns to subject the free peasants in the North Sea and river marshes to feudalism, to wit Altes Land, Ditmarsh, Land of Hadeln, Haseldorfer Marsch, Kehdingen, and Wilstermarsch, also known as the Elbe Marshes, Butjadingen and Stadland (today's Weser Marsh), as well as Stedingen, the Land of Würden, and the Land of Wursten. [3] Bremen's prince-archbishop Johann Rode then tried to form a war alliance to repel John's and prevent further invasions, feared for the Land of Wursten, first gaining the cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Stade, which considered the areas downstream the rivers Elbe and Weser their own front yard existential for their free maritime trade connections. The free peasants in Stadland and Butjadingen liberated themselves from the Oldenburgian yoke in April 1500, supported by East Frisia. [1]

Marsh A wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species

A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species. Marshes can often be found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They are often dominated by grasses, rushes or reeds. If woody plants are present they tend to be low-growing shrubs. This form of vegetation is what differentiates marshes from other types of wetland such as swamps, which are dominated by trees, and mires, which are wetlands that have accumulated deposits of acidic peat.

Feudalism combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals and fiefs.

Altes Land landscape in northern Germany

Altes Land is an area of reclaimed marshland straddling parts of Lower Saxony and Hamburg. The region is situated downstream from Hamburg on the southwestern riverside of the Elbe around the towns of Stade, Buxtehude, Jork and the Samtgemeinde of Lühe. In Hamburg it includes the quarters of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop and Finkenwerder. Altes Land is one of the Elbe Marshes.

John V could keep his external opponent, Edzard I, Count of East Frisia in check through alliances. During the Saxon feud, he and the united Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg attacked Edzard in January 1514. He was then able to conquer Butjadingen and Stadland and parts of the Frisian Wehde. He tried to keep the Stadland area with Esenshamm and Abbehausen as allodial property. However, in 1517, he had to accept them as fiefs from Henry V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Initially, the dukes of Brunswick occupied Butjadingen. However, after a failed peasants uprising in 1515, they gradually transferred ownership to John V, and by 1523, Butjadingen was definitely owned by Oldenburg.

Edzard I, Count of East Frisia Count of East Frisia

Edzard I, also Edzard the Great was count of East Frisia from 1491 till his death in 1528.

The Saxon feud was a confrontation between the East Frisian Count Edzard I and George, Duke of Saxony in the years 1514-1517. The war took place predominantly on East Frisian soil and destroyed large parts of the region.

Fief System of economic governance during the Middle Ages in Europe.

A fief was the central element of feudalism. It consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty. The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure: these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including governmental office, rights of exploitation such as hunting or fishing, monopolies in trade, and tax farms.

John V died in 1526. After his death, his sons John VI, Christopher, George, and Anthony I ruled jointly.

John VI, Count of Oldenburg was a Count of Oldenburg. He was the eldest son of John V, Count of Oldenburg and his wife, Anna of Anhalt-Bernburg. He was supposed to rule jointly with his younger brothers. However, his time in office was marked by conflicts between John VI and his co-rulers.

Anthony I, Count of Oldenburg Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst

Anthony I, Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst was a member of the House of Oldenburg and was the Imperial Count of the Counties of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst within the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation. His parents were John V, Count of Oldenburg (1460-1525) and Anna of Anhalt-Zerbst.

Issue

He married Anna of Anhalt-Zerbst, daughter of George I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau. Their children were:

George I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dessau. He was the second son of Sigismund I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, by his wife Judith, daughter of Gebhard XI, Count of Querfurt.

See also

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 Michael Schütz, "Die Konsolidierung des Erzstiftes unter Johann Rode", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II: pp. 263–278, here p. 266. ISBN   978-3-9801919-8-2.
  2. 1 2 Tileman Dothias Wiarda, Ostfriesische Geschichte: 10 vols., here vol. 2: 'Zweiter Band von 1441 bis 1540', Aurich: August Friedrich Winter, 1792, p. 184.
  3. Karl Ernst Hermann Krause, "Johann III., Erzbischof von Bremen", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. 14, pp. 183–185, here p. 184.
  4. digitalsat, Oldenburg Urkundenbuch; Dritter Band. Grafschaft Oldenburg von 1482 bis 1550, NR. 187, S. 129
  5. digitalsat Archived 2014-03-24 at the Wayback Machine ., Blätter der "Maus", 2002, S. 188
  6. digitalsat, Nederlandsche Genealogieen,Deel 11, 1996 S. 173 - 182
  7. , Oldenburger Salbucher, Handschrift B.
John V, Count of Oldenburg
Born: 1460 in Oldenburg in Oldenburg  Died: 10 February 1526 in Oldenburg (Olbg.)
Preceded by
Adolphus
Count of Oldenburg
1500–1526
Succeeded by
John VI, George,
Christopher and Anthony I