John White (bishop)

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John White
Bishop of Winchester
Church Roman Catholic
Appointed6 July 1556
Term ended1559
Predecessor Stephen Gardiner
Successor Robert Horne
Orders
Consecration1 April 1554
by  Edmund Bonner
Personal details
Born1510
Died1560 (aged 4950)
Previous post(s) Bishop of Lincoln (1554–1556)

John White (1510 – 12 January 1560) was an English Roman Catholic clergyman, student, Master, and eventually Warden of Winchester College, whose adherence to the old faith equipped him to become Bishop of Lincoln and later Bishop of Winchester during the reign of Mary Tudor. [1] [2] A master of the Latin tongue, he was one of the very few poets to engage in theological debate in Latin verse, which he directed particularly against the reformer Peter Martyr. His eulogies of Queen Mary and her expected re-establishment of the Roman Catholic faith in England culminated in a sincere but unfortunate choice of text for her funeral sermon, which contributed to his deprivation and downfall in 1559. Sir John Harington said "he was a man of austere life, and much more mortified to the World, than was his predecessor Gardiner," [3] whereas John Bale less kindly called him saltans asinus (meaning roughly, "a jumping jackass"). [1]

Contents

Family and education

Family background

John White was born in Farnham in Surrey, the fifth son of Robert White, a merchant of Farnham, and his wife Katherine (née Wells). He was the elder of two brothers named John, the younger of whom was Sir John White (died 1573), Lord Mayor of London 1563-64. [4]

Robert White, the father, died in 1518 requesting to be buried in the church of St Andrew, Farnham. [5] His executors being Kateryn his wife and "Maister Thomas Wellys Doctour", he enfeoffed Dr Wellys with all his various lands, to hold for the use of Kateryn during her life, and then to descend through Robert's children and their heirs in six separate parcels. These were so entailed that each of the six elder sons should have one part: any part in default was to revert to the eldest surviving offspring, and so successively through all the eight sons and three daughters and their heirs. Lands and tenements in Aldershot (Hants.) and Camberley (Surrey) went first to Henry; those in Farnham, to Robert; those in Finchampstead (Berks.) and Eversley (Hants.), to Thomas; those in Cove and Winchfield (Hants.), to William; those in Passfield and Kingsley (Hants.), to John the elder, and those in Isington (Hants.) to John the younger. Thus as the inheritors died the estates might be re-consolidated. [5]

The identity of John White the bishop as the elder of the two Johns is made plain in the 1538 will of the eldest brother Henry White, an academic and cleric. Henry refers to "brother John the younger, grocer of London", and to his "brother Scholemaister of Wynchester College". [6] [7]

Education: Winchester College, and New College, Oxford

John White (the elder) entered Winchester College at the age of 11, in 1521, where he studied under the headmastership of Thomas Erlisman until 1525. [8] He went on to New College, Oxford in that year as a Fellow, gaining full admission in 1527 after two years' probation. He studied philosophy and theology in the Arts, graduating B.A. in 1529 and proceeding to his M.A. in 1534. [9] Winchester College was the sister foundation of New College.

The Warden of New College in that period was Dr John London (1526-1542), who upheld a strong adherence to traditional Roman Catholic doctrines and observance in the face of advancing reformism, though obliged to accept the King as Supreme Head of the English Church and forbidden appeals to Rome. [8] Bishop Burnet said of White's character, "White and Watson were morose, sullen men; for they were much given to scholastical divinity, which inclined men to be cynical, to overvalue themselves, and despise others." [10] It is suggested that these traits developed in the course of White's education. [8] The career of John's eldest brother, Henry, was concurrent with and senior to his own at Oxford, where Henry became Vice-Chancellor (1531) and principal of the school of Canon Law. [11]

Winchester College: Headmaster and Warden

Headmaster (1535-1542)

Having obtained his M.A., as a young University man "of good parts and great hopes", he was taken into the service, or the family, of Stephen Gardiner, [12] and resigned his Fellowship. Dr London wrote highly in praise of him to John Gostwick, seeking ways to improve his income, since the Statute in Restraint of Appeals to Rome (1533) had deprived White of a lectureship. [13] Around 20 April 1535, aged 24 or 25, he was appointed headmaster of Winchester College. [8] The College, under Warden Edward More with ten Fellows, was subject to a Visitation for the Valor Ecclesiasticus in that year, the record showing White as headmaster (receiving £18.11s.5d from the rents), Richard Sedgrave under-master, and Richard Phillippes, cantarista. [14] [15] He taught there for seven years, until early in 1542 he was appointed Warden of Winchester College. [16] [17]

The office of Headmaster (called "Informator", or supreme moderator) of the school, was, as John Pitts explained, reserved only for the most well-read persons, to ensure the exact correctness of the instruction of the pupils: the office of Warden or Guardian (to which White progressed in 1541) denoted the College's Custos, as it were the Dean of College. [18] White's term as headmaster was one of exceptional disturbance in the church, encompassing as it did the Dissolution of the Monasteries (1536-1540) and the fall of Thomas Cromwell (1540): but the association with the University of Oxford saved Winchester College from closure. [8] [19] In his own epitaph White wrote:

"Septem annos docui, quae lux postrema docendi
Stata preessendi munere prima fuit.
Mutavit mihi non minuit fortuna mihi labores
Curaque non modicis rebus adaucta mihi." [16]
[...Seven years I taught, the last day of which teaching
Became the first of my office of Wardenship.
Fortune altered but lessened not my labours,
And my cares were in no small respects increased...]

Family affairs

John's elder brother Robert, a clothier, died at the end of 1533, and the Farnham estates went to his son Francis, but John and his brothers Henry and Thomas were appointed executors to hold lands by indenture on behalf of Robert's children and his widow Elizabeth (Morys). [20] Henry White's bequests to John in 1538 included the De Vita Christi and Commentary on the Psalms by Ludolph of Saxony, the works of Origen, "and som other that likith him of divinitie and a psalter of fine velame covered with changeable sarcenet, and a gold ring with a red stone which I hadd of him." John did not have all, however, for Henry left his Tertullian, his Irenaeus and his Gregory Nazianzen to Dr John London, Warden of New College, and the works of Clement, Athanasius and Gaetanus to Dr John Holyman of Exeter College later Bishop of Bristol. These two gentlemen, together with John himself and his brother-in-law Sir Thomas White of South Warnborough, were Henry's executors. John was bound in £30 to pay to the daughters of his late brother Robert when they should marry, but not until John got peaceful possession of Henry's lands in Finchampstead (Berkshire), Cove and Winchfield (Hampshire). (Hence by 1538 John's brothers Thomas and William had also died: John the younger received Henry's possessions in Aldershot.) Henry gives back the bedstead which John had lately given him. [6] Henry's will was proved by John the elder alone, so he was the acting executor.

Warden (1542-1554)

Before her execution in February 1542, Queen Katheryn Howard declared to John White that, whatever her conduct before her marriage, she had not defiled the King's bed. [21]

On the dissolution of the Benedictine Priory of St Swithun, the Winchester Chapter was reconstituted as Trinity College. The Dean and his twelve prebendaries were incorporated subject to the bishop (then Stephen Gardiner) and his successors, and in March 1541 White was appointed one of the prebendaries. [22] Eleven months later, in February 1541/42, he was appointed to the Wardenship of Winchester College. Though laicus in 1535, he had by now taken priest's orders, a requirement for the Wardenship, as in other respects, being aged over 30, holding an M.A., and being a past Fellow of New College, he fulfilled the founder's ordinances. He had been instituted to the rectory of Chilcomb near Winchester in 1537, probably served by his curate, and his institution to the rectory of Cheriton, Hampshire occurred around July 1543. As Warden he was permanently resident in College and engaged in some of the teaching. [23]

Survival

The threat of closure of the College was then imminent. The Act for the suppression of larger monasteries of 1539 included colleges, and the collegiate church of St Elizabeth at Winchester was sold to Thomas Wriothesley, Steward of Winchester College, in 1543. He sold it in 1544 to the College on condition that they re-establish the grammar school on that site, or else tear down the collegiate church by Whitsun 1547. The decision was taken to tear it down, losing the opportunity for a much-needed expansion into some fine medieval premises, either from a conservative preference for the old foundation, [24] or from the impossibility of such an expansion at a time when the College itself was potentially facing its own dissolution. [25] In connection with the Act of 1545 for the Dissolution of Colleges, Chantries and Free Chapels, a new survey was conducted showing richer pickings at Winchester, [26] and, amid a flurry of closures of noble colleges which followed, Winchester's was saved by the death of King Henry in 1547. On the accession of King Edward VI, the Oxford and Cambridge colleges and the schools of Eton and Winchester were granted exemptions from closure. [27]

Conservatism and Reform

The new king's commissioners of 1547, Sir James Hales and Dr Francis Cave, issued injunctions uncongenial to the Warden. The Bible was to be read at mealtimes in English; scholars were to buy the New Testament in English or Latin, for study, and to use only the King's Primer, English or Latin. The Warden was to read to them from the Book of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes for an hour on holy days; to instruct and test them in the Catechism of Erasmus; and all graces and other routine prayers were to be said or sung in English, and the old Latin anthems no more to be sung. [28] [29] Very troublesome, evidently, were the Warden's relations with the College's Usher, William Forde, a Protestant. According to a famous story he brought various large crucifixes crashing down in the middle of the night by a contrivance of ropes operated remotely. This fellow gave out books and instruction in Protestant doctrine to the pupils, and White was kept busy bringing them back to Catholicism. [30]

In one celebrated case, a 14-year-old boy named Thomas Joliffe had been strongly influenced by Forde. White lent him books, bidding him to study the Gospels and Epistles, and the works of the Eight Doctors, as a guide to faith. The boy studied them, but after several days he fell ill of sweating sickness. Calling his friends together, he declared that Forde's instruction had led him astray, and urged them to burn the books he had given them. He then wrote a poem testifying to the real presence in the Eucharist, made his will, declared his faith, and died of the sickness in the month of August 1548. In later re-telling, the theme developed of the sickness having particularly afflicted pupils who were touched by Forde's heretical teaching, but that is not in White's account. The story does reflect the religious divisions in the College at that time. [31]

Naughty doctrines

White included this poem in a collection of two hundred verse testimonies concerning Transubstantiation, which he gathered and eventually published as a volume entitled Diacosio-Martyrion. The Lutheran character of Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer of 1549 spread forth amidst the complexity of reform teachings of Nicholas Ridley, Martin Bucer and Peter Martyr. The latter became Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford in 1548, professing his Reformed doctrine of the Eucharist, which denied the real presence, leading to a public Disputation at Oxford in 1549. John White, from the ranks of Catholic conservatism, prepared a Letter to Peter Martyr in opposition to his doctrine, which became the first part of his work containing the verse testimonies. It was dedicated, with verses by White, to the Princess Mary as sister to King Edward, and was first prepared for publication in Louvain in 1550 (to avoid the provocation of an English edition). However, the book did not then appear, but had to await the alteration of religious policy in England.

In the trial of Bishop Gardiner (December 1550-January 1551), White was called upon to witness on Gardiner's behalf against his accusers. [32] In evidence he showed that Gardiner "did cause maister White then Scholemaister, after byshop of Wynt., to make certain verses extolling the kinges supremacie against the usurped power of the Pope, encouraging also his scholers to do the lyke." [33] John Philpot, archdeacon of Winchester, excommunicated him in 1551 for his "naughty" teachings. [34]

In March 1550, White was instituted to the prebend of Ipthorne within Chichester Cathedral. [35] [36] Not long after giving evidence for Gardiner (but seemingly in connection with his planned book), he was called before the King's council. He confessed to them that he had various books and letters from overseas, in particular from a scholar named Martin who was strongly opposed to King Edward's religious reforms. White had consented to these matters in such a way that he was suspected of having more extreme sympathies, and he was sent to the Tower of London. [37] He remained there for several months until released into the custody of Archbishop Cranmer himself, with whom he lodged and by whom he was brought to show greater willingness to conform. Even so, after this sojourn he was returned to the Tower for some time. [38]

White retained his prebend of Winchester, and in 1552 he was admitted prebendary of Eccleshall, Staffordshire, within Lichfield Cathedral. [1] [39] While remaining Warden of Winchester College, he succeeded John Redman (first Master of Trinity College, Cambridge) as Archdeacon of Taunton in November 1551; in November 1554, having surrendered that office, he, together with Thomas White of South Warnborough and John White the younger, was granted a future presentation to the archidiaconate. [40]

Marian prelate

Following the accession of Queen Mary and the reversal of religious policy, on 22 August 1553 (as Warden of St Mary's College, Winchester) he was appointed to the commission to hear and decide the petition of Edmund Bonner for his reinstatement as Bishop of London. [41] On 26 November (the eve of King Edward's funeral mass), White preached at Paul's Cross in favour of having a religious procession. [42] In December 1553 he published in London his Diacosio Martyrion, that book he had previously intended to be published in Louvain, but as from a London press and with the month and year fully stated. [43] The titles kept the original wording, including the Latin verse dedication to Princess Mary, although she was now Queen. [44] [38] It appears that White wished to preserve a memory or understanding of the context in which it was originally compiled.

Bishop of Lincoln (1554-1556)

John White was succeeded as Warden of Winchester College by the election of John Boxall on 25 October 1554, in the fourteenth year of his Wardenship. [45] On 1 April 1554, on the occasion of the consecration of six new bishops at the high altar of St Mary Overyes (Southwark), he was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln by Edmund Bonner. [46] The seat was vacant by the deprivation, on 16 March, of bishop John Taylor, and (Magister) John White (Sacrae Theologiae Bacalarius, i.e. Bachelor of Divinity) received the temporalities on 2 May, [47] and soon vacated the prebend of Eccleshall. [48]

The royal marriage

In July 1554, during the interim between his appointment as Bishop and his resignation as Warden, came the momentous (and for White, highly propitious) occasion of the marriage of Queen Mary to Philip II of Spain. The ceremony took place at Winchester Cathedral: White was among the company who welcomed Philip on his arrival at the west doors of the cathedral, [1] he took part in the ceremony itself, he wrote Latin verses celebrating the marriage, and he presented a collection of verses by the Winchester Scholars on that royal and sacred theme. [49] This may be the same book, or part thereof, which John Pitts had seen at Oxford, which he called "One Volume of Epigrams and other Poems", Nubat ut Hispano Regina. [18] By royal patent of July 1554 his nephew Stephen White the elder (son of his sister Agnes and Sir Thomas White) filled his place as rector of Cheriton. [50]

White's painted chamber

To this moment is attributed a great embellishment to the old Warden's quarters of Winchester College. [51] In 1885, in the removal of some panelled partitions, the timbers were found to have derived from an extensive painted ceiling and associated frieze in Florentine Antique style. [52] The ceiling had been boarded to form panels enclosed between moulded ribs, each painted panel presenting a medallion surrounded by Italianate arabesques and Renaissance grotesques painted in grisaille within rectangular frames. The medallions contained a series of allegorical busts (in the manner of Italian cinquecento maiolica painting), alternating with medallions enclosing a monogram of the letters "I.W.", presumed to be for John White. This was a first phase of decoration painted secondarily onto an older existing ceiling structure made of Baltic oak felled in around 1500. [51]

Structurally, the frieze was painted on wooden wall facings partly constructed at the same time as the ceiling, and partly on English oak timbers felled after 1547. [53] The painting occupied some 50 inches of wall height and ran for some 45 feet horizontally. Beneath a gothic trefoil crest, the broad upper register is painted as if supported upon a projecting dentillated cornice. It showed pairs of winged and garlanded youths (transforming at the waist from foliate and zoomorphic scrollwork), supporting panels (surmounted by crowns) bearing the repeated motto "VYVE LE ROY" (i.e., May The King Live). These formulations alternated with pairs of ugly putti supporting medallions or wreaths of laurel within which a helmeted military bust is enclosed (possibly representing King Philip), and in one fragment the frontal bust of a woman wearing a French hood. A narrower register painted below the imitated cornice was set with framed texts from Ecclesiastes, alternating with smaller figured medallions. [54]

This sumptuous frieze, which must have been arresting in its original context, is taken to be a distinct phase of decoration for the same chambers, not in direct continuity with the painted ceiling, but perhaps undertaken in connection with the royal marriage. [55] Whether or not Lambert Barnard (c. 1485-1567) was involved in this work, his work in the Chichester region would have been known to Dr White as prebendary of Ipthorne in that cathedral. An inventory made in November 1554 refers to two goblets with one lid of double gilt, left by White in the "paynted chamber". [56] There is also a sixteenth century carved stone fireplace arch in the College with the letters "P" and "R" in the spandrels, which may refer to "Phillipus Rex". [57]

The trial of Ridley

Bishop White preached at Paul's Cross on 18 November 1554. [58] His degree in Divinity was incorporated as Doctor of Divinity in 1555. [38] Becoming very active in the pursuit of heretics, he presided at the trial of Nicholas Ridley. [1] On 30 September 1555, at Oxford, he challenged Dr Ridley openly concerning his "new heresy", reminding him that, in a sermon at Paul's Cross in King Edward's time, "...yow spake as effectually and Catholickly of that blessed Sacrament, as any man might have done." Dr White added that Bishop Gardiner had informed him that Ridley, when sent by Cranmer to persuade Gardiner to their way of thinking, had urged Gardiner, "...for God's love, my Lord, stand stoutly in the verity of the Sacrament. For I see they will assault that also." [59]

Visitation of Lincoln

Bishop Gardiner lived only three weeks to contemplate Ridley's execution. White was named an executor in Gardiner's will, preached at his requiem on 14 November 1555, [60] and took part in the funeral procession in February 1555/56 which went from Southwark to Winchester. [1] [61] Having participated in the consecration of Reginald Pole (22 March 1556), he received a commission from the Cardinal to conduct a visitation of the see of Lincoln. An extraordinary number of misdemeanours, contraventions and lapses were discovered, and great dilapidations had occurred in many of the churches. Priests who had married and/or had children, or had spoken disrespectfully of the sacred ordinances, or had performed the sacraments incorrectly, were admonished and given penances. [62]

Bishop of Winchester (1556-1559)

White sought eagerly for his own translation to the bishopric of Winchester, in Bishop Gardiner's place. This occurred on 6 July 1556, after White (who had been elected at Greenwich on 15 April 1556) [63] had reached an agreement to pay £1000 per year to Cardinal Pole for the privilege of holding that seat. [38] The documentary instrument of his enthronement is preserved in his episcopal register for Winchester, together with two commissions to the Vicars-general, and the usual presentations to benefices. [64]

On 23 April 1557, St George's Day, King Philip processed in his robes of the Garter, Lord Talbot bearing the Sword before him: Bishop White wore his mitre and sang mass that day. Ten Knights of the Garter were beside the King, and Secretary Petre wore a robe of crimson velvet with the Garter. [65] He preached at St Mary Overy's on 23 May 1557, when a heretic was brought to hear his sermon. [66] In August 1558 William Windsor, 2nd Baron Windsor, [67] making his will, appointed Bishop John White and Sir Thomas White as two of his executors, though the will was not proved until December 1558, [68] when Lord John, Bishop of Winchester, was among those to whom administration was granted. [69]

Elizabeth

Imprisonment and deprivation

After the accession of Elizabeth I, White's days as a bishop were numbered. He preached at the funeral of the bishop of Rochester on 30 November 1558, and it was two weeks later, at the mass for Queen Mary on 14 December, that he gave offence to the new monarch by the words of his sermon. [16] Sir John Harington takes up the story:

"His text was out of Ecclesiastes IV.ii, Laudavi mortuos magis quam viventes, et feliciorem utroque judicavi qui nec dum natus est. [70] And speaking of Queen Mary her High Parentage, her bountifull disposition, her great gravity, her rare devotion (praying so much as he affirmed that her knees were hard with kneeling), her Justice and Clemency in restoring Noble Houses to her own privat losse and hindrance, and lastly her grievous yet patient death: he fell into such an unfaigned weeping, that for a long space he could not speak. Then recovering himself, he said she had left a Sister to succeed her, a Lady of great worth also whom they were now bound to obey: for, saith he, "melior est Canis vivus Leone mortuo", [71] and I hope so shall raign well and prosperously over us, but I must say still with my Text, Laudavi mortuos magis quam viventes; for certain that is, Maria optimam partem elegit": [72] at which Queen Elizabeth, taking just indignation, put him in prison, yet would proceed no further then to his deprivation, though some would have made that a more haynous matter." [3]

In fact White's imprisonment was not immediate. Over the next three months he refused to take the Oath of Supremacy, and contemplated the excommunication of Elizabeth. [16] [73] [74] On the night of 3 April 1559 he and the Bishop of Lincoln were taken from Westminster Abbey under guard by the river to the Old Swan, thence to Billingsgate, and so to the Tower of London. [75] Yet he was still as bishop able to stand as godfather to his nephew John White (son of John White the grocer by his second wife, Katherine Soday), [76] at his christening at St Bartholomew-the-Less on 25 May 1559, together with the Lord Treasurer Marquess of Winchester, and Dame Joan Laxton, late the wife of Sir William Laxton. [77] Five bishops were deprived of their seats on 21 June, and on 26 June the bishops of Winchester and Lincoln were similarly unthroned at the Sheriff's house in Mincing Lane, and Dr White was returned to the Tower. [78] (These were, of course, the necessary substitutions preparatory to the elevation of Matthew Parker to the see of Canterbury, just as White's elevation to the see of Lincoln in 1554 had marked the inauguration of Mary's religious settlement.) At 6 a.m. on the 7th of July he was finally delivered out of the Tower by Sir Edward Warner to the Lord Keeper, who gave him into the custody of his brother John White (the younger). [79]

Death and memorial

According to Henry Machyn, White died on 12 January 1559/60 of an ague, while at the house of his brother(-in-law) Sir Thomas White (died 1566) of South Warnborough (Keeper of Farnham Castle) in Hampshire, and was buried on 15 January at Winchester. [80] (Sir Thomas was married to Agnes White, sister of the bishop.) [4] In his will, bishop White requested burial in Winchester Cathedral. [38]

There is a memorial to him in Winchester College Chapel, which was set up during the late 1870s by Edwin Freshfield. It replaced an original 16th century monument which was dismantled when the chapel was reconstructed in 1873-77. His monumental brass consisted of a frontal full-length praying figure wearing an ornamented cope, and this fragment, minus the head, feet and original inscription, is still preserved, the whole having been reconstructed from rubbings taken before the removal. Most of the chapel's monuments disappeared before they could be re-installed. White's monument included a lengthy Latin verse epitaph written by himself, and an additional memorial inscription. [16]

John Pitts remarked that, as this outstanding man died in captivity, almost all of his manuscript writings were lost. He described White as a man of very notable piety and doctrine, a judicious poet, an eloquent speaker, a sound theologian and a sinewy preacher. [81] [18] "He gave to Wykeham's College, near Winton, his mitre, and crosier staff; a silver tankard, gilt; a basin and ewer of silver; a Turkey carpet; and other choice goods." [82] His sister Dame Agnes White in her will written in 1568 gives to a son "a great gilte Jugg with the vyne spredd which was his uncles the Bysshope", and to another "my gilt tankerd with the Busshoppe of Wynchesters armes". [83] Katheryn White, widow of Sir John, in 1574 had in her hands for her son John White "a standing cup of silver and guilte, one guilte bowle with a cover, and a guilte pott with a cover all which thre parcells were of the guifte of his late uncle John sometyme Bisshopp of Winton". These are mentioned together with a standing cup given by the Marquess of Winchester and two gilt spoons from Lady Laxton, all which must be the baptism gifts of 1559. [84]

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 W.H.Hutton, 'White, John (?1510 - 1560), bishop of Winchester', Dictionary of National Biography (London 1885-1900), vol. 61.
  2. J.B. Wainewright, John White of Winchester. A Paper read at Ye 274th Meeting of Ye Sette of Odd Volumes, Decr. 1906 (Bedford Press, London 1907), 62pp.
  3. 1 2 'Doctor John White', in J. Harington, ed. J. Chetwind, A Briefe View of the state of the Church of England (Jos. Kirton, London 1653), 'Of the bishops of Winchester', pp. 59-61 (Umich/eebo)
  4. 1 2 'Pedigree of Whyte', in W.H. Rylands (ed.), Pedigrees from the Visitation of Hampshire by Thomas Benolt, 1530, and 1575, 1622-34, Harleian Society LXIV (1913), pp. 12-13, and pp. 81-83 (Internet Archive).
  5. 1 2 Will of Robert White, Merchant of Farnham, Surrey (P.C.C. 1518, Ayloffe quire).
  6. 1 2 Will of Henry White, Priest (P.C.C. 1538, Dyngeley quire).
  7. 'Notes to the diary. 1560, p. 224: Funeral of the late bishop of Winchester', in J.G. Nichols (ed.), The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London, 1550-1563, Camden Society (London 1848), p. 378 (Internet Archive).
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 L.W. Barnard, 'John White as Headmaster and Warden of Winchester College', 3 Parts, The Wykehamist, Part 1: No. 1195 (10 February 1971), pp. 556-58; Part 2: No. 1196 (3 March 1971), pp. 572-74; Part 3: No. 1197 (24 March 1971), pp. 584-87. Part 1, at p. 556.
  9. 'White, John', in J. Foster (ed.), Alumni Oxonienses 1500-1714 (Oxford 1891), pp. 1600-1626 (British History Online accessed 27 January 2023).
  10. G. Burnet, ed. E. Nares, The History of the Reformation of the Church of England, Revised edition, 4 vols (D. Appleton and Company, New York 1843), II, p. 613 (Google).
  11. 'White, Henry, fellow, New College 1515-1527', in J. Foster (ed.), Alumni Oxonienses 1500-1714 (Oxford 1891), pp. 1600-1626 (British History Online, accessed 29 January 2023).
  12. J. Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, relating chiefly to Religion and the Reformation of it, 6 volumes (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1822), III Part 1, Chapter XXXV, at p. 466 (Hathi Trust).
  13. '1184. Dr John London to Gostwick', in Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, Vol. XI: July-December 1536 (HMSO 1888), p. 480 (British History Online).
  14. J. Caley (ed), Valor Ecclesiasticus temp. Henr. VIII: Auctoritate Regia Institutus 6 vols (Commissioners, 1810-34), II (1814),pp. 4-5 (Google).
  15. A.F. Leach, A History of Winchester College (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1899), p. 238-39 (Hathi Trust).
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 P.G. Langdon, 'On a palimpsest brass of Bishop White, at Winchester College, and brasses of the White family at Southwick', Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, Vol. III, Part I (1894), pp. 79-84 (Society's pdf).
  17. T.F. Kirby, Winchester Scholars. A List of the Wardens, Fellows, and Scholars of Saint Mary College of Winchester, near Winchester, commonly called Winchester College (H. Frowde, London 1888), p. 1, and see p. 120 (Hathi Trust).
  18. 1 2 3 'De Ioanne Vito', in Ioannis Pitsei Angli, Relationum Historicarum de Rebus Anglicis Tom. I (Apud Rolinum Thierry et Sebastianum Cramoisy, Paris 1619), pp. 763-64 (Google).
  19. Leach, A History of Winchester College, p. 246 (Hathi Trust).
  20. Will of Robert Whitte or White, Clothier of Farnham, Surrey (P.C.C. 1534, Hogen quire). Elizabeth was daughter of John Morys of Syon Abbey (died 1540), for whom see History of Parliament Online.
  21. G. Burnet, The History of the Reformation of the Church of England, Part 1: Of the Progress made in it during the Reign of K. Henry the VIII (Richard Chiswell, London 1678), Book III, p. 313 (Google).
  22. G.W. Kitchin and F.T. Madge (eds), Documents relating to the Foundation of the Chapter of Winchester, A.D. 1541-1547, Hampshire Records Society Publications, No. 1 (Simpkin and Marshall, London 1889), p. 54 (Google).
  23. Barnard, 'John White as headmaster', The Wykehamist, Part 2, p. 572.
  24. Leach, A History of Winchester College, pp. 256-60 (Hathi Trust).
  25. Barnard, 'John White as headmaster', The Wykehamist, Part 2, p. 573.
  26. 'The Suburbse of the Towne of Wynton', in A.F. Leach, English Schools at the Reformation, 1546-8 (Archibald Constable & Co, Westminster 1896), pp. 86-88 (Google).
  27. Barnard, 'John White as headmaster', The Wykehamist, Part 2, p. 573.
  28. 'Injunctions given to Winton coll., by Sir James Hales (&c.), 1 Ed. I', in D. Wilkins, Concilia Magnae Britanniae et Hiberniae, a Synodo Verulamiensi A.D. CCCXLVI ad Londinensem A.D. MDCCXVII, 4 vols (R. Gosling, F. Gyles, T. Woodward and C. Davis, London 1737), IV: 1546-1717, pp. 8-9 (Hathi Trust).
  29. Barnard, 'John White as headmaster', The Wykehamist, Part 2, p. 573.
  30. Barnard, 'John White as headmaster', The Wykehamist, Part 1, pp. 557-58.
  31. Barnard, 'John White as headmaster', The Wykehamist, Part 2, pp. 573-74.
  32. Barnard, 'John White as headmaster', The Wykehamist, Part 3, pp. 585-86.
  33. J. Foxe, The Acts and Monuments (Iohn Day, 1563), Book 4, p. 918 (The Acts and Monuments online).
  34. R. Eden (ed.), The Examinations and Writings of John Philpot, B.C.L. Archdeacon of Winchester, Parker Society (Cambridge University Press, 1842), p. 82 (Google).
  35. 'Prebendaries: Ipthorne', in J.M. Horne (ed.), Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541-1857, Vol. 2: Chichester Diocese (London, 1971), pp. 42-44 (British History Online, accessed 28 January 2023).
  36. Clergy of the Church of England database, Appointment record ID: 166071.
  37. J.R. Dasent, Acts of the Privy Council, Vol. III: 1550-1552 (HMSO, London 1891), at p. 242 (British History Online).
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 "XXVII. John White, D.D., The Last of the Catholic Bishops", in S.H. Cassan, The Lives of the Bishops of Winchester, from Birinus, the first bishop of the West Saxons, to the Present Time, 2 vols (C. and J. Rivington, London 1827), I, pp. 544-51 (Google).
  39. 'Prebendaries: Eccleshall', in J.M. Horn (ed.), Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541-1857, Vol. 10: Coventry and Lichfield Diocese (IHR, London 2003), pp. 34-36 (British History Online, accessed 29 January 2023).
  40. 'Archdeacons: Taunton', in J.M. Horn and D.S. Bailey (eds), Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541-1857, Volume 5: Bath and Wells Diocese (I.H.R., London 1979), pp. 16-18 (British History Online, accessed 4 February 2023).
  41. Calendar of Patent Rolls, Philip and Mary, Vol. I: 1553-1554 (HMSO, London 1937), pp. 74-75 and pp. 121-22 (Hathi Trust).
  42. J.G. Nichols (ed.), The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London, Camden Society (London 1848), Original Series Vol. XLII, p. 49 (Internet Archive).
  43. Barnard, 'John White as headmaster', The Wykehamist, Part 3, p. 585.
  44. J. White, Diacosio Martyrion ducentorum virorum testimonia, de veritate corporis et sanguinis Christi in Eucharistia, ante triennium (in aedibus Roberti Cali, typographi, London, December 1553).
  45. "...qui in officio Custodis hujus Collegij XIIIJ annos agens, Lincolnie Episcopus primo die Aprilis Ao Dni 1554 consecratus est..." (Posthumous tomb inscription in Winchester College Chapel), cited by Langdon in Hampshire Field Club, at p. 81. Kirby, Winchester Scholars, p. 1, by an Erratum amends his date 1544 to 1554. Foster, Alumni Oxonienses, makes Boxall Warden from 1554 to 1556.
  46. The Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 58 (Internet Archive).
  47. 'De Restitutionibus Temporalium pro Episcopo Lincolniensis', in T. Rymer, Foedera, Conventiones, Literae, Et Cujuscunque Generis Acta, Vol. XV (A. and J. Churchill, London 1713), p. 388 (Google).
  48. Clergy of the Church of England database, Vacancy Evidence Record ID 109428.
  49. 'Appendix XII. Verses by the Winchester Scholars on the Queen's marriage', in J.G. Nichols (ed.), The Chronicle of Queen Jane, and of Two Years of Queen Mary, Camden Society XLVIII (1850), pp. 172-74 (Internet Archive).
  50. Calendar of Patent Rolls, Philip and Mary, Vol. I: 1553-1554, p. 494 (Hathi Trust).
  51. 1 2 E. Lewis, 'A sixteenth century painted ceiling from Winchester College', Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, vol. 51 (1995), pp. 137-65 (Society's pdf).
  52. The panels are now kept and partially displayed at the Museum in the Westgate of the City of Winchester, see 'Ceiling and frieze in the Westgate', Hampshire Cultural Trust.
  53. Lewis, 'A sixteenth century painted ceiling', Analysis of timbers by D. Miles, at pp. 142-46.
  54. Lewis, 'A sixteenth century painted ceiling', at pp. 139-42.
  55. Lewis, 'A sixteenth century painted ceiling', at pp. 157-58.
  56. Lewis, 'A sixteenth century painted ceiling', at pp. 158 and 155.
  57. Lewis, 'A sixteenth century painted ceiling', at p. 164, note 4.
  58. The Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 75 (Internet Archive).
  59. 'N.D.' (pseud. R. Persons), A Treatise of Three Conversions of England from Paganisme to Christian Religion, 3 volumes (Bellet, 1604), III, pp. 209-10 (Google).
  60. The Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 97 (Internet Archive).
  61. The Diary of Henry Machyn, pp. 100-01 (Internet Archive).
  62. R.W. Dixon, History of the Church of England, 6 volumes (George Routledge and Sons Limited, London 1891), IV, pp. 597-99 (Internet Archive).
  63. The Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 103 (Internet Archive).
  64. H. Chitty (ed.), W.H. Frere, Registrum Johannis Whyte, Episcopi Wintoniensis, A.D. MDLVI-MDLIX, Canterbury and York Society, Canterbury and York Series vol. 16 (London 1913-1914), pp. 1-9 (Internet Archive).
  65. The Diary of Henry Machyn, pp. 132-33 (Internet Archive).
  66. The Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 136 (Internet Archive).
  67. M. K. Dale, 'Windsor, William (by 1499–1558), of Bradenham, Bucks.', in S. T. Bindoff (ed.), The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509–1558 (Boydell and Brewer, 1982), History of Parliament online.
  68. 'William Lord Windsor', in N.H. Nicolas (ed.), Testamenta Vetusta: Being illustrations from Wills (&c.) (Nichols and Son, London 1826), II, pp. 752-57, at p. 755 (Internet Archive).
  69. A. Collins, The Peerage of England, 5th edition, 8 vols (W. Strahan and others, London 1779), IV, pp. 90-94, at p. 94 (Google).
  70. "I have praised the dead more than the living, and have reckoned him to be more fortunate than either, who is not yet born."
  71. "A living dog is better than a dead lion."
  72. "Mary chose the best part."
  73. P. Heylyn, ed. J.G. Robertson, Ecclesia Restaurata, or, The History of the Reformation of the Church of England, Ecclesiastical History Society edition, 2 vols (Cambridge University Press, 1849), II, pp. 289-90 (Google).
  74. W. Camden, The Historie of the Most High, Mighty, and Inuincible Princesse, Queene ELIZABETH, of most happy and neuer-dying memory: OR ANNALLS... (Beniamin Fisher, London 1625), Book I, The second yeere of her raigne. Anno Domini 1559, at pp. 17-18 (text at Umich/eebo).
  75. The Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 192 (Internet Archive).
  76. 'XVIII. Church Notes in the Hundred of Crondall, Hampshire. Aldershot.', in Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, VII (John Bowyer Nichols and Son, London 1841), pp. 211-18, at pp. 211-13 (Google).
  77. The Diary of Henry Machyn, pp. 198-99 (Internet Archive).
  78. The Diary of Henry Machyn, pp. 200-01 (Internet Archive).
  79. The Diary of Henry Machyn p. 203 (Internet Archive).
  80. 'Notes to the diary. 1560, p. 224: Funeral of the late bishop of Winchester', in The Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 378 (Internet Archive): see Machyn at p. 224 (Internet Archive).
  81. "Erat sane vir pietate et doctrina conspicuus. Acutus poeta, orator eloquens, theologus solidus, concionator nervosus."
  82. Cassan, Lives of the Bishops of Winchester, at p. 548 (Google).
  83. Will of Agnes Whyte, Widow of South Warnborough, Hampshire (P.C.C. 1570/1576, Holney quire).
  84. Will of Katherine White, Widow of Saint Dunstan in the East, City of London (P.C.C. 1576, Carew quire).
Church of England titles
Preceded by Bishop of Lincoln
1554–1556
Succeeded by
Preceded by Bishop of Winchester
1556–1559
Succeeded by

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