John William Friso, Prince of Orange

Last updated

John William Friso
Portrait of Johan Willem Friso van Nassau-Dietz (1687-1711) by Lancelot Volders.jpg
John William Friso, Prince of Orange (1710)
by Lancelot Volders
Prince of Orange
Period19 March 1702 – 14 July 1711
Predecessor William III
Successor William IV
Prince of Nassau-Dietz
Reign25 March 1696 – ca. 1702
Predecessor Henry Casimir II
Prince of Orange-Nassau
Reignca. 1702 – 14 July 1711
Successor William IV
Stadtholder of Friesland and Groningen
Reign25 March 1696 – 14 July 1711
Predecessor Henry Casimir II
Successor William IV
Born14 August 1687
Dessau, Anhalt
Died14 July 1711(1711-07-14) (aged 23)
Hollands Diep, between Dordrecht and Moerdijk
Burial25 February 1712
Spouse Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Issue Amalia of Nassau-Dietz
William IV, Prince of Orange
House Orange-Nassau
Father Henry Casimir II, Prince of Nassau-Dietz
Mother Henriëtte Amalia of Anhalt-Dessau

John William Friso, Prince of Orange-Nassau (Dutch : Johan Willem Friso van Oranje-Nassau; 14 August 1687 – 14 July 1711) became the titular Prince of Orange in 1702. He was stadtholder of Friesland until his death by drowning in the Hollands Diep in 1711. Friso and his wife, Marie Louise, are the most recent common ancestors of all European monarchs occupying the throne today.

Dutch language West Germanic language

Dutch(Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

Prince of Orange title originally from the Principality of Orange

Prince of Orange is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France. Under the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, Frederick William I of Prussia ceded the Principality of Orange to King Louis XIV of France. After William III of England died without children, a dispute arose between Johan Willem Friso and Frederick I of Prussia, which was settled in the Treaty of Partition (1732); consequently, Friso's son, William IV had to share use of the title "Prince of Orange" with Frederick William I of Prussia. The title is traditionally borne by the heir apparent of the Dutch monarch. The title descends via absolute primogeniture since 1983, meaning that its holder can be either Prince or Princess of Orange.

Stadtholder title used in parts of Europe

In the Low Countries, stadtholder was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader. The stadtholder was the replacement of the duke or earl of a province during the Burgundian and Habsburg period (1384–1581/1795).

Contents

Background

He was the son of Henry Casimir II, Prince of Nassau-Dietz, and Princess Henriëtte Amalia of Anhalt-Dessau who were both first cousins of William III. As such, he was a member of the House of Nassau (the branch of Nassau-Dietz), and through the testamentary dispositions of William III became the progenitor of the new line of the House of Orange-Nassau. [1]

Henry Casimir II, Prince of Nassau-Dietz Stadholder of Friesland and Groningen

Henry Casimir II of Nassau-Dietz was Stadtholder of Friesland and Groningen from 1664 till 1696.

Princess Henriëtte Amalia of Anhalt-Dessau Regent of Nassau-Dietz (1666-1726)

Henriëtte Amalia Maria von Anhalt-Dessau was the daughter of John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, and Henriëtte Catharina of Nassau and the granddaughter of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange.

William III of England 17th-century Stadtholder, Prince of Orange and King of England, Scotland and Ireland

William III, also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".

Succession

With the death of William III, Prince of Orange, the legitimate male line of William the Silent (the second House of Orange) became extinct. John William Friso, the senior agnatic descendant of William the Silent's brother and a cognatic descendant of Frederick Henry, grandfather of William III, claimed the succession as stadtholder in all provinces held by William III. This was denied to him by the republican faction in the Netherlands. [2]

William the Silent founder of the Dutch Republic, stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, leader of the Dutch Revolt

William I, Prince of Orange, also known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn, or more commonly known as William of Orange, was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. Within the Netherlands he is also known as Father of the Fatherland.

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of Holland

Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch, was the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647. He was the grandfather of William III of England.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

The five provinces over which William III ruled – Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel – all suspended the office of Stadtholder after William III's death. The remaining two provinces – Friesland and Groningen – were never governed by William III, and continued to retain a separate Stadtholder, John William Friso. He established the third House of Orange, which became extinct in the male line in 1890. His son William IV, Prince of Orange, however, later became stadtholder of all seven provinces. [3]

William IV, Prince of Orange hereditary stadtholder of the Netherlands

William IV was Prince of Orange-Nassau and the first hereditary stadtholder of all the United Provinces.

John William Friso's position as William III's heir general was opposed by King Frederick I of Prussia, who also claimed (and occupied) part of the inheritance (for example Lingen). Under William III's will, Friso stood to inherit the Principality of Orange. However, the Prussian King Frederick I also claimed the Principality of Orange in the Rhône Valley, of which he later ceded the territory to France. [4]

Frederick I of Prussia 1657 – 1713, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia)

Frederick I, of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia). The latter function he upgraded to royalty, becoming the first King in Prussia (1701–1713). From 1707 he was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. He was also the paternal grandfather of Frederick the Great.

Lingen, Germany Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Lingen is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. In 2008, its population was 52,353, and in addition there were about 5,000 people who registered the city as their secondary residence. Lingen, specifically "Lingen (Ems)" is located on the river Ems in the southern part of the Emsland district, which borders North Rhine-Westphalia in the south and the Netherlands in the west. Lingen was first mentioned in the Middle Ages.

Principality of Orange

The Principality of Orange was, from 1163 to 1713, a feudal state in Provence, in the south of modern-day France, on the east bank of the river Rhone, north of the city of Avignon, and surrounded by the independent papal state of Comtat Venaissin.

Military career and death

On coming of age in 1707, John William Friso became a general of the Dutch troops during the War of Spanish Succession, under the command of the Duke of Marlborough, and turned out to be a competent officer. He commanded Dutch infantry in the battle of Oudenarde, siege of Lille, and battle of Malplaquet. The prestige that he acquired from his military service should have favored his eventual elevation as stadtholder in the remaining five provinces. However, in 1711, when traveling from the front in Flanders to meet the King of Prussia in The Hague in connection with his suit in the succession dispute, he drowned on 14 July when the ferry boat on the Moerdyk was overturned in heavy weather. His son was born six weeks after his death. [5]

War of the Spanish Succession major European conflict (1700–1714) after the death of Charles II

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700. His closest heirs were members of the Austrian Habsburg and French Bourbon families; acquisition of an undivided Spanish Empire by either threatened the European balance of power.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough English soldier and statesman

General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs. From a gentry family, he served first as a page at the court of the House of Stuart under James, Duke of York, through the 1670s and early 1680s, earning military and political advancement through his courage and diplomatic skill.

Battle of Oudenarde battle in the War of the Spanish Succession fought on 11 July 1708 in Belgium

The Battle of Oudenarde was a battle in the War of the Spanish Succession fought on 11 July 1708 between the forces of Great Britain, the Dutch Republic and the Holy Roman Empire on the one side and those of France on the other. It took place at Oudenaarde and was a great victory for the allies.

Marriage and issue

On 26 April 1709, he married Princess Maria Louise of Hesse-Kassel (1688–1765), daughter of Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, and granddaughter of Jacob Kettler, Duke of Courland. They had two children.

NameBirthDeathNotes
Anna Charlotte Amalia 17101777married Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Baden-Durlach; had issue, including Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden
William IV, Prince of Orange 17111751married Anne, Princess Royal; had issue, including William V, Prince of Orange

John William Friso and his wife are the most recent common ancestors to all currently reigning European monarchs. This is a distinction he has held since 1938, when Franz Joseph II - a descendant of John William Friso, succeeded Franz I - who was not a descendant, as Prince of Liechtenstein. [6]

Legacy

Ancestry

Related Research Articles

House of Orange-Nassau branch of the European House of Nassau

The House of Orange-Nassau, a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.

Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau brother of king Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands

Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau was a younger brother of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. Prince Friso was a member of the Dutch Royal Family, but because of his marriage without an Act of Consent in 2004, he lost his membership of the Dutch Royal House and was no longer in the line of succession to the throne.

William II, Prince of Orange Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of Holland

William II was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later. His only child, William III, reigned as King of England, Ireland, and Scotland.

House of Nassau diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe

The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe. It is named after the lordship associated with Nassau Castle, located in present-day Nassau, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The lords of Nassau were originally titled "Count of Nassau", then elevated to the princely class as "Princely Counts".

Oranjewoud Village in Friesland, Netherlands

Oranjewoud is a small village in the Netherlands. It is located in the municipality of Heerenveen, Friesland. Oranjewoud had a population of 1570 in January 2017. It is known for Oranjewoud Palace.

William Frederick, Prince of Nassau-Dietz Count of Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe

William Frederick, Count of Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe.

William of Orange usually refers to either:

Ernest Casimir I, Count of Nassau-Dietz Count of Nassau-Dietz and Stadtholder of Groningen, Friesland and Drenthe

Ernst Casimir I of Nassau-Dietz was count of Nassau-Dietz and Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe.

Orangism (Dutch Republic)

In the history of the Dutch Republic, Orangism or prinsgezindheid was a political force opposing the Staatsgezinde (pro-Republic) party. Orangists supported the princes of Oranges as Stadtholders and military commanders of the Republic, as a check on the power of the regenten. The Orangist party drew its adherents largely from the common people, soldiers, the nobility and orthodox preachers, though its support fluctuated heavily over the course of the Republic's history.

Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel Dutch princess

Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel was a Dutch regent, Princess of Orange by marriage to John William Friso, Prince of Orange, and regent of the Netherlands during the minority of her son and her grandson. She was a daughter of Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, and Maria Amalia of Courland. She and her husband are the most recent common ancestors all currently reigning monarchs in Europe.

Orange-Nassau, also known as Nassau-Orange, was a principality which was part of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle within the Holy Roman Empire. It existed under this name between 1702 and 1815. The territory of the former state of Orange-Nassau is now part of Germany. It was ruled by the House of Orange-Nassau.

Lordship of Frisia

The Lordship of Frisia or Lordship of Friesland was a feudal dominion in the Netherlands. It was formed in 1524 when Emperor Charles V finally conquered Frisia.

Marquis of Veere and Flushing

Marquis of Veere and Flushing is one of the titles of the kings and queens of the Netherlands. It was originally a Dutch title of nobility referring to the cities of Veere and Vlissingen, in the southwestern Netherlands. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V created the title in 1555 for his distant relative, Maximilian of Burgundy, who had by then ruled as Lord of Veere. After being held by the kings of Spain and England and claimed by the kings in Prussia, it definitively passed to the House of Orange-Nassau.

Royal descendants of John William Friso Wikimedia list article

The royal descendants of John William Friso, Prince of Orange currently occupy all the hereditary European royal thrones, with Friso and his wife, Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel, being the most recent common ancestors of all the European monarchs. Due to the intermarriage of the European royal houses, many monarchs are descended from Friso in more than one way. Through history, Friso has also been the ancestor of many monarchs whose thrones no longer exist.

References

  1. John William Friso. (2014). Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. State, P. F. (2008). A Brief History of the Netherlands. New York: Facts On File.
  3. State, P. F. (2008). A Brief History of the Netherlands. New York: Facts On File.
  4. John William Friso. (2014). Encyclopædia Britannica
  5. State, P. F. (2008). A Brief History of the Netherlands. New York: Facts On File.
  6. John William Friso. (2014). Encyclopædia Britannica
John William Friso, Prince of Orange
House of Orange-Nassau
(second creation)
Cadet branch of the House of Nassau
Born: 14 August 1687 Died: 14 July 1711
Dutch nobility
Preceded by
William III
Prince of Orange
1702–1711
Vacant
Title next held by
William IV
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Henry Casimir II
Prince of Nassau-Dietz
1696–1702
Title obsolete
merged into German
principality of Orange-Nassau
New title Prince of Orange-Nassau
1702–1711
Succeeded by
William IV
Preceded by
William III
Baron of Breda
1702–1711
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry Casimir II
Stadtholder of Friesland and Groningen
1696–1711
Succeeded by
William IV