John William Vessey Jr.

Last updated
John William Vessey Jr.
Gen John Vessey Jr.JPG
Vessey in 1983
Nickname(s)"Jack"
Born(1922-06-29)June 29, 1922
Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
DiedAugust 18, 2016(2016-08-18) (aged 94)
North Oaks, Minnesota, U.S.
Buried
Minnesota State Veterans Cemetery, Little Falls, Minnesota
AllegianceUnited States
Service/branch Minnesota Army National Guard
United States Army
Years of service1939–1985
Rank General
Unit Field Artillery Branch
Commands held Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Republic of Korea-United States Combined Forces Command
8th United States Army
United States Forces Korea
4th Infantry Division (Mechanized)
Military Assistance Advisory Group Laos
U.S. Army Supply Thailand
3rd Armored Division Artillery
2nd Battalion, 73d Field Artillery
Battles/wars World War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
Awards Distinguished Service Cross
Defense Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Army Distinguished Service Medal (3)
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Air Force Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit (2)
Bronze Star Medal (2)
Presidential Medal of Freedom

John William "Jack" Vessey Jr. (June 29, 1922 – August 18, 2016) was a career officer in the United States Army. He attained the rank of general, and was most notable for his service as the tenth chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Contents

A native of Minneapolis, Vessey began his 46-year military career in 1939 when he joined the Minnesota Army National Guard's 59th Field Artillery Brigade, a unit of the 34th Infantry Division. His unit was activated for World War II, and he took part in combat in the North African and Italian Campaigns. Vessey received a battlefield commission to second lieutenant during the Battle of Anzio, and served as a field artillery forward observer until the end of the war. After the war, Vessey advanced through positions of increasing rank and responsibility. During the Vietnam War, he served as executive officer of the 25th Infantry Division Artillery and acting commander of 2nd Battalion, 77th Field Artillery, and he received the Distinguished Service Cross for heroism during the Battle of Suoi Tre. He served as commander of the 3rd Armored Division Artillery from 1967 to 1969, and division chief of staff from 1969 to 1970.

Vessey was promoted to brigadier general in 1970, and assigned as commander of U.S. Army Supply Thailand, a logistics support area for soldiers serving in Vietnam. He commanded U.S. military activities in Laos from 1973 to 1974, when he was promoted to major general as commander of the 4th Infantry Division. In 1975, Vessey was promoted to lieutenant general and assigned as the Army's deputy chief of staff for operations and plans, G-3. He was promoted to general in 1976, and named to command United States Forces Korea and the Eighth United States Army. In 1978, Vessey also assumed command of the Republic of Korea-United States Combined Forces Command. He served in Korea until 1979, when he was assigned as Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army.

In 1982, President Ronald Reagan named Vessey as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He served until retiring in October 1985 After leaving the Army, Vessey became involved in efforts to account for military personnel listed as missing in action, and made several trips to Southeast Asia to search for remains as part of resolving the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1992. Vessey died in North Oaks, Minnesota on August 18, 2016. He was buried at the Minnesota State Veterans Cemetery in Little Falls.

Early life and education

Vessey was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on June 29, 1922, the son of John William Vessey and Emily Katherine (Roche) Vessey. [1] [2] He attended the schools of Minneapolis, and was 16 in May 1939 when he claimed to be 18 so that he could enlist in the Minnesota Army National Guard. [3] Vessey was assigned as a motorcycle courier [4] in the 59th Field Artillery Brigade, 34th Infantry Division. [3] In 1940, he graduated from Roosevelt High School. [5] In February 1941, his unit was activated for training and mobilization in anticipation of U.S. participation in World War II. [6]

Military career

World War II

Vessey served with the 34th Infantry Division throughout its World War II service. [3] The experience of early American setbacks in North Africa left Vessey with a lifelong appreciation of the need for realistic combat training, modern equipment, physical fitness, and air-ground cooperation. [7] When Major General Omar Bradley, commander of II Corps in North Africa, launched the U.S. drive on Bizerte in April 1943, he gave the 34th the most difficult objective: the well-defended Hill 609. In the first clear-cut U.S. Army victory of the campaign, the 34th Division took its objective, opening the way for the U.S. advance on Bizerte. Vessey, who had been a first sergeant since September 1, 1942, later described being a first sergeant in combat as the toughest job he had. [8] Vessey was with the 34th when it went ashore on the Anzio beachhead in Italy in May 1944; there he received a battlefield commission as a second lieutenant, after which he served as a forward observer. [7]

Korean War and afterwards

After the war, most of Vessey's service continued to be in field artillery assignments. In the 1950s, he served with the 4th Infantry Division in Germany and the Eighth U.S. Army in the Republic of Korea. [7] During this period, Vessey also attended the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. [4]

By the time Vessey became a lieutenant colonel, he had earned enough credits through night school and correspondence courses for a Bachelor of Science degree in military science, which he received from the University of Maryland University College in 1963. In 1965, he received a Master of Science degree in business administration from George Washington University. From 1963 to 1965, Vessey commanded the 2nd Battalion, 73rd Field Artillery, 3rd Armored Division; then he spent a year as a student at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. [7]

Vietnam War

During the Vietnam War, Vessey served for a year as Executive Officer of the 25th Infantry Division Artillery in Vietnam. In March 1967, when acting as commander of the 2nd Battalion, 77th Artillery, he was given the mission of establishing a fire support base at Suoi Tre during Operation Junction City. Deep in enemy-controlled territory, Vessey and his men oriented the firebase's defenses on the enemy's likely avenues of approach and rehearsed counterattack plans. During an attack by a reinforced regiment, the base was partially overrun. Vessey and his men fired their howitzers directly into the enemy ranks. Although greatly outnumbered, the defenders, aided by gunships and artillery, killed four hundred of their assailants while successfully defending the firebase. Lieutenant Colonel Vessey received the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions during the battle. [5]

From Vietnam, Vessey went to Germany to serve first as Commander of the 3rd Armored Division Artillery from October 1967 until March 1969 and then as Division Chief of Staff for a year. He was promoted to colonel in November 1967. As a colonel, he was a student at the Army helicopter school at the age of 48. [7] Vessey went back to Southeast Asia in December 1970 to head the U.S. Army Support Command, Thailand. In January 1972, he went into Laos to coordinate all US military operations in support of the war in that country. [4] Vessey worked with the U.S. ambassador, the CIA station chief, and an assortment of military contingents. When the Laotian ceasefire came in February 1973, the Royal Lao government controlled all the major cities and the vast majority of the population.

After the Vietnam War

Upon his return to the United States, Vessey became Director of Operations in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans. Promoted to major general in August 1974, he assumed command of the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Fort Carson, Colorado. Promoted to lieutenant general in September 1975, Vessey became the Army's Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans. [7]

Vessey received his fourth star in 1976. [1] From 1976 to 1979, he served in the Republic of Korea as Commanding General of the Eighth U.S. Army; Commander of U.S. Forces, Korea; and Commander in Chief of the United Nations Command. [7] In 1978, Vessey became the first Commander in Chief of the Republic of Korea-United States Combined Forces Command. [6] His tour was marked by increased military tension, caused by evidence of a North Korean buildup and by President Jimmy Carter's 1977 announcement that U.S. ground forces would be withdrawn. Vessey worked to assuage South Korean concerns and change the President's decision. [5] After Carter's 1979 visit, withdrawal plans were suspended and then cancelled. From July 1979 until June 1982, Vessey served as Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army. [7]

Chairmanship of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

On June 18, 1982, Vessey became the tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the last World War II combat veteran to serve in the position. [7] Vessey was the only chairman who had been neither a service chief nor a commander of a unified or specified command. [4] He served as chairman during a period of unprecedented growth in peacetime defense spending and an expanded U.S. military presence worldwide intended to counter growing Soviet military power. [7]

Vessey and the service chiefs believed that their overriding task lay in convincing Soviet leaders that their quest for military superiority and geostrategic advantage was fruitless. In Europe, they pushed the controversial but successful deployment of Pershing II and ground-launched cruise missiles to offset the Soviet SS-20 missiles. In southwest Asia, highly visible US military activities underscored the US commitment to defend its vital interests in the region. In Central America, training and intelligence were provided to support counter-insurgency efforts. [7]

In June 1982, Vessey received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement presented by his predecessor, Awards Council member General David C. Jones, USAF. [9]

Believing that it was a mistake to commit a superpower's forces to a peacekeeping mission, Vessey and the Joint Chiefs in 1982 and 1983 advised against deployment of a Marine contingent to Lebanon as part of a multinational peacekeeping force intended to restore peace among warring factions there. [10] Their advice was not taken, and on October 23, 1983, a truck-bomb attack on the Marine headquarters building in Beirut killed 241 US Marines and Army soldiers. In February 1984, President Ronald Reagan withdrew the contingent from Lebanon.

Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger understood the importance of decentralization; he authorized Vessey to direct military operations on the Secretary's behalf. The 1983 Grenada operation, for example, was planned by Atlantic Command, reviewed by the Joint Chiefs, and approved by Secretary Weinberger and the President—all in four days. Vessey oversaw execution of the operation that rescued US citizens and brought a pro-US government into power. [4] On Oct. 30, 1983, Vessey made a one-day inspection visit to the island and left his personal mark on the 8-day operation. He urged the on-scene commanders to move aggressively to secure full control of the multi-island nation and also improve living conditions for 666 Cuban detainees. [11] On his return home, Vessey faced a firestorm from the American news media over the Pentagon's actions barring journalists from the battlefield until the third day of the operation. Vessey responded to the criticism by appointing a study group, known as the Sidle Panel, which recommended new guidelines for military-media relations that he embraced as Pentagon policy the following year. [11]

Vessey (left), greets U.S. Army general and Joint Chiefs chairman Martin E. Dempsey (right) at the Minnesota National Guard Armory in Rosemount, Minnesota, on August 16, 2012. Defense.gov photo essay 120816-D-VO565-006.jpg
Vessey (left), greets U.S. Army general and Joint Chiefs chairman Martin E. Dempsey (right) at the Minnesota National Guard Armory in Rosemount, Minnesota, on August 16, 2012.

During Vessey's tenure, there was increased emphasis on space as a theater of operations. In early 1983, the Joint Chiefs mentioned to the President that defense against nuclear-armed missiles might be technically feasible in the next century. [4] To their surprise, Reagan seized upon the concept and on March 23, 1983, announced his vision of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Realizing the enormous military advantages to be gained from operations in space and to support SDI, the JCS recommended the establishment of a unified command for space. [4] US Space Command was activated on September 23, 1985.

Vietnamese emissary

Vessey retired on September 30, 1985, several months before the expiration of his second term as Chairman. He was the last four-star World War II combat veteran on active duty and, with forty-six years of service, had served the longest of anyone then in the Army. President Reagan praised Vessey and gave a moving speech on his behalf. [12] The President pointed out that Vessey had served in many leadership positions in his career and stated:

Jack Vessey always remembered the soldiers in the ranks; he understood those soldiers are the background of any army. He noticed them, spoke to them, looked out for them. Jack Vessey never forgot what it was like to be an enlisted man, to be just a GI. [13]

In retirement, he served President Reagan and his successors, Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, as a special emissary to Vietnam on the question of American service personnel missing from the Vietnam War. [5] For his work in Vietnam, General Vessey was awarded the prestigious Sylvanus Thayer Award from the United States Military Academy in 1996. [14] He was also awarded the nation's highest civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, in 1992. [7]

Personal life

Vessey married Avis Claire Funk in 1945. They had two sons, John III and David, and a daughter, Sarah.

Vessey died in North Oaks, Minnesota, on August 18, 2016, aged 94. [5] [10]

Summary of service

Source: [4]

Dates of rank

Rank insigniaRankDate
No insignia Private
(Minnesota National Guard)
May 1939
US Army WWII 1SGT.svg First Sergeant September 1, 1942
US-OF1B.svg Second Lieutenant May 6, 1944
(Battlefield Commission)
US-O2 insignia.svg First Lieutenant April 1, 1946
(permanent on June 13, 1951)
US-O3 insignia.svg Captain January 4, 1951
(permanent on October 29, 1954)
US-O4 insignia.svg Major May 14, 1958
(permanent on January 26, 1962)
US-O5 insignia.svg Lieutenant Colonel January 7, 1963
(permanent on January 2, 1969)
US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel November 28, 1967
(permanent March 12, 1973)
US-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier General April 1, 1971
(permanent December 23, 1974)
US-O8 insignia.svg Major General August 1, 1974
(permanent August 23, 1976)
US-O9 insignia.svg Lieutenant General September 1, 1975
US-O10 insignia.svg General November 1, 1976

Awards and decorations

ArmyAvnBadge.png
Distinguished Service Cross ribbon.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Defense Distinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
U.S. Army Distinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg
Navy Distinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg Air Force Distinguished Service ribbon.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Bronze Star Medal ribbon.svg
Purple Heart ribbon.svg
Air Medal ribbon.svg Award numeral 4.png Joint Service Commendation Medal ribbon.svg
Valor device.svg
Army Commendation Medal ribbon.svg
Army Good Conduct Medal ribbon.svg American Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg
Silver-service-star-3d.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign ribbon.svg
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg Army of Occupation ribbon.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
Vietnam Service Medal ribbon.svg
Croix de guerre 1939-1945 with palm France - ribbon bar.svg
Taeguk Cordon Medal.png Vietnam Gallantry Cross, with palm.svg Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal ribbon, with 60- clasp.svg
Unit Awards
U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force Presidential Unit Citation ribbon.svg Gallantry Cross Unit Citation.png Civil Action Unit Citation.png
Pocket Badges
United States Army Staff Identification Badge.png Joint Chiefs of Staff seal.svg
Civilian Awards
Presidential Medal of Freedom (ribbon).svg
Badge Army Aviator Badge
1st row Distinguished Service Cross Defense Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster
2nd row Army Distinguished Service Medal with two oak leaf clusters Navy Distinguished Service Medal Air Force Distinguished Service Medal
3rd row Legion of Merit with oak leaf cluster Bronze Star with oak leaf cluster Purple Heart
4th row Air Medal with award numeral 4 Joint Service Commendation Medal Army Commendation Medal with "V" device
5th row Army Good Conduct Medal American Defense Service Medal American Campaign Medal
6th row European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with silver and bronze campaign stars World War II Victory Medal Army of Occupation Medal
7th row National Defense Service Medal with bronze campaign star Vietnam Service Medal with two campaign stars Croix de Guerre with bronze palm (France)
8th row Order of Military Merit, Taeguk Cordon (Korea) Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with bronze palm Vietnam Campaign Medal
Unit Awards Presidential Unit Citation Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation Republic of Vietnam Civil Actions Medal Unit Citation
Pocket Badges Army Staff Identification Badge Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge
Civilian Awards Presidential Medal of Freedom

Assignments

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "General John William Vessey, Jr. – The Campaign for the National Museum of the United States Army". National Museum of the United States Army. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  2. Wilson, Robert Leslie; Wilson, Margaret Anne Garland (1988). Vessey Family Histories. Carmichael, CA: R. L. Wilson. p. 6. ISBN   978-0-9622-0040-3 via Google Books.
  3. 1 2 3 Johnson, Jack K. (September 28, 2016). "General John W. Vessey, Jr. (1922-2016): Minnesota's top soldier" (PDF). MN Military Museum.org. Camp Ripley, Little Falls, MN: Military Historical Society of Minnesota. p. 1. Retrieved June 4, 2021.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Selected Works of General John W. Vessey, Jr., USA" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 31, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 McFadden, Robert D. (August 18, 2016). "John W. Vessey Jr., Who Was Chairman of Joint Chiefs, Dies at 94". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  6. 1 2 "Gen. John W. Vessey Jr" (PDF). Minnesota Military Museum. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2014). 500 Great Military Leaders. California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 794–795. ISBN   978-1598847574.
  8. Cabot, Lon (September 1983). "Vessey: Spokesman for the Military" (PDF). All Hands: 3–7. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  9. "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
  10. 1 2 Karnowski, Steve (August 19, 2016). "Retired Army Gen. John Vessey, Minnesotan who led Joint Chiefs of Staff, dies at 94". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  11. 1 2 Kukielski, Philip (2019). The U.S. Invasion of Grenada : legacy of a flawed victory. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Compay. pp. 197–98. ISBN   978-1-4766-7879-5. OCLC   1123182247.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  12. Halloran, Richard (October 1, 1985). "GENERAL VESSEY BIDS FAREWELL WITH 'THANKS' TO HIS TROOPS". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  13. "Former chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. John Vessey dies at 94". Fox News. August 19, 2016. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  14. "1996 SYLVANUS THAYER AWARD". United States Military Academy. Retrieved August 19, 2016.

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the United States Government document: " Selected Works of General John W. Vessey, Jr., USA ".

Military offices
Preceded by
Frederick Kroesen
Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1979–1982
Succeeded by
John A. Wickham Jr.
Preceded by
David C. Jones
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
1982–1985
Succeeded by
William J. Crowe