John Winthrop the Younger

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John Winthrop the Younger
JohnWinthropJr.jpg
Governor of the Connecticut Colony
In office
1659–1676
Preceded by Thomas Welles
Succeeded by William Leete
In office
1657–1658
Preceded by John Webster
Succeeded by Thomas Welles
Governor of the Saybrook Colony
In office
1635–1639
Preceded byInaugural holder
Succeeded by George Fenwick
Personal details
Born(1606-02-12)February 12, 1606
Groton, England
DiedApril 6, 1676(1676-04-06) (aged 70)
Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony
Spouse(s)
Mary Fones
(m. 1630;her death 1634)

Elizabeth Reade
(her death 1672)
Children10
Parents John Winthrop
Education Bury St. Edmunds
King Edward VI School
Alma mater Trinity College, Dublin
Signature Appletons' Winthrop John - John signature.png
Grist mill (Winthrop Mill) built by Winthrop in New London in 1650 as it appeared in 1910 Winthrop Gristmill.jpg
Grist mill (Winthrop Mill) built by Winthrop in New London in 1650 as it appeared in 1910
First page of a diary kept by Winthrop of his journey from Boston to Saybrook, Connecticut in 1645 Diary of journey from Boston to Saybook by John Winthrop the Younger.jpg
First page of a diary kept by Winthrop of his journey from Boston to Saybrook, Connecticut in 1645

John Winthrop the Younger (February 12, 1606 – April 6, 1676) was an early governor of the Connecticut Colony, and he played a large role in the merger of several separate settlements into the unified colony.

Connecticut Colony English, from 1707, British, possession in North America between 1636 and 1776

The Connecticut Colony or Colony of Connecticut, originally known as the Connecticut River Colony or simply the River Colony, was an English colony in New England which became the state of Connecticut. It was organized on March 3, 1636 as a settlement for a Puritan congregation, and the English permanently gained control of the region in 1637 after struggles with the Dutch. The colony was later the scene of a bloody war between the colonists and Pequot Indians known as the Pequot War. Connecticut Colony played a significant role in the establishment of self-government in the New World with its refusal to surrender local authority to the Dominion of New England, an event known as the Charter Oak incident which occurred at Jeremy Adams' inn and tavern.

Contents

Early life

Winthrop was born in Groton, Suffolk, England on February 12, 1606, the son of John Winthrop, founding governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was educated at the Bury St. Edmunds grammar school, King Edward VI School, and Trinity College, Dublin, and he studied law for a short time after 1624 at the Inner Temple, London.

Groton, Suffolk village and civil parish in Babergh, Suffolk, England

Groton is a village and civil parish in Suffolk, England, located around a mile north of the A1071 between Hadleigh and Sudbury. It is part of Babergh district.

John Winthrop Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, author of "City upon a Hill"

John Winthrop was an English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the second major settlement in New England, following Plymouth Colony. Winthrop led the first large wave of immigrants from England in 1630 and served as governor for 12 of the colony's first 20 years. His writings and vision of the colony as a Puritan "city upon a hill" dominated New England colonial development, influencing the governments and religions of neighboring colonies.

Massachusetts Bay Colony English possession in North America between 1628 and 1684

The Massachusetts Bay Colony was an English settlement on the east coast of America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The lands of the settlement were located in southern New England, with initial settlements situated on two natural harbors and surrounding land about 15.4 miles (24.8 km) apart—the areas around Salem and Boston.

Career

Winthrop accompanied the ill-fated expedition of the Duke of Buckingham for the relief of the Protestants of La Rochelle, and then he travelled in Italy and the Levant, returning to England in 1629. [1] In 1631, he followed his father to Massachusetts Bay Colony and was one of the assistants of the Colony in 1635, 1640, and 1641 and from 1644 to 1649. [1] He was the chief founder of Agawam (now Ipswich, Massachusetts) in 1633, then went to England in 1634. He returned in 1635 as governor of lands that had been granted to Lord Say and Sele and Lord Brooke, and he sent out a party to build a fort named Saybrook in their honor, located at the mouth of the Connecticut River. He then lived for a time in Massachusetts, where he devoted himself to the study of science and attempted to interest the settlers in the development of the colony's mineral resources. [1]

Siege of La Rochelle

The Siege of La Rochelle was a result of a war between the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France and the Huguenots of La Rochelle in 1627–28. The siege marked the height of the struggle between the Catholics and the Protestants in France, and ended with a complete victory for King Louis XIII and the Catholics.

Duke of Buckingham, referring to Buckingham, is a title that has been created several times in the peerages of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom. There have also been Earls of Buckingham and Marquesses of Buckingham.

La Rochelle Prefecture and commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime department.

He was again in England in 1641–43, then returned to establish iron works at Lynn (Saugus Iron Works) and Braintree, Massachusetts. In 1645, he obtained title to lands in southeastern Connecticut and founded New London in 1646, where he settled in 1650. [1] He built a grist mill in the town and was granted a monopoly on the trade for as long as he or his heirs maintained it. This was one of the first monopolies granted in New England. [2] One of Winthrop's Indian servants was Robin Cassacinamon, who became an influential Pequot leader through Winthrop's patronage. [3] [4]

Lynn, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts, United States

Lynn is the 9th largest municipality in Massachusetts and the largest city in Essex County. Situated on the Atlantic Ocean, 3.7 miles (6.0 km) north of the Boston city line at Suffolk Downs, Lynn is part of Greater Boston's urban inner core. Settled by Europeans in 1629, Lynn is the 5th oldest colonial settlement in the Commonwealth. An early industrial center, Lynn was long colloquially referred to as the "City of Sin", owing to its historical reputation for crime and vice. Today, however, the city is known for its contemporary public art, international population, historic architecture, downtown cultural district, loft-style apartments, and public parks and open spaces, which include the oceanfront Lynn Shore Reservation; the 2,200-acre, Frederick Law Olmsted-designed Lynn Woods Reservation; and the High Rock Tower Reservation. Lynn also is home to Lynn Heritage State Park, the southernmost portion of the Essex Coastal Scenic Byway, and the seaside, National Register-listed Diamond Historic District.

Braintree, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts, United States

Braintree, officially the Town of Braintree, is a suburban New England city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. Although officially known as a town, Braintree adopted a municipal charter, effective 2008, with a mayor-council form of government, and is considered a city under Massachusetts law. The population was 35,744 at the 2010 census. The city is part of the Greater Boston area with access to the MBTA Red Line, and is a member of the Metropolitan Area Planning Council's South Shore Coalition. The first and current mayor of Braintree is Joe Sullivan.

New London, Connecticut City in Connecticut, United States

New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States, located at the mouth of the Thames River in New London County, Connecticut. It was one of the world's three busiest whaling ports for several decades beginning in the early 19th century, along with Nantucket and New Bedford, Massachusetts. The wealth that whaling brought into the city furnished the capital to fund much of the city's present architecture. The city subsequently became home to other shipping and manufacturing industries, but it has gradually lost most of its industrial heart.

Governor of the Connecticut Colony

Winthrop became one of the magistrates of the Connecticut Colony in 1651, was governor of the colony in 1657–58, and again became governor in 1659, being annually re-elected until his death. During his tenure as Governor of Connecticut, he oversaw the acceptance of Quakers who were banned from Massachusetts. In 1662, he obtained the charter in England which united the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven. He was also one of the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England in 1675. [5]

New Haven Colony English possession in North America between 1639 and 1665

The New Haven Colony was a small English colony in North America from 1637 to 1664 in what is now the state of Connecticut.

While in England, he was elected as a Fellow of the newly organized Royal Society, and he contributed two papers to their Philosophical Transactions : "Some Natural Curiosities from New England" and "Description, Culture and Use of Maize". [1] His correspondence with the Royal Society was published in series I, vol. xvi of the Massachusetts Historical Society's Proceedings. [1]

Royal Society National academy of science in the United Kingdom

The Royal Society, formally The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society and the United Kingdom's national Academy of Sciences. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society". It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement. It also performs these roles for the smaller countries of the Commonwealth.

Massachusetts Historical Society United States national historic site

The Massachusetts Historical Society is a major historical archive specializing in early American, Massachusetts, and New England history. It is located at 1154 Boylston Street in Boston, Massachusetts and is the oldest historical society in the United States, having been established in 1791.

Personal life

Winthrop married his cousin Mary Fones, the daughter of Thomas Fones II and Anne (née Winthrop) on February 8, 1630/1. She and their infant daughter died in Agawam (Ipswich) in 1634. [6]

Winthrop's second wife was Elizabeth Reade (1615–1672), the daughter of Col. Edmund Reade and Elizabeth (née Cooke). They had nine children, including: [7]

Winthrop died in Boston on April 6, 1676 where he had gone to attend a meeting of the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England. [1] [9]

Descendants

Paul Dudley Sargent was a descendant of Winthrop, a Patriot colonel in the American War of Independence. Another descendant was John Sargent, who was a Loyalist during that war. Another descendant was Dudley Saltonstall (1738–1796), a Revolutionary War naval commander most notable for his involvement in the ill-fated Penobscot Expedition. [10]

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The Pequot War was an armed conflict that took place between 1636 and 1638 in New England between the Pequot tribe and an alliance of the colonists of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Saybrook colonies and their allies from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes. The war concluded with the decisive defeat of the Pequots. At the end, about 700 Pequots had been killed or taken into captivity. Hundreds of prisoners were sold into slavery to the West Indies; other survivors were dispersed as captives to the victorious tribes.

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<i>Arbella</i>

Arbella or Arabella was the flagship of the Winthrop Fleet on which Governor John Winthrop, other members of the Company, and Puritan emigrants transported themselves and the Charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company from England to Salem between April 8 and June 12, 1630, thereby giving legal birth to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. John Winthrop is reputed to have given the famous "A Model of Christian Charity" sermon aboard the ship. Also on board was Anne Bradstreet, the first European female poet to be published from the New World, and her family.

Winthrop is a surname.

Elizabeth Fones Winthrop Feake Hallett was an early settler in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her behavior scandalized the Puritan colony.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Chisholm 1911, p. 736.
  2. Technical World Magazine. Armour Institute of Technology. 1910. pp. 96–97.
  3. Shawn G. Wiemann, Lasting Marks: The Legacy of Robin Cassacinamon and the Survival of the Mashantucket Pequot Nation (University of New Mexico, Dissertation, 2011) http://digitalrepository.unm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1082&context=hist_etds
  4. https://yipp.yale.edu/bio/bibliography/cassasinamon-robin-1692
  5. Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Winthrop, John (1606-1676)". Encyclopædia Britannica . 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 736.
  6. Waters, Thomas Franklin (1899). A Sketch Of The Life of John Winthrop, the Younger. Cambridge, MA: Ipswich Historical Society. p. 75. OCLC   13130747 . Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved August 16, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. Cutter, William Richard (1926). American Biography: A New Cyclopedia. American Historical Society . Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  9. Waters 1899, p. 75.
  10. Cutter, William Richard (2000). Genealogical and Personal Memoirs: Relating to the Families of Boston and Eastern Massachusetts. Genealogical Publishing Com. ISBN   9780806345499 . Retrieved August 24, 2017.
Political offices
New office Governor of the Saybrook Colony
1635–39
Succeeded by
George Fenwick
Preceded by
John Webster
Governor of the Connecticut Colony
1657–58
Succeeded by
Thomas Welles
Preceded by
Thomas Welles
Governor of the Connecticut Colony
1659–76
Succeeded by
William Leete