|John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford|
Field of the Cloth of Gold
|Born||14 August 1499|
|Died||14 July 1526 26) (aged|
|Noble family||De Vere|
|Father||Sir George Vere|
John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford (14 August 1499 – 14 July 1526) was an English peer and landowner.
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great Britain.
By inheritance he was Lord Great Chamberlain of England, and in June 1520, at the age of twenty, he attended King Henry VIII at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. The young earl was considered a wastrel: in 1523 the king ordered him to moderate his hunting, to eat and drink less, to give up late nights, and to be less extravagant in his dress. He died at the age of twenty-six.
The Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom is the sixth of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. The Lord Great Chamberlain has charge over the Palace of Westminster.
Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. He was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is also known as "the father of the Royal Navy"; he invested heavily in the Navy, increasing its size greatly from a few to more than 50 ships.
The Field of the Cloth of Gold was a site in Balinghem – equidistant between Ardres in France and Guînes in the then-English Pale of Calais – that hosted a tournament field as part of a summit from 7 to 24 June 1520, between King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France.
John de Vere, born 14 August 1499, was the second but only surviving son of Sir George Vere and his second wife, Margaret, the daughter of Sir William Stafford of Bishop's Frome in Herefordshire by Elizabeth Wrottesley, daughter of Hugh Wrottesley, esquire. March 1470). He fought at the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471, and was with his elder brother, John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, when he seized St. Michael's Mount in Cornwall on 30 September 1473. Sir George Vere was attainted in Parliament in early 1475, together with his brothers, John and Thomas. Ross states that Sir George Vere was never officially pardoned, although Richardson states that his attainder was reversed when King Henry VII came to the throne in 1485.Sir George Vere had been intended for the priesthood, and in 1459, when he was only sixteen, his father, John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, appointed him to a benefice in Lavenham, Suffolk. However both the 12th Earl and his eldest son and heir, Aubrey de Vere, were executed in February 1462, and George then became second in line to the earldom as the potential heir to his brother, John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford. Instead of George, his younger brother, Richard, became a priest, and in 1459 George married, as his first wife, Margaret Talbot (d. December 1472), the sister and coheir of Thomas Talbot, 2nd Viscount Lisle (d.
Bishop's Frome is a village and civil parish in eastern Herefordshire, England. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 834. It is 21 km (13 mi) northeast of the City of Hereford, 16 km (9.9 mi) west of Malvern, Worcestershire and 8 km (5.0 mi) south of Bromyard. As the name indicates, it is on the River Frome.
Herefordshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, governed by Herefordshire Council. It borders Shropshire to the north, Worcestershire to the east, Gloucestershire to the south-east, and the Welsh counties of Monmouthshire and Powys to the west.
John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, was the son of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford, and his second wife, Alice Sergeaux (1386–1452). A Lancastrian loyalist during the latter part of his life, he was convicted of high treason and beheaded on Tower Hill on 26 February 1462.
By his father's second marriage to Margaret Stafford, John de Vere had four sisters:
Sir Anthony Wingfield MP KG PC of Letheringham, Suffolk, was an English soldier, politician, courtier and member of parliament. He was the Lord Lieutenant of Suffolk from 1551 to 1552, and Vice-Chamberlain of the Household in the reign of Edward VI.
Letheringham is a sparsely populated civil parish in the Suffolk Coastal in Suffolk, England, on the Deben River. From the 2011 Census population details were no longer maintained for this parish and were included in the civil parish of Hoo.
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; other important towns include Lowestoft, Bury St Edmunds, Newmarket and Felixstowe, one of the largest container ports in Europe.
Sir George Vere died in 1503, leaving a will dated 21 August 1500 which was proved on 3 April 1503.At his father's death John de Vere, who was then a child of four, became a royal ward.
Probate is the judicial process whereby a will is "proved" in a court of law and accepted as a valid public document that is the true last testament of the deceased, or whereby the estate is settled according to the laws of intestacy in the state of residence [or real property] of the deceased at time of death in the absence of a legal will.
In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian.
In 1513, de Vere inherited the estates and honours of his uncle, John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, who had died at Castle Hedingham on 10 March 1513. On 22 April, he was the chief mourner at his uncle's impressive funeral, at which nine hundred black gowns were given out to the mourners in attendance. The 13th Earl of Oxford was buried at Colne Priory, and at the burial ceremony 'A mounted knight, armed with an axe, was led into the choir by two knights and delivered the axe to the bishop, who gave it to the heir'.
When John de Vere was only twelve years of age, the 13th Earl had married his nephew and heir presumptive to Anne Howard, a daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, by his second wife, Agnes Tilney, a marriage which served the purpose of uniting the families of the two greatest magnates in East Anglia. The marriage settlement was dated 16 November 1511 and the ceremony took place before 1 May 1512.Although the marriage settlement itself does not survive, evidence of its provisions is found in the 13th Earl's will.
On 29 May 1514, Henry VIII, in the exercise of his royal prerogative, treated de Vere's marriage as technically invalid on the grounds that de Vere had been under the age of fourteen at the date of the marriage. As was his prerogative right as king, he offered to de Vere, who by then had succeeded as the 14th Earl and become a royal ward, Margaret Courtenay as a bride. De Vere refused Margaret. The King then granted both de Vere's future marriage and the fine imposed on him for his rejection of Margaret Courtenay to de Vere's father-in-law, Norfolk. At the same time, the King granted to Norfolk, during the 14th Earl's minority, custody of the Earl's lands, as well as the reversion of lands held in dower by the 13th Earl's widow, the Dowager Countess Elizabeth, and the offices of Lord Great Chamberlain of England, Steward of the Forest of Essex, and Constable of Colchester Castle.
The 14th Earl attended Henry VIII at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in June 1520, where he was one of the judges of the foot races. In 1520, he came of age and was granted livery of his lands on 16 August of that year. In 1522, he was in attendance when King Henry met the Emperor Charles V between Dover and Canterbury.
His modern biographer, James Ross, considers the 14th Earl "an incompetent wastrel". In 1523, when he was twenty-four years of age, the King commanded him, through Cardinal Wolsey, to discharge his household and live with his father-in-law, the Duke of Norfolk, and demean himself lovingly towards his wife. He was restricted to a household of only twenty men and women, was not allowed to grant any offices or annuities, and was ordered to "moderate his excessive hunting, drink less wine, not stay up late, eat less meat, and forbear excessive and superfluous apparel".
Nonetheless, the Earl was at court in 1525 and 1526, officiating in June 1525 when the King's illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy, was created Earl of Nottingham and witnessing the charter for the creation of Wolsey's college, Cardinal College, on 5 May 1526.
The 14th Earl died on 14 July 1526, aged twenty-six, and was buried in Colne Priory at Earls Colne in Essex. No trace of his tomb remains. At his death, his office of Lord Great Chamberlain reverted to the crown, as did the Barony of Plaiz.
The 14th Earl left no issue and was succeeded by his second cousin, John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford. Both were great-grandsons of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford.
After the 14th Earl's death, his widow complained to both Cardinal Wolsey and to her brother, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, about the 15th Earl's conduct towards her. On 11 August 1526, she wrote to Wolsey alleging that the 15th Earl, Sir John Raynsford and their men had on two occasions broken into the park at Lavenham and killed more than one hundred deer. On 22 August, she wrote to her brother complaining that the new Earl continued to retain possession of Castle Camps. The Dowager Countess was back in possession during the years 1530-34, when she sent several letters to Thomas Cromwell from Castle Camps, in one of which she complained of a certain Alexander Irlam, parson of Belchamp Otten, "who in my lord my husband's time convented with other to have poisoned me".
The Earl's widow survived him for many years, dying before 22 February 1558/59, when she was buried in the Howard chapel in the Church of St Mary-at-Lambeth.
The 14th Earl of Oxford is said to have been referred to as "Little John of Campes"because of his diminutive stature. According to Cokayne, however, "it is much more likely that he was so called because he was a child, and that the other story was invented to account for the nickname".
John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, was an English nobleman, soldier, politician, and the first Howard Duke of Norfolk. He was a close friend and loyal supporter of King Richard III, with whom he was slain at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, styled Earl of Surrey from 1483 to 1485 and again from 1489 to 1514, was an English nobleman and politician. He was the eldest son of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, by his first wife, Catharina de Moleyns. The Duke was the grandfather of both Queen Anne Boleyn and Queen Catherine Howard and the great grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I. He served four monarchs as a soldier and statesman.
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, the second son of John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, and Elizabeth Howard, a first cousin of John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk - 2nd creation, was one of the principal Lancastrian commanders during the English Wars of the Roses.
Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of WestmorlandEarl Marshal, was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.
William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham was the son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and Agnes Tilney. He served four monarchs, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I, in various official capacities, most notably on diplomatic missions and as Lord Admiral and Lord Chamberlain of the Household.
Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire was an English peer.
George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros of Helmsley was an English peer.
Jane Neville, Countess of Westmorland, was an English noblewoman.
John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford, Lord Great Chamberlain KGPC was an English peer and courtier.
John (III) de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray was an English peer. He was slain near Constantinople while en route to the Holy Land.
Robert Radcliffe, 10th Baron Fitzwalter, 1st Earl of Sussex, KG, KB, PC, also spelled Radclyffe, Ratcliffe, Ratcliff, etc., was a prominent courtier and soldier during the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII who served as Chamberlain of the Exchequer and Lord Great Chamberlain.
Robert de Vere, hereditary Master Chamberlain of England, was son of Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford, and Agnes of Essex. He succeeded his brother as the third Earl of Oxford, and was one of the twenty-five guarantors of Magna Carta.
Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford was the only son and heir of Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford and Isabel de Bolebec, daughter and eventual sole heiress of Hugh de Bolebec.
Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of OxfordKG was the son and heir of Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford. He took part in the trial of Richard, Earl of Cambridge and Lord Scrope for their part in the Southampton Plot, and was one of the commanders at Agincourt in 1415.
Elizabeth de Vere, Countess of Oxford was an English noblewoman. As a young child she became a royal ward. She married John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford, and by him was mother of the 16th Earl and grandmother of Sir Francis and Sir Horace Vere, the 'fighting Veres'.
Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of WestmorlandKG, was an English peer and soldier. He was the grandson of Ralph Neville, 3rd Earl of Westmorland, and the father of Henry Neville, 5th Earl of Westmorland.
Elizabeth de Vere was the daughter of John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford and Maud de Badlesmere, and the wife of Sir Hugh Courtenay, then John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray, and then Sir William de Cossington.
Sir Hugh de Courtenay (1251–1292) was the son and heir of John de Courtenay, feudal baron of Okehampton, Devon, by Isabel de Vere, daughter of Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford. His son inherited the earldom of Devon.
Sir Thomas Tuddenham was an influential Norfolk landowner, official and courtier. He served as Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, and Keeper of the Great Wardrobe. During the Wars of the Roses he allied himself with the Lancastrian side, and after the Yorkist victory in 1461 was charged with treason and beheaded on Tower Hill on 23 February 1462.
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
| Lord Great Chamberlain |
John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford
|Peerage of England|
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
| Earl of Oxford |
John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford