John the Apostle

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Saint John the Apostle [1]
Rubens apostel johannes grt.jpg
St John at Patmos by Pieter Paul Rubens
Apostle
Bornc. AD 6 [2]
Bethsaida, Galilee, Roman Empire
Diedc. AD 100 (aged 93–94)
place unknown, [3] [4] traditionally assumed to be Ephesus, Roman Empire
Venerated inAll Christian denominations which venerate saints
Islam (named as one of the disciples of Jesus) [5]
Canonized Pre-congregation
Feast 27 December (Roman Catholic, Anglican)
26 September (Orthodox)
Attributes Book, a serpent in a chalice, cauldron, eagle
Patronage Love, loyalty, friendships, authors, booksellers, burn-victims, poison-victims, art-dealers, editors, publishers, scribes, examinations, scholars, theologians

John the Apostle (Aramaic : יוחנן שליחאYohanān Shliḥā; Hebrew : יוחנן בן זבדיYohanan ben Zavdi; Koine Greek: Ἰωάννης; Coptic : ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes; c. AD 6 – c. 100) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Generally listed as the youngest apostle, he was the son of Zebedee and Salome or Joanna. His brother was James, who was another of the Twelve Apostles. The Church Fathers identify him as John the Evangelist, John of Patmos, John the Elder and the Beloved Disciple, and testify that he outlived the remaining apostles and that he was the only one to die of natural causes. The traditions of most Christian denominations have held that John the Apostle is the author of several books of the New Testament.

Hebrew language Semitic language native to Israel

Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, the modern version of which is spoken by over nine million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name "Hebrew" in the Tanakh itself. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only Canaanite language still spoken, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.

Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries. It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect levelling with other varieties.

Coptic language Latest stage of the Egyptian language

Coptic or Coptic Egyptian, is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century as an official language. Egyptian began to be written in the Coptic alphabet, an adaptation of the Greek alphabet with the addition of six or seven signs from Demotic to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language did not have, in the 2nd century BC.

Contents

References to John in the New Testament

Russian Orthodox icon of the Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian, 18th century (Iconostasis from the Church of the Transfiguration, Kizhi Monastery. John Evangelist.jpg
Russian Orthodox icon of the Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian, 18th century (Iconostasis from the Church of the Transfiguration, Kizhi Monastery.

John the Apostle was the son of Zebedee and the younger brother of James, son of Zebedee (James the Greater). According to Church tradition, their mother was Salome. [6]

Zebedee father of James and John, two disciples of Jesus

Zebedee, according to all four Canonical Gospels, was the father of James and John, two disciples of Jesus. The gospels also suggest that he was the husband of Salome: whereas Mark 15:40 names the women present at the crucifixion as "Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the Less and of Joses, and Salome", the parallel passage in Matthew 27:56 has "Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee's children." The Catholic Encyclopedia concludes that the Salome of Mark 15:40 is probably identical with the mother of the sons of Zebedee in Matthew.

Salome (disciple) follower of Jesus

Salome was a follower of Jesus who appears briefly in the canonical gospels and in apocryphal writings. She is named by Mark as present at the crucifixion and as one of the women who found Jesus's tomb empty. Interpretation has further identified her with other women who are mentioned but not named in the canonical gospels. In particular, she is often identified as the wife of Zebedee, the mother of James and John, two of the Twelve apostles. In medieval tradition Salome was counted as one of the Three Marys who were daughters of Saint Anne, so making her the sister or half-sister of Mary, mother of Jesus.

He was first a disciple of John the Baptist. [7] John is traditionally believed to be one of two disciples (the other being Andrew) recounted in John 1: 35-39 , who upon hearing the Baptist point out Jesus as the "Lamb of God", followed Jesus and spent the day with him.

John the Baptist 1st-century Jewish preacher and later Christian saint

John the Baptist was a Jewish itinerant preacher in the early first century AD. Other titles for John include John the Forerunner in Eastern Christianity, John the Immerser in some Baptist traditions and "the prophet John (Yaḥyā)" in Islam. He is sometimes alternatively called John the Baptizer.

Zebedee and his sons fished in the Sea of Galilee. Jesus then called Peter, Andrew and these two sons of Zebedee to follow him. James and John are listed among the Twelve Apostles. Jesus referred to the pair as "Boanerges" (translated "sons of thunder"). [8] A gospel story relates how the brothers wanted to call down heavenly fire on an unhospitable Samaritan town, but Jesus rebuked them. [Lk 9:51-6] John lived for more than half a century following the martyrdom of James, who was the first Apostle to die a martyr's death.

Sea of Galilee largest freshwater lake in Israel

The Sea of Galilee, Lake Tiberias, Kinneret or Kinnereth, is a freshwater lake in Israel. It is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the second-lowest lake in the world, at levels between 215 metres (705 ft) and 209 metres (686 ft) below sea level. It is approximately 53 km (33 mi) in circumference, about 21 km (13 mi) long, and 13 km (8.1 mi) wide. Its area is 166.7 km2 (64.4 sq mi) at its fullest, and its maximum depth is approximately 43 m (141 feet). The lake is fed partly by underground springs, although its main source is the Jordan River, which flows through it from north to south.

Saint Peter apostle and first pope

Saint Peter, also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, Sham'un al-Safa, Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and the first leader of the early Church.

Other references to John

John the Evangelist and Peter by Albrecht Durer Albrecht Durer - The Four Holy Men (John the Evangelist and Peter) - WGA7025.jpg
John the Evangelist and Peter by Albrecht Dürer

Peter, James and John were the only witnesses of the raising of the Daughter of Jairus. [9] All three also witnessed the Transfiguration, and these same three witnessed the Agony in Gethsemane more closely than the other Apostles did. [10] John was the disciple who reported to Jesus that they had 'forbidden' a non-disciple from casting out demons in Jesus' name, prompting Jesus to state that 'he who is not against us is on our side'. [11]

Transfiguration of Jesus Episode in the life of Jesus

The transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported in the New Testament when Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant in glory upon a mountain. The Synoptic Gospels describe it, and the Second Epistle of Peter also refers to it. It has also been hypothesized that the first chapter of the Gospel of John alludes to it.

Gethsemane garden at the foot of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem

Gethsemane is an urban garden at the foot of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. In Christianity, it is the place where Jesus underwent the agony in the garden and was arrested the night before his crucifixion.

Exorcism practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person or an area

Exorcism is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed. Depending on the spiritual beliefs of the exorcist, this may be done by causing the entity to swear an oath, performing an elaborate ritual, or simply by commanding it to depart in the name of a higher power. The practice is ancient and part of the belief system of many cultures and religions.

Jesus sent only John and Peter into the city to make the preparation for the final Passover meal (the Last Supper). [Lk 22:8] [12] At the meal itself, the "disciple whom Jesus loved" sat next to Jesus. It was customary to lie along upon couches at meals, and this disciple leaned on Jesus. [10] Tradition identifies this disciple as Saint John [Jn 13:23-25] . After the arrest of Jesus, Peter and the "other disciple" (according to Sacred Tradition), John followed him into the palace of the high-priest. [10]

Passover Jewish holiday which begins on 15th of the Hebrew month of Nisan

Passover or Pesach is a major Jewish holiday and one of the most widely celebrated Jewish holidays. Together with Shavuot and Sukkot, Passover was one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals during which the entire population of the kingdom of Judah made a pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem. Samaritans still make this pilgrimage to Mount Gerizim, but only men participate in public worship.

Last Supper Final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion

The Last Supper, also known as the Passover meal is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is commemorated by Christians especially on Maundy Thursday. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as "Holy Communion" or "The Lord's Supper".

Caiaphas Jewish High Priest

Joseph ben Caiaphas, known simply as Caiaphas in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest who, according to the gospels, organized a plot to kill Jesus. He famously presided over the Sanhedrin trial of Jesus. The primary sources for Caiaphas' life are the New Testament and the writings of Josephus. Outside of his interactions with Jesus, little else is known about his tenure as high priest.

John alone among the Apostles remained near Jesus at the foot of the cross on Calvary alongside myrrhbearers and numerous other women; following the instruction of Jesus from the Cross, John took Mary, the mother of Jesus into his care as the last legacy of Jesus [Jn 19:25-27] . After Jesus' Ascension and the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, John, together with Peter, took a prominent part in the founding and guidance of the church. He was with Peter at the healing of the lame man at Solomon's Porch in the Temple [Ac 3:1 et seq.] and he was also thrown into prison with Peter. [Acts 4:3] He went with Peter to visit the newly converted believers in Samaria. [Acts 8:14]

While he remained in Judea and the surrounding area, the other disciples returned to Jerusalem for the Apostolic Council (about AD 51). Paul, in opposing his enemies in Galatia, recalls that John explicitly, along with Peter and James the Just, were referred to as "pillars of the church" and refers to the recognition that his Apostolic preaching of a gospel free from Jewish Law received from these three, the most prominent men of the messianic community at Jerusalem. [9]

The disciple whom Jesus loved

Jesus and the Beloved Disciple Johannesminne BNM.jpg
Jesus and the Beloved Disciple

The phrase the disciple whom Jesus loved (Greek : ὁ μαθητὴς ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ho mathētēs hon ēgapā ho Iēsous) or, in John 20:2, the Beloved Disciple (Greek : ὃν ἐφίλει ὁ Ἰησοῦς, hon ephilei ho Iēsous) is used five times in the Gospel of John, [13] but in no other New Testament accounts of Jesus. John 21:24 claims that the Gospel of John is based on the written testimony of this disciple.

The disciple whom Jesus loved is referred to, specifically, six times in John's gospel:

None of the other Gospels has anyone in the parallel scenes that could be directly understood as the Beloved Disciple. For example, in Luke 24:12, Peter alone runs to the tomb. Mark, Matthew and Luke do not mention any one of the twelve disciples having witnessed the crucifixion.

There are also two references to an unnamed "other disciple" in John 1:35-40 and John 18:15-16 , which may be to the same person based on the wording in John 20:2. [15]

New Testament author

St. John at the Crucifixion of Jesus in a Stabat Mater by Pietro PeruginoRome, c. 1482 Pietro Perugino 040.jpg
St. John at the Crucifixion of Jesus in a Stabat Mater by Pietro Perugino Rome, c. 1482
Lamentation of the Virgin. John the Apostle trying to console Mary Lamentation of the Virgin Rohan.jpg
Lamentation of the Virgin. John the Apostle trying to console Mary

Church tradition has held that John is the author of the Gospel of John and four other books of the New Testament — the three Epistles of John and the Book of Revelation. In the Gospel, authorship is internally credited to the "disciple whom Jesus loved" (ὁ μαθητὴς ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς, o mathētēs on ēgapa o Iēsous) in John 20:2 . John 21:24 claims that the Gospel of John is based on the written testimony of the "Beloved Disciple". The authorship of some Johannine literature has been debated since about the year 200. [16] [17]

In his Ecclesiastical History , Eusebius says that the First Epistle of John and the Gospel of John are widely agreed upon as his. However, Eusebius mentions that the consensus is that the second and third epistles of John are not his but were written by some other John. Eusebius also goes to some length to establish with the reader that there is no general consensus regarding the revelation of John. The revelation of John could only be what is now called the Book of Revelation. [18] The Gospel according to John differs considerably from the Synoptic Gospels, which were likely written decades earlier. The bishops of Asia Minor supposedly requested him to write his gospel to deal with the heresy of the Ebionites, who asserted that Christ did not exist before Mary. John probably knew and undoubtedly approved of the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, but these gospels spoke of Jesus primarily in the year following the imprisonment and death of John the Baptist. [19] Around 600, however, Sophronius of Jerusalem noted that “two epistles bearing his name ... are considered by some to be the work of a certain John the Elder” and, while stating that Revelation was written by John of Patmos, it was “later translated by Justin Martyr and Irenaeus,” [2] presumably in an attempt to reconcile tradition with the obvious differences in Greek style.

Until the 19th century, the authorship of the Gospel of John had been attributed to the Apostle John. However, most modern critical scholars have their doubts. [20] Some scholars place the Gospel of John somewhere between AD 65 and 85; [21] [ page needed ] John Robinson proposes an initial edition by 50–55 and then a final edition by 65 due to narrative similarities with Paul. [22] :pp.284,307 Other scholars are of the opinion that the Gospel of John was composed in two or three stages. [23] :p.43 Most contemporary scholars consider that the Gospel was not written until the latter third of the first century AD, and with an earliest possible date of AD 75-80. [24] “...a date of AD 75-80 as the earliest possible date of composition for this Gospel.” Other scholars think that an even later date, perhaps even the last decade of the first century AD right up to the start of the 2nd century (i.e. 90 - 100), is applicable. [25]

Nonetheless, today many theological scholars continue to accept the traditional authorship. Colin G. Kruse states that since John the Evangelist has been named consistently in the writings of early church fathers, “it is hard to pass by this conclusion, despite widespread reluctance to accept it by many, but by no means all, modern scholars.” [26]

The Gospel of John was written by an anonymous author. [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] According to Paul N. Anderson, the gospel “contains more direct claims to eyewitness origins than any of the other Gospel traditions.” [36] F. F. Bruce argues that 19:35 contains an “emphatic and explicit claim to eyewitness authority.” [37] Bart D. Ehrman, however, does not think the gospel claims to have been written by direct witnesses to the reported events. [29] [38] [39]

Book of Revelation

According to the Book of Revelation, its author was on the island of Patmos "for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus", when he was honoured with the vision contained in Revelation. [Rev. 1:9]

The author of the Book of Revelation identifies himself as “Ἰωάννης” (“John” in standard English translation) [40] The early 2nd century writer, Justin Martyr, was the first to equate the author of Revelation with John the Apostle. [41] However, most biblical scholars now contend that these were separate individuals. [20] [42]

John the Presbyter, an obscure figure in the early church, has also been identified with the seer of the Book of Revelation by such authors as Eusebius in his Church History (Book III, 39) [43] and Jerome. [44]

John is considered to have been exiled to Patmos, during the persecutions under Emperor Domitian. Revelation 1:9 says that the author wrote the book on Patmos: “I, John, both your brother and companion in tribulation... was on the island that is called Patmos for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.” Adela Yarbro Collins, a biblical scholar at Yale Divinity School, writes:

Early tradition says that John was banished to Patmos by the Roman authorities. This tradition is credible because banishment was a common punishment used during the Imperial period for a number of offenses. Among such offenses were the practices of magic and astrology. Prophecy was viewed by the Romans as belonging to the same category, whether Pagan, Jewish, or Christian. Prophecy with political implications, like that expressed by John in the book of Revelation, would have been perceived as a threat to Roman political power and order. Three of the islands in the Sporades were places where political offenders were banished. (Pliny Natural History 4.69-70; Tacitus Annals 4.30) [45]

Some modern higher critical scholars have raised the possibility that John the Apostle, John the Evangelist, and John of Patmos were three separate individuals. [46] These scholars assert that John of Patmos wrote Revelation but neither the Gospel of John nor the Epistles of John. For one, the author of Revelation identifies himself as “John” several times, but the author of the Gospel of John never identifies himself directly. Some Catholic scholars state that “vocabulary, grammar, and style make it doubtful that the book could have been put into its present form by the same person(s) responsible for the fourth gospel.” [47]

Extrabiblical traditions

Byzantine illumination depicting John dictating to his disciple, Prochorus (c. 1100). Byzantinischer Maler um 1100 001.jpg
Byzantine illumination depicting John dictating to his disciple, Prochorus (c. 1100).
Tomb of St. John the Apostle, in St. John's Basilica, Ephesus, near modern-day Selcuk, Turkey. Tomb of Saint John the Apostle.jpg
Tomb of St. John the Apostle, in St. John's Basilica, Ephesus, near modern-day Selçuk, Turkey.

There is no information in the Bible concerning the duration of John's activity in Judea. According to tradition, John and the other Apostles remained some 12 years in this first field of labour. The persecution of Christians under Herod Agrippa I led to the scattering of the Apostles through the Roman Empire's provinces. [cf. Ac 12:1-17]

A messianic community existed at Ephesus before Paul's first labors there (cf. "the brethren"), [Acts 18:27] in addition to Priscilla and Aquila. The original community was under the leadership of Apollos (1 Corinthians 1:12). They were disciples of John the Baptist and were converted by Aquila and Priscilla. [48] According to Church tradition, after the Assumption of Mary, John went to Ephesus. From there he wrote the three epistles attributed to him. John was allegedly banished by the Roman authorities to the Greek island of Patmos, where, according to tradition, he wrote the Book of Revelation. According to Tertullian (in The Prescription of Heretics) John was banished (presumably to Patmos) after being plunged into boiling oil in Rome and suffering nothing from it. It is said that all in the audience of Colosseum were converted to Christianity upon witnessing this miracle. This event would have occurred in the late 1st century, during the reign of the Emperor Domitian, who was known for his persecution of Christians.

When John was aged, he trained Polycarp who later became Bishop of Smyrna. This was important because Polycarp was able to carry John's message to future generations. Polycarp taught Irenaeus, passing on to him stories about John. Similarly, Ignatius of Antioch was a student of John and later appointed by Saint Peter to be the Bishop of Antioch. In Against Heresies , Irenaeus relates how Polycarp told a story of

John, the disciple of the Lord, going to bathe at Ephesus, and perceiving Cerinthus within, rushed out of the bath-house without bathing, exclaiming, "Let us fly, lest even the bath-house fall down, because Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, is within." [49]

It is traditionally believed that John was the youngest of the apostles and survived them. He is said to have lived to an old age, dying at Ephesus sometime after AD 98, possibly surviving into the second century. [50]

An alternative account of John's death, ascribed by later Christian writers to the early second-century bishop Papias of Hierapolis, claims that he was slain by the Jews. [51] [52] Most Johannine scholars doubt the reliability of its ascription to Papias, but a minority, including B.W. Bacon, Martin Hengel and Henry Barclay Swete, maintain that these references to Papias are credible. [53] [54] Zahn argues that this reference is actually to John the Baptist. [50] John's traditional tomb is thought to be located at Selçuk, a small town in the vicinity of Ephesus. [55]

John is also associated with the pseudepigraphal apocryphal text of the Acts of John, which is traditionally viewed as written by John himself or his disciple, Leucius Charinus. It was widely circulated by the second century CE but deemed heretical at the Second Council of Nicaea (787 CE). Varying fragments survived in Greek and Latin within monastic libraries. It contains strong docetic themes, but is not considered in modern scholarship to be gnostic. [56] [57]

Liturgical commemoration

The feast day of Saint John in the Roman Catholic Church, which calls him "Saint John, Apostle and Evangelist", and in the Anglican Communion and Lutheran Calendars, which call him "Saint John the Apostle and Evangelist", is on 27 December. [58] In the Tridentine Calendar he was commemorated also on each of the following days up to and including 3 January, the Octave of the 27 December feast. This Octave was abolished by Pope Pius XII in 1955. [59] The traditional liturgical color is white.

Until 1960, another feast day which appeared in the General Roman Calendar is that of "Saint John Before the Latin Gate" on 6 May, celebrating a tradition recounted by Jerome that St John was brought to Rome during the reign of the Emperor Domitian, and was thrown in a vat of boiling oil, from which he was miraculously preserved unharmed. A church (San Giovanni a Porta Latina) dedicated to him was built near the Latin gate of Rome, the traditional site of this event. [60]

The Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite commemorate the "Repose of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian" on 26 September. On 8 May they celebrate the "Feast of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian", on which date Christians used to draw forth from his grave fine ashes which were believed to be effective for healing the sick.

Other views

Latter-day Saint view

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) teaches that, "John is mentioned frequently in latter-day revelation (1 Ne. 14:18–27; 3 Ne. 28:6; Ether 4:16; D&C 7; 27:12; 61:14; 77; 88:141). These passages confirm the biblical record of John and also provide insight into his greatness and the importance of the work the Lord has given him to do on the earth in New Testament times and in the last days. The latter-day scriptures clarify that John did not die but was allowed to remain on the earth as a ministering servant until the time of the Lord’s Second Coming (John 21:20–23; 3 Ne. 28:6–7; D&C 7)" [61] . It also teaches that in 1829, along with the resurrected Peter and the resurrected James, John visited Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery and restored the priesthood authority with Apostolic succession to earth. [62] John, along with the Three Nephites, will live to see the Second Coming of Christ as translated beings. [63]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that John the Apostle is the same person as John the Evangelist, John of Patmos, and the Beloved Disciple. [63]

Islamic view

The Quran also speaks of Jesus's disciples but does not mention their names, instead referring to them as "supporters for [the cause of] Allah". [64] Sunnah did not mention their names either. However, some Muslim scholars mentioned their names [65] , probably relying on the resources of Christians, who are considered "People of the Book". Muslim exegesis more-or-less agrees with the New Testament list and says that the disciples included Peter, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, Andrew, James, Jude, John and Simon the Zealot. [66] Notably, narrations of People of the Book (Christians and Jews) are not to be believed or disbelieved by Muslims as long as there is nothing that supports or denies them in Quran or Sunnah [67] .

In art

St. John the Apostle by Jacques Bellange, c. 1600 St John the Apostle by Jacques Bellange.jpg
St. John the Apostle by Jacques Bellange, c. 1600

As he was traditionally identified with the beloved apostle, the evangelist, and the author of the Revelation and several Epistles, John played an extremely prominent role in art from the early Christian period onward. [68] He is traditionally depicted in one of two distinct ways: either as an aged man with a white or gray beard, or alternatively as a beardless youth. [69] [70] The first way of depicting him was more common in Byzantine art, where it was possibly influenced by antique depictions of Socrates; [71] the second was more common in the art of Medieval Western Europe, and can be dated back as far as 4th century Rome. [70]

Legends from the Acts of John, an apocryphal text attributed to John, contributed much to Medieval iconography; it is the source of the idea that John became an apostle at a young age. [70] One of John's familiar attributes is the chalice, often with a serpent emerging from it. [68] This symbol is interpreted as a reference to a legend from the Acts of John, [72] in which John was challenged to drink a cup of poison to demonstrate the power of his faith (the poison being symbolized by the serpent). [68] Other common attributes include a book or scroll, in reference to the writings traditionally attributed to him, and an eagle, [70] which is argued to symbolize the high-soaring, inspirational quality of these writings. [68]

In Medieval works of painting, sculpture and literature, Saint John is often presented in an androgynous or femininized manner. [73] Historians have related such portrayals to the circumstances of the believers for whom they were intended. [74] For instance, John's feminine features are argued to have helped to make him more relatable to women. [75] Likewise, Sarah McNamer argues that because of his status as an androgynous saint, John could function as an 'image of a third or mixed gender' [76] and 'a crucial figure with whom to identify' [77] for male believers who sought to cultivate an attitude of affective piety, a highly emotional style of devotion that, in late-medieval culture, was thought to be poorly compatible with masculinity. [78] After the Middle Ages, feminizing portrayals of Saint John continued to be made; a case in point is an etching by Jacques Bellange, shown to the right, described by art critic Richard Dorment as depicting 'a softly androgynous creature with a corona of frizzy hair, small breasts like a teenage girl, and the round belly of a mature woman.' [79]

See also

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John of Patmos is the author named as John in the Book of Revelation, the apocalyptic text forming the final book of the New Testament. The text of Revelation states that John was on Patmos, a Greek island where, by most biblical historians, he is considered to be in exile as a result of anti-Christian persecution under the Roman emperor Domitian.

Bart D. Ehrman American academic

Bart Denton Ehrman is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism of the New Testament, the historical Jesus, the origins and development of early Christianity. He has written and edited 30 books, including three college textbooks. He has also authored six New York Times bestsellers. He is currently the James A. Gray Distinguished Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Post-Resurrection appearances of Jesus

The post-resurrection appearances of Jesus are the earthly appearances of Jesus to his followers after his death and burial. Believers point to them as proof of his resurrection and identity as Messiah, seated in heaven on the right hand of God.

James, son of Alphaeus one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ

James, son of Alphaeus was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, appearing under this name in all three of the Synoptic Gospels' lists of the apostles. He is often identified with James the Less and commonly known by that name in church tradition. He is also labelled "the minor", "the little", "the lesser", or "the younger", according to translation. He is distinct from James, son of Zebedee and in some interpretations also from James, brother of Jesus. He appears only four times in the New Testament, each time in a list of the twelve apostles.

Myrrhbearers

In Orthodox Christian tradition the Myrrhbearers are the individuals mentioned in the New Testament who were directly involved in the burial or who discovered the empty tomb following the resurrection of Jesus. The term traditionally refers to the women with myrrh who came to the tomb of Christ early in the morning to find it empty. In Western Christianity, the two women at the tomb, Three Marys or other variants are the terms normally used. Also included are Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, who took the body of Jesus down from the cross, embalmed it with myrrh and aloes, wrapped it in clean linen, and placed it in a new tomb..

Christianity in the 1st century Christianity-related events during the 1st century

Christianity in the 1st century covers the formative history of Christianity, from the start of the ministry of Jesus to the death of the last of the Twelve Apostles. According to Christian tradition, the period from Jesus's death, resurrection, and the Great Commission is distinguished as the Apostolic Age.

Outline of Christianity Overview of and topical guide to Christianity

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Christianity:

Apostles The primary disciples of Jesus

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles, were the primary disciples of Jesus according to the New Testament and the Qur’an. During the life and ministry of Jesus in the 1st century AD, the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus.

Prochorus (deacon) early Christian saint and bishop

Prochorus was one of the Seven Deacons chosen to care for the poor of the Christian community in Jerusalem. According to later tradition he was also one of the Seventy Disciples sent out by Jesus in Luke 10.

New Testament people named John

The name John is prominent in the New Testament and occurs numerous times. Among Jews of this period, the name was one of the most popular, borne by about five percent of men. Thus, it has long been debated which Johns are to be identified with which.

References

  1. "Saint John the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. 1 2 Saint Sophronius of Jerusalem (2007) [c. 600], "The Life of the Evangelist John", The Explanation of the Holy Gospel According to John, House Springs, Missouri, United States: Chrysostom Press, pp. 2–3, ISBN   1-889814-09-1
  3. Wills, Garry (10 March 2015). The Future of the Catholic Church with Pope Francis. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 49. ISBN   978-0-698-15765-1. (Candida Moss marshals the historical evidence to prove that "we simply don't know how any of the apostles died, much less whether they were martyred.")6 Citing Moss, Candida (5 March 2013). The Myth of Persecution: How Early Christians Invented a Story of Martyrdom. HarperCollins. p. 136. ISBN   978-0-06-210454-0.
  4. Nor do we have reliable accounts from later times. What we have are legends, about some of the apostles – chiefly Peter, Paul, Thomas, Andrew, and John. But the apocryphal Acts that tell their stories are indeed highly apocryphal.
    Bart D. Ehrman, "Were the Disciples Martyred for Believing the Resurrection? A Blast From the Past", ehrmanblog.org
    “The big problem with this argument [of who would die for a lie] is that it assumes precisely what we don’t know. We don’t know how most of the disciples died. The next time someone tells you they were all martyred, ask them how they know. Or better yet, ask them which ancient source they are referring to that says so. The reality is [that] we simply do not have reliable information about what happened to Jesus’ disciples after he died. In fact, we scarcely have any information about them while they were still living, nor do we have reliable accounts from later times. What we have are legends.”
    Bart Ehrman, Emerson Green, "Who Would Die for a Lie?"
  5. Historical Dictionary of Prophets In Islam And Judaism, Brandon M. Wheeler, Disciples of Christ: "Islam identifies the disciples of Jesus as Peter, Philip, Andrew, Matthew, Thomas, John, James, Bartholomew, and Simon"
  6. By comparing Matthew 27:56 to Mark 15:40
  7. Iverach, James. "John, The Apostle", "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". (James Orr, ed.), 1915
  8. Media, Franciscan (27 December 2015). "Saint John the Apostle".
  9. 1 2 "Fonck, Leopold. "St. John the Evangelist." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 6 Feb. 2013". Newadvent.org. 1 October 1910. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  10. 1 2 3 "St John The Evangelist". www.ewtn.com.
  11. Luke 9:49-50 NKJV
  12. While Luke states that this is the Passover, [Lk 22:7-9] the Gospel of John specifically states that the Passover meal is to be partaken of on Friday [Jn 18:28]
  13. John 13:23 , 19:26 , 20:2, 21:7 , 21:20
  14. James D. G. Dunn and John William Rogerson, Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003, p. 1210, ISBN   0-8028-3711-5.
  15. Brown, Raymond E. 1970. "The Gospel According to John (xiii-xxi)". New York: Doubleday & Co. Pages 922, 955.
  16. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History Book vi. Chapter xxv.
  17. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Apocalypse".
  18. The History of the Church by Eusibius. Book three, point 24.
  19. Thomas Patrick Halton, On illustrious men, Volume 100 of The Fathers of the Church, CUA Press, 1999. P. 19.
  20. 1 2 Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible (Palo Alto: Mayfield, 1985) p. 355
  21. Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. McGraw-Hill, 2006. ISBN   978-0-07-296548-3
  22. Robinson, John A.T. (1977). Redating the New Testament. SCM Press. ISBN   978-0-334-02300-5.
  23. Mark Allan Powell. Jesus as a figure in history. Westminster John Knox Press, 1998. ISBN   0-664-25703-8 / 978-0664257033
  24. Gail R. O'Day, introduction to the Gospel of John in New Revised Standard Translation of the Bible, Abingdon Press, Nashville, 2003, p.1906
  25. Reading John, Francis J. Moloney, SDB, Dove Press, 1995
  26. Kruse, Colin G.The Gospel According to John: An Introduction and Commentary, Eerdmans, 2004, ISBN   0-8028-2771-3, p. 28.
  27. E P Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, (Penguin, 1995) page 63 - 64.
  28. Bart D. Ehrman (2000:43) The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press.
  29. 1 2 Bart D. Ehrman (2005:235) Lost Christianities: the battles for scripture and the faiths we never knew Oxford University Press, New York.
  30. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (1995:287) International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: K-P MATTHEW, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. Quote: "Matthew, like the other three Gospels is an anonymous document."
  31. Donald Senior, Paul J. Achtemeier, Robert J. Karris (2002:328) Invitation to the Gospels Paulist Press.
  32. Keith Fullerton Nickle (2001:43) The Synoptic Gospels: an introduction Westminster John Knox Press.
  33. Ben Witherington (2004:44) The Gospel code: novel claims about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Da Vinci InterVarsity Press.
  34. F.F. Bruce (1994:1) The Gospel of John Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
  35. Patrick J. Flannagan (1997:16) The Gospel of Mark Made Easy Paulist Press
  36. Paul N. Anderson, The Riddles of the Fourth Gospel, p. 48.
  37. F. F. Bruce, The Gospel of John, p. 3.
  38. Bart D. Ehrman (2004:110) Truth and Fiction in The Da Vinci Code: A Historian Reveals What We Really Know about Jesus, Mary Magdalene, and Constantine. Oxford University Press.
  39. Bart D. Ehrman(2006:143) The lost Gospel of Judas Iscariot: a new look at betrayer and betrayed. Oxford University Press.
  40. "Revelation, Book of." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  41. Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, 81.4
  42. Ehrman, Bart D. (2004). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. New York: Oxford. p. 468. ISBN   0-19-515462-2.
  43. "Church History, Book III, Chapter 39". The Fathers of the Church. NewAdvent.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  44. saint, Jerome. "De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men) Chapter 9 & 18". newadvent.org. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  45. Adela Collins. "Patmos." Harper's Bible Dictionary. Paul J. Achtemeier, gen. ed. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985. p755.
  46. Griggs, C. Wilfred. "John the Beloved" in Ludlow, Daniel H., ed. Selections from the Encyclopedia of Mormonism: Scriptures of the Church (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, 1992) p. 379. Griggs favors the "one John" theory but mentions that some modern scholars have hypothesized that there are multiple Johns.
  47. Introduction. Saint Joseph Edition of the New American Bible: Translated from the Original Languages with Critical Use of All the Ancient Sources : including the Revised New Testament and the Revised Psalms. New York: Catholic Book Pub., 1992. 386. Print.
  48. Vailhé, Siméon (6 February 2013) [New York: Robert Appleton Co., 1909-5-1]. "Ephesus". The Catholic Encyclopedia. New advent. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  49. Irenaeus, Against Heresies , III.3.4.
  50. 1 2 "John the Apostle". CCEL.
  51. Cheyne, Thomas Kelly (1901). Encyclopaedia BBiblica. 2. Adam & Charles Black. pp. 2509–11. Although Papias' works are no longer extant, the fifth century ecclesiastical historian Philip of Side and the ninth-century monk George Hamartolos both stated that Papias had written that John was "slain by the Jews."
  52. Rasimus, Tuomas (2010). The Legacy of John: Second-Century Reception of the Fourth Gospel. Brill. p. 5. ISBN   978-9-00417633-1. Rasimus finds corroborating evidence for this tradition in "two martyrologies from Edessa and Carthage" and writes that "Mark 10:35–40//Matt. 20:20–23 can be taken to portray Jesus predicting the martyrdom of both the sons of Zebedee."
  53. Culpepper, R. Alan (2000). John, the Son of Zebedee: The Life of A Legend. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 172. ISBN   9780567087423.
  54. Swete, Henry Barclay (1911). The Apocalypse of St. John (3 ed.). Macmillan. pp. 179–180.
  55. Procopius of Caesarea, On Buildings. General Index, trans. H. B. Dewing and Glanville Downey, vol. 7, Loeb Classical Library 343 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1940), 319
  56. "The Acts of John". gnosis.org. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  57. Lost scriptures : books that did not make it into the New Testament . Ehrman, Bart D. New York: Oxford University Press. 2003. ISBN   0195141822. OCLC   51886442.CS1 maint: others (link)
  58. "The Calendar". 16 October 2013.
  59. General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII
  60. Saint Andrew Daily Missal with Vespers for Sundays and Feasts by Dom. Gaspar LeFebvre, O.S.B., Saint Paul, MN: The E.M. Lohmann Co., 1952, p.1325-1326
  61. "John, Son of Zebedee". wwwchurchofjesuschrist.org.
  62. Doctrine and Covenants 27:12
  63. 1 2 "John", KJV (LDS): Bible Dictionary , LDS Church, 1979
  64. Qur'an 3:52
  65. Prophet's Sirah by Ibn Hisham, Chapter: Sending messengers of Allah's Messenger to kings, p.870
  66. Noegel, Scott B.; Wheeler, Brandon M. (2003). Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press (Roman & Littlefield). p. 86. ISBN   978-0810843059. Muslim exegesis identifies the disciples of Jesus as Peter, Andrew, Matthew, Thomas, Philip, John, James, Bartholomew, and Simon
  67. Musnad el Imam Ahmad Volume 4, Publisher: Dar al Fikr, p.72, Hadith#17225
  68. 1 2 3 4 James Hall, "John the Evangelist," Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art, rev. ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1979)
  69. Sources:
    • James Hall, Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art, (New York: Harper & Row, 1979), 129, 174-75.
    • Carolyn S. Jerousek, "Christ and St. John the Evangelist as a Model of Medieval Mysticism," Cleveland Studies in the History of Art, Vol. 6 (2001), 16.
  70. 1 2 3 4 "Saint John the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica Online . Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  71. Jadranka Prolović, "Socrates and St. John the Apostle: the interchangеable similarity of their portraits" Zograf, vol. 35 (2011), 9: "It is difficult to locate when and where this iconography of John originated and what the prototype was, yet it is clearly visible that this iconography of John contains all of the main characteristics of well-known antique images of Socrates. This fact leads to the conclusion that Byzantine artists used depictions of Socrates as a model for the portrait of John."
  72. J.K. Elliot (ed.), A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation Based on M.R. James (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993/2005), 343-345.
    • James Hall, Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art, (New York: Harper & Row, 1979), 129, 174-75.
    • Jeffrey F. Hamburger, St. John the Divine: The Deified Evangelist in Medieval Art and Theology. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), xxi-xxii; ibidem, 159-160.
    • Carolyn S. Jerousek, "Christ and St. John the Evangelist as a Model of Medieval Mysticism," Cleveland Studies in the History of Art, Vol. 6 (2001), 16.
    • Annette Volfing, John the Evangelist and Medieval Writing: Imitating the Inimitable. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 139.
    • Jeffrey F. Hamburger, St. John the Divine: The Deified Evangelist in Medieval Art and Theology. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), xxi-xxii.
    • Carolyn S. Jerousek, "Christ and St. John the Evangelist as a Model of Medieval Mysticism" Cleveland Studies in the History of Art, Vol. 6 (2001), 20.
    • Sarah McNamer, Affective Meditation and the Invention of Medieval Compassion, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), 142-148.
    • Annette Volfing, John the Evangelist and Medieval Writing: Imitating the Inimitable. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 139.
    • Carolyn S. Jerousek, "Christ and St. John the Evangelist as a Model of Medieval Mysticism" Cleveland Studies in the History of Art, Vol. 6 (2001), 20.
    • Annette Volfing, John the Evangelist and Medieval Writing: Imitating the Inimitable. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 139.
  73. Sarah McNamer, Affective Meditation and the Invention of Medieval Compassion, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), 142.
  74. Sarah McNamer, Affective Meditation and the Invention of Medieval Compassion, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), 145.
  75. Sarah McNamer, Affective Meditation and the Invention of Medieval Compassion, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), 142-148.
  76. Richard Dorment (15 February 1997). "The Sacred and the Sensual". The Daily Telegraph .