Joint Typhoon Warning Center

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Joint Typhoon Warning Center
JTWC logo.png
Agency overview
Formed May 1, 1959;59 years ago (1959-05-01)
Headquarters Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
Employees 59 (2015) [1]
Parent agency United States Navy
United States Air Force
Website https://pzal.ndbc.noaa.gov/collab/jtwc/

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world. [2]

United States Navy Naval warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches. It has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force.

United States Air Force Air and space warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U.S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the youngest branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, and the fourth in order of precedence. The USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control.

Pearl Harbor Harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii

Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. It has been long visited by the Naval fleet of the United States, before it was acquired from the Hawaiian Kingdom by the U.S. with the signing of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is now a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the United States Pacific Fleet. The U.S. government first obtained exclusive use of the inlet and the right to maintain a repair and coaling station for ships here in 1887. The attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan on December 7, 1941, was the immediate cause of the United States' entry into World War II.

Contents

Its U.S. Navy components are aligned with Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command.

Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command

The Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command (COMNAVMETOCCOM) or CNMOC, serves as the operational arm of the Naval Oceanography Program. Headquartered at the Stennis Space Center in Mississippi, CNMOC is an echelon three command reporting to United States Fleet Forces Command (USFLTFORCOM). CNMOC's claimancy is globally distributed, with assets located on larger ships, shore facilities at fleet concentration areas, and larger production centers in the U.S.

History

Radar image of Typhoon Cobra Typhoon Cobra, 18 December 1944 east of Luzon.jpg
Radar image of Typhoon Cobra

The origins of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) can be traced back to June 1945, when the Fleet Weather Center/Typhoon Tracking Center was established on the island of Guam, after multiple typhoons, including Typhoon Cobra of December 1944 and June 1945, had caused a significant loss of men and ships. [3] [4] At this time the centre was one of three Navy and two Air Force units responsible for tropical cyclone reconnaissance and warnings in the Pacific. [3] Over the next few years the coordination of tropical warnings between the centres was at times difficult or impossible due to various communication problems. [5] During 1958, the United States Department of Defense weather services and the Weather Bureau formed the Joint Meteorology Committee to the Pacific Command and proposed the formation of a joint Navy and Air Force center for typhoon analysis and forecasting. [3] [6] A committee was subsequently set up to study the issue which issued a report during January 1959, which gave recommendation that the center be set up. [6] Based on the report and the conclusions reached at the March 1959 Annual Tropical Cyclone Conference, the Joint Meteorology Committee formally urged, The Commander in Chief, US Pacific Command (CINCPAC) to establish a Joint Typhoon Warning Center. [6] The CINCPAC subsequently petitioned the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who gave permission for the centre to be set up effective May 1, 1959, under the command of the Fleet Weather Center's commander. [5] [6]

Guam Island territory of the United States of America

Guam is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is the easternmost point and territory of the United States, along with the Northern Mariana Islands. The capital city of Guam is Hagåtña and the most populous city is Dededo. The inhabitants of Guam are called Guamanians, and they are American citizens by birth. Indigenous Guamanians are the Chamorros, who are related to other Austronesian natives of Eastern Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. Guam has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983.

United States Department of Defense United States federal executive department

The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, and over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C., the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security".

National Weather Service United States weather agency

The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States federal government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information. It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) branch of the Department of Commerce, and is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland, within the Washington metropolitan area. The agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 until it adopted its current name in 1970.

The JTWC initially consisted of ten people with two officers and three enlisted personnel provided by each service. [5] It was required to provide warnings on all tropical cyclones, between the Malay Peninsular and the International Dateline for US government agencies. [5] They also had to determine reconnaissance requirements, prepare annual typhoon summaries, and conduct research into tropical cyclone forecasting and detection. [3] In November 1962, Typhoon Karen destroyed the building housing the Fleet Weather Center/Joint Typhoon Warning Center. It relocated in a more typhoon-proof building in 1965. [7] Between 1971 and 1976, CINCPAC gradually expanded out the JTWC's area of responsibility, to include the area between the International Dateline and the African coasts. In October 1978, the Fleet Weather Center/JTWC became the Navy Oceanographic Command Center/Joint Typhoon Warning Center and responsible for the whole oceanic environment, from the bottom of the ocean to the top of the atmosphere. [8] The JTWC subsequently started issuing warnings for the Southern Hemisphere between the African coast and the International Dateline during October 1980. [8] It was relocated to Pearl Harbor on January 1, 1999 due to the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission round. During October 2011, the JTWC's name changed from the “Naval Maritime Forecast Center/Joint Typhoon Warning Center” to just the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, as it became a stand-alone command for the first time in its 52-year history. [9]

Typhoon Karen Pacific typhoon in 1962

Typhoon Karen was the most powerful tropical cyclone to strike the island of Guam, and has been regarded as one of the most destructive events in the island's history. It was first identified as a tropical disturbance on November 6, 1962, well to the southeast of Truk. Over the following two days, the system tracked generally northward and quickly intensified. Karen became a tropical storm late on November 7, and within two days it explosively intensified into a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon on the Saffir–Simpson scale. Turning westward, the typhoon maintained its intensity and struck Guam with winds of 280 km/h (175 mph) on November 11. Once clear of the island, it strengthened slightly and reached its peak intensity on November 13 with winds of 295 km/h (185 mph) and a barometric pressure of 894 mb. The storm then gradually turned northward as it weakened, brushing the Ryukyu Islands on November 15, before moving east-northeastward over the open waters of the Pacific. Karen continued to weaken and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on November 17 before losing its identity the following day between Alaska and Hawaii.

The 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission preliminary list was released by the United States Department of Defense in 1995 as part of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission. It recommended closing 32 major United States military bases.

Standards and practices

A more modernized method for forecasting tropical cyclones had become apparent by the 1980s. Prior to the development of ATCF, the tools used by the Department of Defense to forecast tropical cyclone track were acetate, grease pencils, and disparate computer programs. [10] The ATCF software was developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for the JTWC beginning in 1986, [11] and used since 1988. It was adapted for use at the National Hurricane Center (NHC) in 1990. [10]

National Hurricane Center division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

JTWC adheres to the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) rules for storm names and adheres to acknowledged guidelines for intensity of tropical cyclones and tropical storms, with the exception of using the U.S. standard of measuring sustained winds for 1-min instead of the 10-min span recommended by the WMO (see Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale). The JTWC is not one of the WMO designated Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres, nor one of its Tropical cyclone warning centres, as its main mission is to support the United States government agencies. [12] JTWC monitors, analyzes, and forecasts tropical cyclone formation, development, and movement year round. [13] Its area of responsibility covers 89% of the world's tropical cyclone activity. [14]

World Meteorological Organization Specialised agency of the United Nations

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 192 Member States and Territories. Its current Secretary-General is Petteri Taalas and the President of the World Meteorological Congress, its supreme body, is David Grimes. The Organization is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Staffing

The Center is manned by about 37 U.S. Air Force and Navy personnel. [15] The JTWC uses several satellite systems and sensors, radar, surface and upper level synoptic data as well as atmospheric models to complete its mission. [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Timeline of the 2015 Pacific typhoon season

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Tropical cyclone tracking chart

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References

  1. Annual Tropcial Cyclone Report 2015 (PDF) (Report). United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 16, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  2. 1 2 Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Mission Statement". Archived from the original on August 12, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Joint Typhoon Warning Center 50th Anniversary May 1959 – May 2009. April 29, 2009. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  4. Anstett, Richard (April 30, 1998). "World War II Era". History of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center up to 1998. Archived from the original on June 7, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Fleet Weather Central; Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Annual Typhoon Report: 1959 (PDF) (Report). United States Navy, United States Air Force. pp. 4–6. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Anstett, Richard (April 30, 1998). "JTWC Formation, 1958-1959". History of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center up to 1998. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  7. Richard Anstett. JTWC Formation, 1958-1959. Archived 2014-11-14 at WebCite Retrieved on 2006-12-10.
  8. 1 2 Anslett, Richard A (April 30, 1998). "Realignment, Renaming And Relocating". History of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center up to 1998. Archived from the original on July 31, 2012. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  9. http://www.hookelenews.com/joint-typhoon-warning-center-rededicates-new-operation-floor-and-mission/
  10. 1 2 Ronald J. Miller; Ann J. Schrader; Charles R. Sampson; Ted L. Tsui (December 1990). "The Automated Tropical Cyclone Forecasting System (ATCF)". Weather and Forecasting. American Meteorological Society. 5: 653–660. Bibcode:1990WtFor...5..653M. doi:10.1175/1520-0434(1990)005<0653:TATCFS>2.0.CO;2.
  11. Charles R. Sampson; Ann J. Schrader (June 2000). "The Automated Tropical Cyclone Forecasting System (Version 3.2)". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. American Meteorological Society. 81 (6): 1231–1240. Bibcode:2000BAMS...81.1231S. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(2000)081<1231:tatcfs>2.3.co;2.
  12. Joint Typhoon Warning Center Product Notice at bottom of webpage. "Joint Typhoon Warning Center" . Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  13. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Frequently Asked Questions" . Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  14. Freeman, Bob (November 13, 2009). "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Marks 50 Years of Service". U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on July 13, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  15. Annual Tropical Cyclone Report 2013 (PDF) (Report). Pearl Harbor, Hawaii: Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014. p. 5.