Jos

Last updated
Jos

J-Town
Tudun Wada, View from Jos City.jpg
Nigeria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Jos
Location in Nigeria
Coordinates: 09°55′00″N08°53′25″E / 9.91667°N 8.89028°E / 9.91667; 8.89028 Coordinates: 09°55′00″N08°53′25″E / 9.91667°N 8.89028°E / 9.91667; 8.89028
Country Nigeria
State Plateau State
Elevation
1,217 m (3,993 ft)
Population
(2006)
  Total873,943
  Rank 6th
  [1]
Time zone GMT+1
Climate Aw

Jos /ˈs/ is a city in the Middle Belt of Nigeria. The city has a population of about 900,000 residents based on the 2006 census. [1] Popularly called "J-Town", it is the administrative capital of Plateau State.

The Middle Belt is a term used in human geography to designate a belt region stretching across central Nigeria longitudinally and forming a transition zone between Northern and Southern Nigeria. It is characterised by its lack of a clear majority ethnic group, and is the location of Nigeria's Federal Capital Territory. The eminence of manifold minority groups, to some degree, constitutes an ethno-linguistic barrier in the country and draws a separation between the principally Islamic North and the mainly Christian south.

Nigeria Federal republic in West Africa

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country.

Plateau State State in Nigeria

Plateau is the twelfth-largest state in Nigeria. Approximately in the centre of the country, it is geographically unique in Nigeria due to its boundaries of elevated hills surrounding the Jos Plateau its capital, and the entire plateau itself.

Contents

The city is located on the Jos Plateau at about 1,238 metres or 4,062 feet above sea level. During British colonial rule, Jos was an important centre for tin mining and now it has become the trading hub in the state as commercial activities are steadily on the rise.

Jos Plateau mountain range

The Jos Plateau is a plateau located near the centre of Nigeria. It covers 8600 km² and is bounded by 300-600 m escarpments around much of its circumference. With an average altitude of 1280 m, it is the largest area over 1000 m in Nigeria, with a high point of 1829 m, in the Shere Hills. The plateau has given its name to the Plateau State in which it is found and is itself named for the state's capital, Jos.

British people citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, British Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies, and their descendants

The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals. When used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, and Bretons. It may also refer to citizens of the former British Empire.

Colonialism Creation, and maintenance of colonies by people from another territory

Colonialism is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of opening trade opportunities. The colonizing country seeks to benefit from the colonized country or land mass. In the process, colonizers imposed their religion, economics, and medicinal practices on the natives. Some argue this was a positive move toward modernization, while other scholars counter that this is an intrinsically Eurocentric rationalization, given that modernization is itself a concept introduced by Europeans. Colonialism is largely regarded as a relationship of domination of an indigenous majority by a minority of foreign invaders where the latter rule in pursuit of its interests.

History

The earliest known settlers of the land that would come to be known as Nigeria were the Nok people (circa 1000 BC), skilled artisans from around the Jos area who mysteriously vanished in the late first millennium.[ citation needed ]

Nok culture archaeological culture

The Nok culture is an early Iron Age population whose material remains are named after the Ham village of Nok in Kaduna State of Nigeria, where their famous terracotta sculptures were first discovered in 1928. The Nok Culture appeared in northern Nigeria around 1500 BC and vanished under unknown circumstances around 500 AD, thus having lasted approximately 2,000 years.

Early British settlement in Jos, 1905 The National Archives UK - CO 1069-62-74.jpg
Early British settlement in Jos, 1905

According to the historian Sen Luka Gwom Zangabadt, [2] the area known as Jos today was inhabited by indigenous ethnic groups who were mostly farmers. According to Billy J. Dudley, [3] the British colonialists used direct rule for the indigenous ethnic groups on the Jos plateau since they were not under the Fulani emirates where indirect rule was used. According to the historian Samuel N Nwabara, [4] the Fulani empire controlled most of northern Nigeria, except the Plateau province and the Berom, Mwaghavul, Ngas, Tiv, Jukun and Idoma ethnic groups. It was the discovery of tin by the British that led to the influx of other ethnic groups such as the Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, thus making Jos a cosmopolitan city.

Fula people A large ethnic group in Sahel and West Africa

The Fula people or Fulani or Fulɓe, numbering between 38 and 40 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region. Inhabiting many countries, they live mainly in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa but also in, South Sudan, Sudan and regions near the Red Sea coast.

Berom people ethnic group of Plateau state, Nigeria

The Berom is the largest autochthonous ethnic group in the Plateau State, central Nigeria. Covering about four local government areas, which include Jos North, Jos South, Barkin Ladi (Gwol) and Riyom, Berom are also found in southern Kaduna State local government areas.

Mwaghavul is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Plateau State, Nigeria. Dialects are Mupun and Panyam.

According to the white paper of the commission of inquiry into the 1994 crisis, Ames, a British colonial administrator, said that the original name for Jos was Gwosh which was a village situated at the current site of the city; according to Ames, the Hausa wrongly pronounced Gwosh as Jos and it stuck. [5] Another version was that "Jos" came from the word "Jasad" meaning body. To distinguish it from the hill tops, it was called "Jas", which was mis-pronounced by the British as "Jos". It grew rapidly after the British discovered vast tin deposits in the vicinity. Both tin and columbite were extensively mined in the area up until the 1960s. They were transported by railway to both Port Harcourt and Lagos on the coast, then exported from those ports. Jos is still often referred to as "Tin City". It was made capital of Benue-Plateau State in 1967, and became the capital of the new Plateau State in 1975.

Hausa people ethnic group

The Hausa are the largest ethnic group in Africa and the second largest language after Arabic in the Afroasiatic family of languages. The Hausa are a diverse but culturally homogeneous people based primarily in the Sahelian and the sparse savanna areas of southern Niger and northern Nigeria respectively, numbering over 70 million people with significant indegenized populations in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Chad, Togo, Ghana, Sudan, Eritrea, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Senegal and the Gambia

Tin Chemical element with atomic number 50

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains stannic oxide, SnO2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin does not easily oxidize in air.

Columbite columbite series

Columbite, also called niobite, niobite-tantalite and columbate [(Fe, Mn)Nb2O6], is a black mineral group that is an ore of niobium. It has a submetallic luster and a high density and is a niobate of iron and manganese. This mineral group was first found in Haddam, Connecticut, in the United States. It forms a series with the tantalum-dominant analogue ferrotantalite and one with the manganese-dominant analogue manganocolumbite. The iron-rich member of the columbite group is ferrocolumbite. Some tin and tungsten may be present in the mineral. Yttrocolumbite is the yttrium-rich columbite with the formula (Y,U,Fe)(Nb,Ta)O4. It is a radioactive mineral found in Mozambique.

Jos has become an important national administrative, commercial, and tourist centre. Tin mining has led to the influx of migrants, mostly Igbos, Yorubas and Europeans, who constitute more than half of the population of Jos. This "melting pot" of race, ethnicity and religion makes Jos one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Nigeria. For this reason, Plateau State is known in Nigeria as the "home of peace and tourism". Despite the fact that the state is inhabited by predominantly Christian communities, clashes have occurred between Christian and Muslim populations. In 2001, the city witnessed violent riots between the divided and Christian and Muslim populations, in which several thousand people died. [6] [7] In 2004, the former governor of Plateau State, Joshua Dariye, was suspended for six months for failing to control the violence.

Igbo people Ethnic group in south eastern Nigeria

The Igbo people are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria. Geographically, the Igbo homeland is divided into two unequal sections by the Niger River – an eastern and a western section. The Igbo people are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.

Yoruba people ethnic group of West Africa

The Yorùbá people are an African ethnic group that inhabits western Africa. The Yoruba constitute about 44 million people in total. Majority of this population is from Nigeria, where the Yorùbá make up 21% of the country's population, according to the CIA World Factbook, making them one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. Most Yoruba people speak the Yoruba language, which is tonal, and is the language with the largest number of native speakers.

Christian usually refers to:

Residential area in Jos Residential Area In Tudun Wada, Jos, Plateau State.jpg
Residential area in Jos

In January 2011, there were almost daily clashes between Muslims and Christians mobs in villages around Jos; a series of bombs had been detonated during Christmas Eve celebrations a month earlier, killing scores of people. [8] In May 2014, a twin bomb attack in Jos killed 118 people.

Between August 2013 and December 2014, a peace process was undertaken by communities living in Jos: the HD Jos Forum [9] ultimately led to a "Declaration of Commitment to Peace" signed by the participating communities (Afizere, Anaguta, Berom, Fulani, Hausa, Igbo, South-South and Yoruba, as well as women who were represented as their own distinct community).

Administrative divisions

The Nasco corporate headquarters is in Jos. Nasco Corporate Headquarters.jpg
The Nasco corporate headquarters is in Jos.

The city is divided into 3 local government areas of Jos north, Jos south and Jos east. The city proper lies between Jos north and Jos south. Jos east houses the prestigious National Center For Remote Sensing. Jos north is the state capital and the area where most commercial activities of the state takes place, although due to the recent communal clashes a lot of commercial activities are shifting to Jos south. The Governor's office is located in an area in Jos North called "Jise" in Berom language, "Gise" in Afizere (Jarawa) language or "Tudun-Wada" in Hausa language. Jos south is the seat of the Deputy Governor i.e. the old Government House in Rayfield and the industrial centre of Plateau State due to the presence of industries like the NASCO group, Standard Biscuits, Grand Cereals and Oil Mills, Zuma steel west Africa, aluminium roofing industries, Jos International Breweries among others. Jos south also houses prestigious institutions like the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS), the highest academic awarding institution in Nigeria, the National Veterinary Research Institute, the Police Staff College, the NTA television college and the Nigerian Film Corporation. Jos north is the location of the University of Jos and its teaching hospital. The city has formed an agglomeration with the town of Bukuru to form the Jos-Bukuru metropolis (JBM).

Geography and climate

Jos
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.4
 
 
27
13
 
 
2.8
 
 
29
15
 
 
30
 
 
30
18
 
 
93
 
 
30
18
 
 
160
 
 
28
18
 
 
199
 
 
27
17
 
 
304
 
 
24
17
 
 
290
 
 
24
17
 
 
198
 
 
26
17
 
 
38
 
 
28
17
 
 
0.3
 
 
28
15
 
 
0.5
 
 
27
13
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Jos, Nigeria: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data [10]

Situated almost at the geographical centre of Nigeria and about 179 kilometres (111 miles) from Abuja, the nation's capital, Jos is linked by road, rail and air to the rest of the country. The city is served by Yakubu Gowon Airport, but its rail connections no longer operate as the only currently operational section of Nigeria's rail network is the western line from Lagos to Kano.

At an altitude of 1,217 m (3,993 ft) above sea level, Jos enjoys a more temperate climate than much of the rest of Nigeria. Average monthly temperatures range from 21–25 °C (70–77 °F), and from mid-November to late January, night-time temperatures drop as low as 11 °C (52 °F). Hail sometimes falls during the rainy season because of the cooler temperatures at high altitudes.[ citation needed ] These cooler temperatures have, from colonial times until the present day, made Jos a favourite holiday location for both tourists and expatriates based in Nigeria.[ citation needed ]

Jos receives about 1,400 millimetres (55 inches) of rainfall annually, the precipitation arising from both convectional and orographic sources, owing to the location of the city on the Jos Plateau. [11]

According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Jos has a Tropical savanna climate, abbreviated "Aw". [12]

Climate data for Jos (1961–1990)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)27.3
(81.1)
28.7
(83.7)
30.4
(86.7)
30.2
(86.4)
28.2
(82.8)
26.6
(79.9)
24.4
(75.9)
24.3
(75.7)
26.1
(79)
27.8
(82)
28.0
(82.4)
27.2
(81)
27.4
(81.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)21.3
(70.3)
22.9
(73.2)
24.9
(76.8)
25.7
(78.3)
24.5
(76.1)
22.7
(72.9)
21.4
(70.5)
20.9
(69.6)
21.9
(71.4)
22.9
(73.2)
22.7
(72.9)
21.5
(70.7)
22.8
(73)
Average low °C (°F)12.7
(54.9)
15.1
(59.2)
17.7
(63.9)
18.3
(64.9)
18.0
(64.4)
17.2
(63)
16.7
(62.1)
16.5
(61.7)
16.7
(62.1)
16.6
(61.9)
14.9
(58.8)
13.1
(55.6)
16.1
(61)
Average precipitation mm (inches)0.4
(0.016)
2.8
(0.11)
29.8
(1.173)
92.9
(3.657)
159.8
(6.291)
198.5
(7.815)
303.8
(11.961)
290.1
(11.421)
197.6
(7.78)
38.3
(1.508)
0.3
(0.012)
0.5
(0.02)
1,314.8
(51.764)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)0.10.21.46.911.615.620.619.916.24.00.10.196.7
Average relative humidity (%) (at 15:00 LST)14.113.619.638.758.366.075.876.264.242.020.816.542.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 282.1254.8238.7204.0204.6198.0158.1139.5177.0238.7285.0288.32,668.8
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.19.17.76.86.66.65.14.55.97.79.59.37.3
Source #1: NOAA [13]
Source #2: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 1185m, mean temperatures) [12]

Features

Fruit for sale at the Park Market. Jos nigeria05.jpg
Fruit for sale at the Park Market.
Jos Wildlife Park

Covering roughly 3 square miles (7.8 km2) of savannah bush and established in 1972 under the administration of then Governor of Benue-Plateau Joseph Gomwalk in alliance with a mandate by the then Organisation of African Unity to African heads of state to earmark one third of their landmass to establish conservation areas in each of their countries, It has since then become a major attraction in the state, attracting tourists from within and outside the country. The park has become a home to various species of wildlife including Lions, Rock pythons, marabou storks, Baboons, Honey Badgers, Camels as well as variant flora.

Ahmadu Bello Way roundabout in central Jos. AHMADU BELLO WAY ROUND ABOUT JOS NIGERIA - panoramio.jpg
Ahmadu Bello Way roundabout in central Jos.
Jos Museum

The National Museum in Jos was founded in 1952 by Bernard Fagg, [14] and was recognized as one of the best in the country. It has unfortunately been left to fall to ruin as is the case with most of the cultural establishments in Nigeria. The Pottery Hall is also a part of the museum that has an exceptional collection of finely crafted pottery from all over Nigeria and boasts some fine specimens of Nok terracotta heads and artifacts dating from 500 BC to AD 200. It also incorporates the Museum of Traditional Nigerian Architecture with life-size replicas of a variety of buildings, from the walls of Kano and the Mosque at Zaria to a Tiv village. Articles of interest from colonial times relating to the railway and tin mining can also be found on display. A School for Museum Technicians is attached to the museum, established with the help of UNESCO. The Jos Museum is also located beside the zoo.

Jos Stadium

A 40,000 seat capacity located along Farin-Gada road which has become home to the Plateau United Football Club, Current champions of The Nigerian Professional League. The stadium has undergone major renovations under the administration of the current governor Barr Simon Bako Lalong

Jos Golf Course

The golf course located in Rayfield, Jos has hosted many golfing competitions with players coming from both within and outside the state

Other local enterprises include food processing, beer brewing, and the manufacture of cosmetics, soap, rope, jute bags, and furniture. Heavy industry produces cement and asbestos cement, crushed stone, rolled steel, and tire retreads. Jos is also a centre for the construction industry, and has several printing and publishing firms. The Jos-Bukuru dam and reservoir on the Shen River provide water for the city's industries.

Jos is a great base for exploring the beauty of Plateau State. The Shere Hills, seen to the east of Jos, offer a prime view of the city below. Assop Falls is a small waterfall which makes a pleasant picnic spot on a drive from Jos to Abuja. Riyom Rock is a dramatic and photogenic pile of rocks balanced precariously on top of one another, with one resembling a clown's hat, observable from the main Jos-Akwanga road.[ citation needed ]

The city is home to the University of Jos (founded in 1975), St Luke's Cathedral, an airport and a railway station. Jos is served by several teaching hospitals including Bingham University Teaching Hospital and Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), a federal government-funded referral hospital.[ citation needed ] The Nigerian College of Accountancy, with over 3,000 students in 2011, is based in Kwall, Plateau State. [15]

Notable locals

See also

Related Research Articles

The history of Nigeria can be traced to prehistoric settlers (Nigerians) living in the area as early as 1100 BC. Numerous ancient African civilizations settled in the region that is today Nigeria, such as the Kingdom of Nri, the Benin Empire, and the Oyo Empire. Islam reached Nigeria through the Borno Empire between and Hausa States around during the 11th century, while Christianity came to Nigeria in the 15th century through Augustinian and Capuchin monks from Portugal. The Songhai Empire also occupied part of the region. Lagos was invaded by British forces in 1851 and formally annexed in 1861. Nigeria became a British protectorate in 1901. Colonization lasted until 1960, when an independence movement succeeded in gaining Nigeria its independence.

Hausa–Fulani is a term unique only to Nigeria which collectively refers to the Hausa and Fulani as a people. The two are grouped together because since the Fulani War their histories have become even more intertwined within Nigeria. Although through migration into Hausaland, the Fulani have been part and parcel of Hausa society both as settled and nomadic Fulani since the 1400s.

Yorubaland Cultural region

Yorubaland is the cultural region of the Yoruba people in West Africa. It spans the modern day countries of Nigeria, Togo and Benin, and covers a total land area of 142,114 km2 or about the same size as the combined land areas of Greece and Montenegro, of which 106,016 km2 (74.6%), lies within Nigeria, 18.9% in Benin, and the remaining 6.5% is in Togo. The geocultural space contains an estimated 55 million people, the overwhelming majority of this population being ethnic Yorubas. About 5.3 million people are estimated to practise the Yoruba religion worldwide, with the largest number of practitioners being found in Nigeria.

Culture of Nigeria

The culture of Nigeria is shaped by Nigeria's multiple ethnic groups. The country has 527 languages, seven of them are extinct. Nigeria also has over 1150 dialects and ethnic groups. The six largest ethnic groups are the Hausa and Fulani in the north, the Igbo in the southeast, and the Yoruba predominate in the southwest, the Tiv people of North Central Nigeria and the Efik - Ibibio. The Edo people are most frequent in the region between Yorubaland and Igboland. Many of the Edo tend to be Christian. This group is followed by the Ibibio/Annang/Efik people of the coastal south southern Nigeria and the Ijaw of the Niger Delta.

Zamfara State State in Nigeria

Zamfara is a state in northwestern Nigeria. Its capital is Gusau and its Governor is Abdul'aziz Abubakar Yari, a member of the All Progressives Congress (APC). Until 1996 the area was part of Sokoto State.

Zaria LGA and city in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Zaria is a major city in Kaduna State in northern Nigeria, as well as being a Local Government Area. Formerly known as Zazzau, it was one of the original seven Hausa city-states. Today, it is known for housing Nigeria's largest university, Ahmadu Bello University, as well as being home to a number of prominent Nigerians.

Articles related to Nigeria include:

Languages of Nigeria languages of a geographic region

There are perhaps 500 languages spoken in Nigeria. The official language of Nigeria is English, the former language of colonial British Nigeria. As reported in 2003, Nigerian English and Nigerian Pidgin were spoken as a second language by 60 million people in Nigeria. Communication in the English language is much more popular in the country's urban communities than it is in the rural areas, due to colonisation.

Bukuru city in Plateau State, Nigeria

Bukuru is located on the Jos Plateau in Nigeria. It was previously considered a separate city from the city of Jos close by, but like every other form of urbanization, the city of Jos has merged with the town of Bukuru to form the Jos-Bukuru metropolis. It is the headquarters of Jos South Local Government Area.

Nigerians Nigerian people

Nigerians or the Nigerian people are citizens of Nigeria or people with ancestry from Nigeria. Nigeria is composed of multiple ethnic groups and cultures and the term Nigerian refers to a citizenship-based civic nationality. Nigerians derive from over 250 ethnic groups and languages. Though there are multiple ethnic groups in Nigeria, economic factors result in significant mobility of Nigerians of multiple ethnic and religious backgrounds to reside in territories in Nigeria that are outside their ethnic or religious background, resulting in the intermixing of the various ethnic and religious groups, especially in Nigeria's cities. The English language is the lingua franca of Nigerians. About 50 percent of Nigerians are Christians and the other 50 percent are Muslims.

Anti-Igbo sentiment refers to the existence of hostility against Igbo people, or their culture.

2010 Jos riots

The 2010 Jos riots were clashes between Muslim and Christian ethnic groups in central Nigeria in and near the city of Jos. Jos is the capital of Plateau State, in the middle of the divide between the predominantly Muslim north of Nigeria and the predominantly Christian south. Since 2001, the area has been plagued by violence motivated by multiple factors. The clashes have been characterised as "religious violence" by many news sources, although others cite ethnic and economic differences as the root of the violence.

Brigadier General (retired) Mohammed Mana was appointed Administrator of Plateau State between December 1993 and August 1996 during the military regime of General Sani Abacha. He was elected Senator for Adamawa North in 2007 on the People's Democratic Party (PDP) platform.

The 1966 Nigerian coup d'état began on 15 January 1966, when mutinous Nigerian soldiers led by Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu and Emmanuel Ifeajuna killed 22 people including the Prime Minister of Nigeria, many senior politicians, many senior Army officers, and sentinels on protective duty. The coup plotters attacked the cities of Kaduna, Ibadan, and Lagos while also blockading the Niger and Benue River within a two-day span of time before the coup plotters were subdued. The General Officer Commanding, of the Nigerian Army, Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi then used the coup as a pretext to annex power, ending Nigeria's nascent democracy. It was one of the events that led to the Nigerian Civil War.

Communal conflicts in Nigeria

Communal conflicts in Nigeria can be divided into two broad categories:

The Jos Forum Inter-communal Dialogue Process refers to a peace process undertaken by communities living in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

References

  1. 1 2 "FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA : 2006 Population Census" (PDF). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  2. History of Jos and political development of Nigeria; Sen Luka Gwom Zangabadt
  3. Billy J. Dudley. Parties and politics in Northern Nigeria
  4. Samuel N Nwabara; The Fulani conquest and the rule of the Hausa kingdom of Northern Nigeria (1804–1900)[ page needed ]
  5. "Petition Online - Petition Online has been retired" . Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  6. Krause, Jana (2011). "A Deadly Cycle of Ethno-religious violence" (PDF). Working Paper. Geneva Declaration: 13. ISBN   978-2-9700771-0-7 . Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  7. Higazi, Adam (January 2011). "The Jos Crisis: A Recurrent Nigerian Tragedy" (PDF). Working Paper. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (2): 17–18. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  8. Tattersall, Nick (2011-01-30). Fullerton, Elizabeth, ed. "Buildings burn, death toll mounts in central Nigeria". Reuters Africa. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
  9. Onimisi, Alao (2014-12-12). "Plateau communities make commitment to peace". Daily Trust . Retrieved 2015-11-05.
  10. "Jos, Nigeria: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Jos, Nigeria: Climate-charts.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  11. "Publications" (PDF). Iahs.info. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  12. 1 2 "Climate: Jos - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2013-11-26.
  13. "Jos Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  14. Man, Vol. 52, Jul., 1952 (Jul., 1952), pp. 107-108 via Jstor
  15. "History The College". ANAN. Archived from the original on 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2011-06-11.