|José Antonio Laureano de Zubiría y Escalante|
|Appointed||28 February 1831|
|Installed||2 October 1831|
|Term ended||28 November 1863|
|Predecessor||Juan Francisco Castañiza Larrea y Gonzalez de Agüero|
|Successor||José Vicente Salinas e Infanzón|
|Born||4 July 1791|
|Died||November 28, 1863 72)(aged|
|Nationality||Spanish, then Mexican|
José Antonio Laureano de Zubiría y Escalante (4 July 1791 - 28 November 1863) was Bishop of Durango in Mexico from 28 August 1831 until his death.He was a supporter of the Centralist Republic of Mexico, and was strongly opposed to the United States, which took control of the northern part of his diocese in 1846, due to its tolerance of faiths other than Catholicism.
The Centralist Republic of Mexico, or in the anglophone scholarship, the Central Republic, was officially the Mexican Republic. It was a unitary political regime established in Mexico on October 23, 1835, under a new constitution known as the Seven Laws after the repeal of the federalist Constitution of 1824. Mexican conservatives attributed the political chaos of the federal era to the empowerment of states over the federal government, participation of non-elite men in the political system through universal male suffrage, rebellions, and economic stagnation to the weakness of the federal government. Conservative elites saw the solution to the problem as abolishing the federal system and creating a centralized one, reminiscent of the colonial era. Federalism had given a range of powers to Mexican states, their legislatures and municipalities. It was favored by the states outside the center of Mexico. Those favoring a centralized state were the conservative urban elites. Mexican conservatives saw federalism as a failure and Mexico not prepared for such a system. They considered the ideal form of government as a centralized, administrative republic, with the states losing power to the central government. Conservatives with the support of the Mexican army created the Central Republic, which lasted eleven years, 1835–46. The unitary regime was formally established on December 30, 1836, with the enactment of the Siete Leyes. However, the Seven Laws proved unworkable and were abandoned four and a half years later, and replaced by a military dictatorship under Antonio López de Santa Anna. On August 22, 1846, acting President José Mariano Salas issued the decree that restored the Constitution of 1824 and, with this, the return to federalism.
José Antonio Laureano de Zubiría y Escalante was born on 4 July 1791. He was ordained around 1817. Zubiría taught at the seminary of Durango, and many of his pupils went on to become secular priests in New Mexico, including padre Antonio José Martinez of Taos, Manuel Gallegos of Albuquerque and vicar Juan Felipe Ortiz of Santa Fe. Secular priests differ from ordained priests in that they do not belong to religious orders. On 19 October 1830 he was appointed Titular Bishop of Daulia. He was appointed Bishop of Durango on 28 February 1831, ordained on 28 Aug 1831 and installed on 2 October 1831.
Bishop Zubiría was well known for his hostility to the United States (no wonder: the US had stolen about half of Mexico's territory). He may have passed on some of his views to Ramón Ortiz y Miera, who came to study under him in Durango in 1832, and later was repatriate commissioner after the Mexican-American War.Bishop Zuberia opposed the growing influence of the invading United States in the north of his diocese.
Ramón Ortiz y Miera was a Mexican priest who helped organize armed resistance during the Mexican–American War of 1846 to 1848, and who was frustrated by the U.S. authorities in his efforts to repatriate Hispanic residents from New Mexico to the republic of Mexico after the war.
Bishop Zubiria first visited New Mexico, an area that is now the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santa Fe, in the summer of 1833, travelling with a chaplain, a secretary and a guard. He was the first bishop to have visited the region for seventy two years. His visit to all parts of the territory was made with great ceremony, with the bishop dressed in his full regalia.A (Protestant) observer said of his visit to Santa Fe,
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America; its capital and cultural center is Santa Fe, which was founded in 1610 as capital of Nuevo México, while its largest city is Albuquerque with its accompanying metropolitan area. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and Arizona; its other neighboring states are Oklahoma to the northeast, Texas to the east-southeast, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua to the south and Sonora to the southwest. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi (314,920 km2), it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations, northern and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santa Fe is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the southwestern region of the United States in the state of New Mexico. While the mother church, the Cathedral Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, is in the city of Santa Fe, its administrative center is in the city of Albuquerque. The Diocese comprises the counties of Rio Arriba, Taos, Colfax, Union, Mora, Harding, Los Alamos, Sandoval, Santa Fe, San Miguel, Quay, Bernalillo, Valencia, Socorro, Torrance, Guadalupe, De Baca, Roosevelt, and Curry. The current archbishop is John Charles Wester, who was installed on June 4, 2015. The Archdiocese announced it would file for bankruptcy protection on November 29, 2018.
...the streets were swept, the roads and bridges on the route repaired and decorated; and from every window in the city there hung such a profusion of fancy curtains and rich cloths that the imagination was carried back to those glowing descriptions of enchanted worlds which one reads of in the fables of necromancers.
When he visited San Miguel del Vado during this trip he found that the church was in very poor physical condition, and the finances were totally confused. His secretary noted that "With much grief and sorrow, he has observed that this parish church lacks even the most essential things for the celebration of the divine mysteries."In Taos he said of the local images and saints that "they are so deformed that they are not suitable for heavenly adoration." In Santa Cruz de la Cañada he spoke out strongly against the Penitente brotherhood for their excesses, and said they were illegal.
Los Hermanos de la Fraternidad Piadosa de Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, also known as Los Penitentes, Los Hermanos, the Brotherhood of our Father Jesus of Nazareth and the Penitente Brotherhood) is a lay confraternity of Spanish-American Roman Catholic men active in Northern and Central New Mexico and southern Colorado. They maintain religious meeting buildings, which are not formal churches, called moradas.
He urged the priests to make greater efforts to baptize Pueblo children, and to bring the Pueblos into the church.He found that the Pueblo Indians had made their own version of the Catholic faith in which Jesus Christ was just one god among several, and the purpose of the Christmas and Holy week ceremonies was in part to ensure good harvests. The Bishop concluded that only the children of the Pueblos would reach salvation.
Bishop Zubiria was a supporter of centralism in the Mexican Republic, and in 1833 for a period was forced to go into hiding from opponents of this movement. In September 1834 he wrote to Colonel Blas de Hinojos, the military commander of New Mexico, praising him for his decision to support the centralist Plan of Cuernavaca. When there was a rebellion against governor Albino Pérez of New Mexico in 1837, he instructed all the priests to make every effort to support the established order.
Bishop Zubiría visited New Mexico again in 1845. 1,500 miles (2,400 km) from Durango. Lamy entered Santa Fe on 9 August 1851, and was welcomed by the Governor of the territory, James S. Calhoun, and many other citizens. However, Juan Felipe Ortiz, who was responsible for administration of the New Mexico church, told Lamy that he and the local clergy remained loyal to Bishop Zubiría, who had visited Santa Fe a few months earlier. Lamy wrote to Bishop Zubiría asking him to explain the change of responsibility to the New Mexico priests, and when his request was unanswered went in person to Durango to meet with Bishop Zubiría, showing him the papal document of his appointment. In light of this, Zubiría had to agree to inform the priests of the change.On 23 July 1850 Pope Pius IX appointed Jean-Baptiste Lamy vicar apostolic for Santa Fe. The idea of establishing a New Mexico vicarate had been proposed as early as 1630 by Fray Alonso Benavides, due to the distance of
Bishop Zubiría visited New Mexico again in 1859.He remained Bishop of Durango until his death on 28 November 1863.
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680—also known as Popé's Rebellion—was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people against the Spanish colonizers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, present day New Mexico. The Pueblo Revolt killed 400 Spanish and drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province.
Death Comes for the Archbishop is a 1927 novel by American author Willa Cather. It concerns the attempts of a Catholic bishop and a priest to establish a diocese in New Mexico Territory.
Jean-Baptiste Lamy, was a French Roman Catholic prelate who served as the first Archbishop of Santa Fe, New Mexico, in the United States. The American writer Willa Cather's novel Death Comes for the Archbishop is based on his life and career.
Martinez Hacienda, also known as Hacienda de los Martinez, is a Taos, New Mexico hacienda built during the Spanish colonial era. It is now a living museum listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is located on the bank of the Rio Pueblo de Taos.
Antonio José Martínez was a New Mexican priest, educator, publisher, rancher, farmer, community leader, and politician. He lived through and influenced three distinct periods of New Mexico's history: the Spanish period, the Mexican period, and the American occupation and subsequent territorial period. Martínez appears as a character in Willa Cather's novel, Death Comes for the Archbishop.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Durango is a Metropolitan Archdiocese in Mexico. Based in the city of Durango, it is responsible for the suffragan dioceses of Gómez Palacio, Mazatlán and Torreón as well as the Territorial Prelature of El Salto.
Félix Martínez de Torrelaguna was acting Governor of New Mexico from 1715 to 1716.
José Manrique was the Governor of New Mexico from 1808 to 1814 during the period just before the Republic of Mexico gained independence from Spain.
José Antonio Vizcarra was a Mexican soldier who served as Governor of New Mexico from 1822 to 1823. While conducting an expedition against the Navajos in 1823, he was to first to record the ruins of Chaco Canyon.
Mariano Martínez de Lejanza was acting Governor of the territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México from 1844 to 1845.
Bartolomé Baca was Governor of the territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México from August 1823 until September 1825. His very large landholdings were later the subject of disputes that eventually went to the Supreme Court of the United States.
Pedro Zambrano Ortiz, O.F.M., was a Spanish Franciscan friar who was guardian of the Mission Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles de Porciúncula de los Pecos in the settlement of Pecos, in the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México of New Spain, from no later than 1619 until the fall of 1621. He then served at Galisteo Pueblo, and was still in charge of the mission in 1632
Francisco Sarracino was the géfe político or governor of New Mexico from 1833 to 1835.
José Mariano Chaves y Castillo was a wealthy Mexican landowner who was the acting governor of New Mexico for a few months during 1844. Chaves County, New Mexico is named after him.
Blas de Hinojos was a military commander of New Mexico who was killed by a force of Navajo warriors led by Narbona in 1835.
Juan de Eulate was a Spanish soldier who served with distinction in the Netherlands, and later was appointed Governor of New Mexico between 1618 and 1625 at a time when it was a province of New Spain. He then became Governor of the Margarita Province, based on Isla Margarita off the coast of what today is Venezuela, from 1630 to 1638 before retiring to Spain.
Gervasio Cruzat y Góngora was Governor of New Mexico between 1731 and 1736 at a time when it was a province of New Spain, as well as governor of Presidio of Pensacola, in Florida, between 1740 and 1742. He assisted the bishop of Durango, taking evidence for him in his contest with the Franciscans.
Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish or Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe is located just west of the Taos Plaza at 205 Don Fernando Street in downtown Taos, New Mexico.