José Carrillo de Albornoz, 1st Duke of Montemar

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The Duke of Montemar
Jose Carrillo de Albornoz, primer duque de Montemar (Museo del Prado).jpg
Oil portrait by Joaquín Serrano, Prado museum.
Viceroy of Sicily
In office
1734–1737
Monarch Charles III
Preceded by Cristoforo Fernández de Cordoba, Count of Sastago, 1728–1734, under Austrian rule
Succeeded by Bartolomeo Corsini, Prince of Gismano, 1737–1747
Personal details
Born8 October 1671
Seville, Spain
Died26 June 1747(1747-06-26) (aged 75)
Madrid, Spain
Spouse(s)Isabel Francisca de Antich y Antich
ChildrenFrancisco Carrillo de Albornoz y Antich, Leonor Carrillo de Albornoz y Antich and María Magdalena Carrillo de Albornoz y Antich

José Carrillo de Albornoz y Montiel, 1st Duke of Montemar, 3rd Count of Montemar (8 October 1671 26 June 1747) [1] was a Spanish nobleman and military leader, who conquered the Two Sicilies, Oran and Mazalquivir. He was a member of the Carrillo family, a Spanish noble house, and was Viceroy of Sicily from 1734 to 1737.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Oran City in Oran Province, Algeria

Oran is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its commercial, industrial, and cultural importance. It is 432 km (268 mi) from Algiers. The total population of the city was 759,645 in 2008, while the metropolitan area has a population of approximately 1,500,000 making it the second largest city in Algeria.

House of Carrillo

The House of Carrillo is a Spanish noble house that traces its origins from the ancient Kingdom of Castile. There are several branches that exist such as Carrillo de Albornoz, Carrillo de Mendoza, Carrillo de Figueroa, Carrillo de Toledo and Carrillo Tablas among others. There are also several variations in spelling of the surname Carrillo such as "Carillo". Records prove that both surnames are one and the same.

Contents

Biography

Carrillo was born in Seville. He married Isabel Francisca de Antich y Antich in 1700 with whom he had three children (Francisco, Leonor & María Magdalena). During the War of the Spanish Succession he aligned with the side of Philip of Anjou and fought as mariscal de campo in the Battle of Villaviciosa (1710) in the cavalry under the Count of Aguilar.

War of the Spanish Succession 18th-century conflict in Europe

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century between dynastic claimants and their respective allies for the throne of Spain: the Habsburg Dynasty, based in Austria, and the Bourbon Dynasty, originating in France. The thirteen-year war was triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700, and eventually evolved into a global conflict due to overseas colonies and allies. The closest heirs to the throne were members of the Austrian Habsburg and French Bourbon families; acquisition of an undivided Spanish Empire by either of these dynasties would have threatened the European balance of power.

Philip V of Spain 18th-century King of Spain

Philip V was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 14 January 1724, and from his reaccession of the throne upon his son's death, 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.

Battle of Villaviciosa battle

The Battle of Villaviciosa was a battle between a Franco-Spanish army led by Louis Joseph, Duke of Vendôme and Philip V of Spain and a Habsburg-allied army commanded by Austrian Guido Starhemberg. The battle took place during the War of the Spanish Succession, one day after a Franco-Spanish victory at Brihuega against the British army under James Stanhope. Both Philip V of Spain and the Archduke Charles of Austria claimed victory, but the number of dead and wounded, the number of artillery and other weapons abandoned by the Allied army and the battle's strategic consequences for the war confirmed victory for Philip.

He also participated in the Spanish campaign in Sardinia and Sicily during the War of the Quadruple Alliance between 1718 and 1720.

Sicily Island in the Mediterranean and region of Italy

Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana.

War of the Quadruple Alliance war (1717–1720) between Spain and the Quadruple Alliance (Britain, France, Austria, the Dutch Republic), resulting in Quadruple Alliance victory and the Treaty of The Hague

The War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718-1720) was caused by Spanish attempts to recover territorial losses agreed by the 1713 Peace of Utrecht. Primarily conducted in Italy, it included minor engagements in the Americas and Northern Europe, as well as the Spanish-backed 1719 Jacobite Rising.

In 1731 he headed the expeditionary force that occupied the Duchy of Parma for its legal heir, Don Carlos, future King Charles III of Spain.

Duchy of Parma former Italian state (1545–1802; 1814–1859)

The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which was conquered by the Papal States in 1512. These territories, centered on the city of Parma, were given as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese.

Charles III of Spain King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788

Charles III was King of Spain (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759). He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, and the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI, who left no heirs.

In 1732 Blas de Lezo led the Spanish navy and Carrillo De Albornoz led the Spanish army in retaking Oran and Mazalquivir from the Turks (which had taken both cities in 1708.

Blas de Lezo Spanish admiral

Admiral Blas de Lezo y Olavarrieta was a Spanish navy officer best remembered for the Battle of Cartagena de Indias (1741) in modern-day Colombia, where Spanish imperial forces under his command decisively defeated a large British invasion fleet under Admiral Edward Vernon.

In 1733 he commanded the Spanish army that fought and defeated the Austrians in Italy during the War of Polish Succession. His greatest victory was the Battle of Bitonto on 25 May 1734. For this victory, the king Philip V of Spain ennobled him as the first Duke of Montemar.

Battle of Bitonto battle

The Battle of Bitonto was a Spanish victory over Austrian forces near Bitonto in the Kingdom of Naples in the War of Polish Succession. The battle ended organized Austrian resistance outside a small number of fortresses in the kingdom.

As a cavalry officer he supported the cavalry charge with the saber in hand against any enemy infantry firing their guns.

He was the first viceroy of Sicily after the Spanish reconquest of the island from 1734 to 1737 and Minister of War from 1737 to 1741.

In 1741 he was appointed as head of the 50,000 men strong expeditionary Spanish army in Italy during the War of Austrian Succession. He would later be replaced at the end of 1742 by Jean Thierry du Mont, comte de Gages.

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References

  1. In full, Spanish : Don José Carrillo de Albornoz y Montiel, tercer conde y primer duque de Montemar, comendador de Moratalla, caballero de la Orden de Santiago, caballero del Toisón de Oro, capitán general de los RREE, coronel de RR Guardias, director general de la caballería de España, general en jefe del Ejército de Orán, ministro de la Guerra del rey Fernando VI)
Government offices
Preceded by
Cristobal Fernández de Cordoba, Count of Sastago, (1728–1734), under Austrian rule
Viceroy of Sicily
1734–1737
Succeeded by
Bartolomeo Corsini, Prince of Gismano, 1737–1747
Spanish nobility
New title Duke of Montemar
1735–1747
Succeeded by
María Magdalena
Carrillo de Albornoz
Preceded by
Francisco
Carrillo de Albornoz
Count of Montemar
1700–1747
Succeeded by
Diego
Carrillo de Albornoz