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Jose Cecilio del Valle
| 3rd President-elect of the Federal Republic of Central America |
(Died before taking office)
|Preceded by||Francisco Morazán|
|Succeeded by||José Gregorio Salazar|
|Foreign Minister of Mexico|
February 22, 1823 –April 2, 1823
|Monarch||Agustín de Iturbide|
|Preceded by||Jose Manuel de Herrera|
|Succeeded by||Lucas Alamán|
|Mayor of Guatemala City|
January 1, 1821 –June 1821
|Succeeded by||Pedro Molina Mazariegos|
|Born||November 22, 1780 March 2, 1834 53) (aged|
|Alma mater||San Carlos University, Guatemala|
|Profession|| Diplomat |
José Cecilio Díaz Del Valle (November 22, 1780 – March 2, 1834) was a philosopher, politician, lawyer, and journalist and one of the most important figures in Central America during the transition from colonial government to independence, displaying a wide-ranging expertise in public administration management.
Valle nicknamed 'The Wise'was also, one of Central America's founding fathers. He used words as his only weapons, and the most amazing fact about his life is that, despite his pacific temperament and lack of military glamor, his efforts did not go unappreciated by the mass of his countrymen.
José Cecilio del Valle was born on November 22, 1780, in the village of Choluteca,located near the Choluteca River. This village belonged to the former province of Tegucigalpa (now Honduras), during the Spanish domination. He was the legitimate son of Jose Antonio del Valle and Mrs. Gertrudis Diaz del Valle. Both members of the most distinguished Spanish families of the Kingdom of Guatemala. who, therefore, have obtained the main political and military jobs. Their wealth consisted mainly of valuable estates of livestock. But that wasn't enough to provide their favorite son with a good education. Tegucigalpa lacked good schools, the only ones available were supported by private donations. Given this situation, Jose Antonio del Valle had to move his family to Guatemala City, where he hoped young Jose would be better formed. Jose Cecilio was only 9 years old when he arrived in Guatemala.
In Guatemala City he attended the University of San Carlos where he earned a bachelor's degree in 1794. Then in 1799 he earned a degree in civil and canonical law and a licentiate degree in law in 1803. His mentor was Father José Antonio Liendo y Goycochea.
In 1821 he was elected mayor of Guatemala City, position he held until June (1821). The same year Central America became independent from Spanish rule. Jose del Valle was the one who wrote the Act of Independence of Central America. Up to this date, there is a controversy in relation to this document because del Valle did not sign it. Most historians however, agreed that he was not supposed to sign such document. In 1822 Central America became part of the short lived Mexican Empire under Agustin de Iturbide.
Valle was elected a 'Guatemalan Representative' before the Mexican Congress. On August 27, 1822. Valle was imprisoned along with other representatives on charges of conspiring against the Mexicans. After months in prison (February 1823), he was released and appointed Foreign Minister for the Mexican Government.The same year Central America gained its independence from Mexico. In January 1824 he returned to Guatemala where was part of the second triumvirate that governed the Provinces of Central America.
In 1825 José del Valle ran for president of the Federal Republic of Central America against Manuel José Arce. Apparently won the election after he obtained more votes. But Congress had a different interpretation. The candidates went to second round and Arce was declared winner. Following his defeat, Valle retired from politics and devoted himself to writing.
In 1830 President Francisco Morazán offered him to be ambassador to France, and or the Vice presidency. He declined both and instead went on to become Director of the Economic Society and Director of San Carlos University's Fine Arts department.
Jeremy Bentham and Valle corresponded. Before his death, Bentham sent a lock of his hair to Valle.
In 1834 he defeated incumbent Francisco Morazán in the general election but never took over the presidency. He died on the road that leads from the farm "La Concepción" to Guatemala City, on March 2, 1834. Where he was supposed to be treated for an illness. The government decreed three days of mourning after his death. His death was marked by national mourning and bells tolling throughout the Republic, as he was one of the few prominent figures respected by Liberals and Conservatives alike.
The Honduran Government awards a medal for distinguished service named "Orden Civil José Cecilio del Valle", and there is a University named after him in Tegucigalpa.
The November 22 is holiday because of his Birthday.
Honduras has featured Valle on its 100 Lempira banknote since 1951.
A later family member of Jose Cecilo was Jorge Del Valle Zamora and was ambassador of Honduras to Mexico in the 20th century.
The Federal Republic of Central America, also called the United Provinces of Central America in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain. It existed from 1823 to 1841, and was a republican democracy.
Comayagua is a city in Honduras, some 80 kilometres northwest of Tegucigalpa on the highway to San Pedro Sula and 594 metres above sea level.
Francisco Morazán was a Central American politician who was president of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1830 to 1839. Before he was president of Central America he was the head of state of Honduras. He rose to prominence at the battle of La Trinidad on November 11, 1827. Morazán then dominated the political and military scene of Central America until his execution in 1842.
General Manuel José Arce y Fagoaga was a decorated General and president of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1825 to 1829, followed by Francisco Morazán.
Choluteca is one of the 18 departments (departamentos) into which Honduras is divided. The departmental capital is city of Choluteca. The Choluteca River runs through the department.
Choluteca is a municipality and the capital city of the Honduran department of the same name. Situated in southern Honduras between El Salvador and Nicaragua, the city is generally considered the regional centre of southern Honduras and is a major transit point on the Pan-American Highway. It has a major bus station and is home to the regional light (ENEE) and water (SANAA) utilities. The city is located on the Choluteca River, near the centre of the department. An arching silver bridge crosses the river into the city.
Diego Vigil Cocaña was a Central American politician. He was the last president of the Federal Republic of Central America (1839–40), during its disintegration. He was also chief of state of the federal states of Honduras (1829) and El Salvador.
José Felipe Mariano Gálvez was a jurist and Liberal politician in Guatemala. For two consecutive terms from August 28, 1831 to March 3, 1838 he was chief of state of the State of Guatemala, within the Federal Republic of Central America.
José Dionisio de la Trinidad de Herrera y Díaz del Valle was a Liberal Honduran politician, head of state of Honduras from 1824 to 1827 and head of state of Nicaragua from 1830 to 1833. During his terms, Honduras and Nicaragua were states within the Federal Republic of Central America. Herrera was an uncle of the Liberal Central American general Francisco Morazán.
Honduras has been inhabited by a number of indigenous peoples, the most powerful of which, until the ninth century CE, were the Maya. The western-central part of Honduras was inhabited by the Lenca while other indigenous peoples settled in the northeast and coastal regions. These peoples had their conflicts but maintained commercial relationships with each other and with other populations as distant as Panama and Mexico.
The Conservative Party was one of the two major political parties in Guatemala during the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The Conservative Party originated in the Serviles political group—consisting primarily of merchants and estate owners—representing a strong central government and a continuation of the colonial-era privileges. The Conservatives sought to preserve the power and privileges of the Catholic Church, as well as several of the existing monopolies—particularly the tobacco monopoly and the consulado. The Conservative Party consolidated much of their power between 1839 - 1871, mostly during the period under President Rafael Carrera.
Juan José de Aycinena y Piñol was an ecclesiastical and intellectual conservative in Central America. He was President of the Pontifical University of San Carlos Borromeo from 1825 to 1829 and then of the Universidad Nacional from 1840 to 1865. He was a thinker criticized by liberal historians for his strong relationship with the conservative government of General Rafael Carrera and for eliminating the possibility of getting the Central American Union which the Liberals wanted. His participation in the government has been assessed more objectively in research conducted between 1980 and 2010. He was heir in 1814 to the noble title of III Marquess of Aycinena, and bishop in partibus of Trajanopolis from 1859. He had a taste for law, oratorical talent and wrote over twenty works.
Ramón Rosa Soto was a prominent lawyer, journalist, politician and liberal writer of the second half of the nineteenth century. He was the ideologue of educational changes of Liberal Reform in Guatemala and then in Honduras. He served as Principal Minister during the rule of his cousin, Dr. Marco Aurelio Soto and was associated with Soto's mining investments.
The Act of Independence of Central America, also known as the Act of Independence of Guatemala, is the legal document by which the Provincial Council of the Province of Guatemala proclaimed the independence of Central America from the Spanish Empire and invited the other provinces of the Captaincy General of Guatemala to send envoys to a congress to decide the form of the region's independence. It was enacted on 15 September 1821.
Mariano de Aycinena y Piñol (1789-1855) was wealthy and influential Guatemalan merchant family and an important conservative politician. A younger son of the first marquis of Aycinena, peninsular-born Juan Fermín de Aycinena (1729-1796), Mariano was a leader of Guatemalan independence from Spain. He served governor of the State of Guatemala in the Central American Federation from 1 March 1827 to 12 April 1829 and patriarch of the Aycinena family. The family had the commercial monopoly in Central American during the Spanish colonial era later year thanks to the Consulado de Comercio. He was one of the signatories of Central American independence and lobbied heavily for the annexation of Central America to the Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide. This arrangement would keep the family's economic position and privileges following independence. After being expelled along with the Aycinena family in 1829 after being defeated by Francisco Morazán, went into exile in the United States and then to Mexico. He came back to Guatemala after the conservatives had allied with general Rafael Carrera; but then he retired from public life and hand the Aycinena family leadership to Juan José de Aycinena y Piñol.
Pompeyo del Valle was a Honduran poet and journalist. De Valle was born in Tegucigalpa, Honduras on October 26, 1928. Son of Carlos del Valle y Soldevilla and Carmen Moncada Rivera, he was born and raised at his maternal grandmother’s house in the neighborhood La Ronda, close to the Metropolitan Cathedral and the City Hall. Del Valle made his debut as a journalist in the pages of political newspapers such as, El chilío, Worker’s Voice, Alliance of Democratic Youth, among others. After many adventures and misadventures, Del Valle became involved with the drafting of two major national newspapers at the time, El Cronista and El Día. He became Director of the Journal of the National Autonomous University of Honduras.
General elections were held in the Federal Republic of Central America in 1825 to elect the President of Central America as the 1824 Central America Constitution established. The liberal-dominated Congress called upon the election which was held in all five member states; Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. The two main parties were the Liberals and the Conservatives.
Francisco Morazán’s first four-year term ended in 1834 and new elections for President of the Federal Republic of Central America were held that year. Morazán become very unpopular among the liberal elites that were his main supporters when he change the federal capital from Guatemala to El Salvador, so this time moderate conservative leader José Cecilio del Valle won the election undisputedly. Unfortunately, Valle died before taking the oath while traveling between Honduras and Guatemala, so new elections were call for February of the next year.
Early presidential elections were held in the Federal Republic of Central America on 2 February 1835 following the unexpected death of president-elect José Cecilio del Valle during a journey from his native Honduras and the Federation's capital in Guatemala to take the oath. Valle had been elected in June 1834 and was due to take office in 1835.
The First Central American Civil War was a civil political and military conflict within the Federal Republic of Central America which lasted from 1826 until 1829. The civil war was fought between Liberal and Conservative lines with Francisco Morazán leading the Liberals and Manuel José Arce, a former Liberal, leading the Conservatives.
En Guatemala había aparecido Valle, un hombre de vastas concepciones, amigo de Jeremías Bentham, con quien se carteaba muy á menudo y quien le envió poco antes de morir un mechón de sus cabellos y un anillo de oro, brillante como el estilo de José Cecilio.
We can safely assume that [Guatemalan philosopher and politician] José del Valle received one, as he is featured wearing it in a portrait," Causer said. "Interestingly, on the bookshelf of that portrait is one of Bentham’s works, as well as a Spanish translation of Say’s 'Traité d’économie politique.' It’s a neat, tangible link between Bentham, Say and del Valle.
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| President of Central America |
Manuel José Arce