José María Velasco Ibarra
|24th President of Ecuador|
September 1, 1968 –February 15, 1972
|Vice President||Jorge Zavala Baquerizo|
|Preceded by||Otto Arosemena Gómez|
|Succeeded by||Guillermo Rodríguez Lara|
September 1, 1960 –November 7, 1961
|Vice President||Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy|
|Preceded by||Camilo Ponce Enríquez|
|Succeeded by||Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy|
September 1, 1952 –August 31, 1956
|Vice President||Alfredo Chiriboga|
|Preceded by||Galo Plaza Lasso|
|Succeeded by||Camilo Ponce Enríquez|
August 11, 1946 –August 23, 1947
|Vice President||Mariano Suárez Veintimilla|
|Succeeded by||Carlos Mancheno Cajas|
June 1, 1944 –August 11, 1946
|Preceded by||Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Río|
September 1, 1934 –August 21, 1935
|Preceded by||Abelardo Montalvo|
|Succeeded by||Antonio Pons|
José María Velasco Ibarra
March 19, 1893
|Died||March 30, 1979 86) (aged|
Corina del Parral
(m. 1938;died 1979)
|Alma mater||Central University of Ecuador|
José María Velasco Ibarra (March 19, 1893 – March 30, 1979)was an Ecuadorian politician. He became president of Ecuador five times, in 1934–1935, 1944–1947, 1952–1956, 1960–1961, and 1968–1972, and only in 1952–1956 did he complete a full term. In his four other terms he was removed by military force, and several times he was installed as president through a military coup.
Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) west of the mainland. The capital city is Quito and the largest city as well.
The President of Ecuador officially called the President of the Republic of Ecuador serves as both the head of state and head of government of Ecuador, is the highest political office in the country as the head of the executive branch of government. As per the current Constitution, the President can serve two four-year terms. Prior to that, the president could only serve one four-year term.
Velasco Ibarra was born on March 19, 1893 in Quito. His parents were Delia Ibarra and Alejandrino Velasco, a civil engineer. His father was a political activist in the conservative party during the dictatorship installed by the liberal revolution. He was home schooled by his mother. His father died when he was 16. He attended high school at Colegio San Gabriel and obtained a JD (Doctorate in Jurisprudence) from the Central University of Ecuador. As an author he published several books, including Conciencia y Barbarie , and was also a columnist for El Comercio .
The Juris Doctor degree, also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, Canada, the United States, and some other common law countries. It has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, and a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada.
The Central University of Ecuador is a national university located in Quito, Ecuador and is the oldest and largest university in Ecuador, and one of the oldest in the Americas. The enrollment at Central University of Ecuador is over 10,000 students per year.
El Comercio is a daily Ecuadorian newspaper in Quito. It covers news from inside and outside the country, although its focus is primarily on the former, especially on Quito, Guayaquil and occasionally Cuenca. It competes against El Universo for the largest print distribution in Ecuador.
His first public post was in Quito's Municipal Government, where he supervised works and visited communities. His political career began when he was named a Deputy of the Republic. He was elected as Vice President of the Chamber of Deputies and several days later, President of the Chamber.
In 1933, he stood in the Ecuadorian presidential election and received 80% of the votes cast, the highest in Ecuadorian history. Velasco Ibarra traveled through several Latin American countries, including Peru, and restored Ecuador's global image. His first presidency began on September 1, 1934, but he was ousted in August 1935 by the military. He went into exile in Colombia, where he worked in the Santander School in Sevilla, which was named the best school in Colombia. Later, he traveled to Buenos Aires, where he worked as a university professor.
He stood again in the 1940 election and was defeated by the Radical Liberal Party candidate Carlos Arroyo del Río by a small margin. Arroyo del Río lacked Velasco Ibarra's popularity and public support, which indicated that there had been a fraud. Velasco Ibarra plotted a coup d'état with pilots from the Salinas Air Force base. Before executing his plan, he was detained and exiled again.
The Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party was a liberal party in Ecuador and is one of the oldest existing political parties in Ecuador.
1944 was an especially acute crisis, following the defeat of Ecuador in a war with Peru. There was a bitter rivalry between the conservative regular army and the more radical national police (the 'carabineros'). High inflation had soured the people. Velasco Ibarra build his coalition using the rhetoric of moral reform, calling for the virtuous common people to rise against the corrupt and selfish oligarchy. Velasco presented himself as the embodiment of positive moral qualities, appealing to both Left and Right without presenting any precise political program. Thanks to the May 28 "Glorious Revolution", he was named Supreme Chief of the Republic and was later named Constitutional President by the Constituent Assembly. In August 1947, he was again deposed by the military. Three defense ministers perpetuated the coup against Velasco Ibarra; among them was minister Mancheno, who later was his successor.
In 1952, he again won the presidential election, and began his third term as president on September 1, 1952. This time, he served his entire term, which ended on August 31, 1956. His third term was a time of progress for Ecuador: 311 schools were constructed, with another 104 in progress. More than 1359 km of roads were constructed, and 1057 km more were improved.
Velasco Ibarra was a noted orator: in his political campaigns from town to town, he captivated people with eloquence, becoming a leader of the masses. Velasco Ibarra once said, "Give me a balcony and I will become president."
In 1960, he was elected president for the fourth time and was removed on November 7, 1961. In 1960, he nullified the Rio de Janeiro Protocol, which led to conflicts between Ecuador and Peru, including Paquisha in 1981 and the War of El Cenepa in 1995.
Finally, in 1968, Velasco Ibarra won the presidency for a fifth time. This government ended abruptly on February 15, 1972, when once more he was deposed in a bloodless coup, which brought General Guillermo Rodríguez Lara to power. In total, Velasco Ibarra governed nearly 13 years, making him the longest-serving president in Ecuadorian history (although Rafael Correa's decade-long presidency from 2007 until 2017 is the longest continuous presidency). The events surrounding the end of his fifth and last presidency are dealt with in Philip Agee's book Inside the Company: A CIA Diary.
Ibarra was a fiery populist who did not have a formal party organization. Rather it was his populist rhetoric that attracted enthusiastic followers, as he presented himself as the advocate of the poor and downtrodden. In office he was not responsible for major reforms, but he used patronage effectively to maintain his largely inefficient and corrupt administrations.
There is debate about whether his rule can correctly be labelled as populist. Following Agustin Cueva, several authors have argued that in the midst of a hegemonic crisis Velasco rose to power on the votes of the coastal sub-proletariat, peasants who had migrated to urban centres as the cacao industry dwindled. The charismatic figure of Velasco, according to this view, emotionally captured the masses with promises of redemption. Others, among them Rafael Quintero, argue that the entrenched landowning elite was instrumental for Velasco's victory (at least in the 1930s), as the Coastal elite had been weakened by the end of the cacao boom.
Velasco Ibarra always had a special preoccupation with infrastructure. Many public works, including roads, hospitals, and bridges, were constructed during Velasco Ibarra's presidencies. He was the initiator of institutions such as the Supreme Electoral Tribunalián and Guamote. He decreed the law of weekly days off for workers, ordered the construction of irrigation canals, educational infrastructure, aircraft fields, and highways.
Velasco Ibarra's wife, Corina Parral de Velasco Ibarra died in Buenos Aires after falling from a bus. This precipitated the death of Velasco Ibarra, who said on his return to Ecuador, "I come to meditate and to die." He died in Quito, on March 30, 1979.
The History of Ecuador extends over an 8,000-year period. During this time a variety of cultures and territories influenced what has become the Republic of Ecuador. The history can be divided into five eras: Pre-Columbian, the Conquest, the Colonial Period, the War of Independence, Gran Colombia, and Simón Bolívar the final separation of his vision into what is known today as the Republic of Ecuador.
Lucio Edwin Gutiérrez Borbúa served as 43rd President of Ecuador from January 15, 2003 to April 20, 2005.
Sixto Alfonso Durán-Ballén Cordovez was an Ecuadorian political figure and architect. He served as Mayor of Quito between 1970 and 1978. In 1951, he founded a political party, the Social Christian Party. In 1991, he left the Social Christian Party and joined and formed a new conservative group, the Republican Union Party (PUR), before running for president for the third time in 1992.
Galo Lincoln Plaza Lasso de la Vega was an Ecuadorian statesman who served as President of Ecuador from 1948 to 1952 and Secretary General of the Organization of American States from 1968 to 1975. He is the son of former Ecuadorian President Leonidas Plaza.
The Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, known locally as the War of '41, was a South American border war fought between 5–31 July 1941. It was the first of three military conflicts between Ecuador and Peru during the 20th century. During the war, Peru occupied the western Ecuadorian province of El Oro and parts of the Andean province of Loja. Although the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War occurred during World War II, it was not part of the conflict; Ecuador and Peru were neither affiliated with nor supported by the Allies or the Axis.
Abelardo Montalvo Alvear was the acting President of Ecuador from October 1933 to August 1934.
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The Ecuadorian Roldosist Party was a populist political party in Ecuador. The party was named after former President Jaime Roldós. It was founded after Roldós' death by his brother-in-law Abdalá Bucaram as a more leftish spin-off from the Concentration of People's Forces. Bucaram was elected President in 1996 but was impeached the following year. Though Jaime Roldós's brother León Roldós is still very involved in Ecuadorian politics, he is not a member of the Roldosist Party.
Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco — born Alfredo Pareja y Díez Canseco — was a prominent Ecuadorian novelist, essayist, journalist, historian and diplomat. An innovator of the 20th-century Latin American novel, he was a founding member of the literary Grupo de Guayaquil. The government of President Jaime Roldós Aguilera (1979–81) appointed him Chancellor of the Republic and he served as Foreign Minister of Ecuador (1979–80) and Ambassador to France (1983–84).
Aníbal Villacís was a master painter from Ecuador who used raw earthen materials such as clay and natural pigments to paint on walls and doors throughout his city when he could not afford expensive artist materials. As a teenager, Villacís taught himself drawing and composition by studying and recreating the illustrated ad posters for bullfights in Quito. In 1952, Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra, former President of Ecuador, discovered Villacís and offered him a scholarship to study in Paris.
Juan Fernando Velasco is an Ecuadorian musician.
Lebanese Ecuadorians are Ecuadorians who are descended from migrants from Lebanon. There are approximately 98,000 Lebanese people and their descendants living in Ecuador.
This is a summary of the history of Ecuador from 1925 – 1944.
This is a summary of the history of Ecuador from 1944–1960.
This article is about the history of Ecuador from 1990 to the present.
The 2000 Ecuadorian coup d'état took place on 21 January 2000 and resulted in President Jamil Mahuad being deposed, and replaced by Vice President Gustavo Noboa. The coup coalition brought together a short-lived junta composed by the country's most powerful indigenous group, Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE), and a group of junior military officers led by Lieutenant Colonel Lucio Gutiérrez.
Mudde and Kaltwasser noted that Latin America has the world's "most enduring and prevalent populist tradition". They suggested that this was the case because it was a region with a long tradition of democratic governance and free elections, but with high rates of socio-economic inequality, generating widespread resentments that politicians can articulate through populism.
The Presidential Escort Group "Granaderos de Tarqui is the President of Ecuador's honour guard service regiment, which protects the Carondelet Palace in Quito. Granaderos de Tarqui, means Grenadiers of Tarqui in Spanish.
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