José Mariano Salas
|16th President of Mexico|
5 August 1846 –23 December 1846
|Preceded by||Nicolás Bravo|
|Succeeded by||Valentín Gómez Farías|
|Provisional President of Mexico |
by the Plan of Tacubaya
21 January 1859 –2 February 1859
|Preceded by||Manuel Robles Pezuela|
|Succeeded by||Miguel Miramón|
|Member of the Regency|
of the Second Mexican Empire
11 July 1863 –10 April 1864
|Monarch||Maximilian I of Mexico|
|Succeeded by||Maximilian I of Mexico|
|Born||11 May 1797|
Mexico City, Mexico
|Died||24 December 1867 70) (aged|
Mexico City, Mexico
José Mariano de Salas (11 May 1797 – 24 December 1867) was a Mexican general and politician who served twice as interim president of Mexico (1846 and 1859). He was also a member of the executive triumvirate of the Second Mexican Empire that invited Maximilian of Habsburg to take the throne.
Salas entered the military in 1813 as an infantry cadet in the Regimiento de Infantes de Puebla, a Spanish royalist regiment. His first actions were against the insurgents in the Mexican War of Independence. He was with Antonio López de Santa Anna at the capture of Xalapa, Veracruz. In 1821 he accepted the Plan de Iguala for Mexican independence.
He was a defender of the government of President Guadalupe Victoria at the time of the revolt of Plan de Montaño in 1827. He fought in Tampico against the invasion of the Spaniard Isidro Barradas in 1829. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1832. He commanded one of the columns in the assault on the Alamo, and fought in the action at Llano Perdido. He covered the retreat of the Mexican forces to Matamoros.
On 15 July 1840, he took part the suppression of a revolt by soldiers at the National Palace. In 1844, he was exiled for his support of Santa Anna.
On 4 August 1846 from the Ciudadela in Mexico City, he revolted against General Mariano Paredes, who had just temporarily turned over the presidency to Nicolás Bravo to take the field against other rebels. Salas proclaimed the reestablishment of the federalist régime. (Paredes was a centralist.)
Salas was president from 5 August 1846 to 23 December 1846. He immediately re-established the federalist Constitution of 1824 and convoked a new Congress. He worked hard to enlarge the militia and raise money for the upcoming war with the United States. In December he turned over power to Santa Anna (as president) and Valentín Gómez Farías (as vice-president and acting president).
In 1847, Salas was promoted to general of division. As second in command of the Ejército del Norte (Northern Army), he fought the Americans in the Mexican–American War. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Contreras (Padierna) on 20 August 1847. After the peace treaty, he was named military commander and governor of Querétaro.
He served a second term as acting president during the War of the Reform, from 21 January 1859 to 2 February 1859, while awaiting the return of Miguel Miramón. Miramón (and Salas as his substitute) claimed the presidency for the Conservative cause.
As commander of the garrison of Mexico City, on 1 June 1863 he formed part of the Executive Power of the Conservative government in the War of the Reform. This lasted until 21 June 1863, when the Regency of the Second Mexican Empire was formed. Together with General Juan Nepomuceno Almonte and Archbishop Antonio de Labastidahe formed the triumvirate that exercised power during the Regency, under the protection of French arms (21 June 1863 to 12 June 1864). It was the Regency that sent representatives to Maximilian of Habsburg to offer him the imperial throne of Mexico. Maximilian assumed the throne on 12 June 1864. However, Benito Juárez remained as constitutional president throughout this period, and throughout the Empire.
Miguel Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo, known as Miguel Miramón, was a Mexican conservative general and politician. He opposed the liberal Constitution of 1857 and served as President of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president, Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party. He was one the youngest rulers and the first not born during Spanish colonial rule. He served in the imperial army during the French Intervention in Mexico and was executed with Emperor Maximilian and General Tomás Mejía by a republican army firing squad. He remains a controversial figure in Mexico, combining "military skill with political miscalculation."
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The Second Federal Republic of Mexico is the name given to the second attempt to achieve a federalist government in Mexico. Officially called the United Mexican States, a federal republic was implemented again on August 22, 1846 when interim president José Mariano Salas issued a decree restoring the 1824 constitution. Like the Mexican Empire, the First Federal Republic and the Centralist Republic it was a chaotic period, marked by political instability that resulted in several internal conflicts. Mexico's loss of the war with the United States saw half the territory Mexico claimed become part of the United States. Even though Antonio López de Santa Anna played a major role in much of this history, he returned to the presidency yet again, selling northern territory coveted by the United States contiguous to territory it just gained in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The sale of the Mesilla Valley was for many the final straw, and liberals promulgated of the Plan of Ayutla, calling for the overthrow of Santa Anna. Santa Anna went into exile and the liberals set about implementing their vision of Mexico.
Events in the year 1867 in Mexico.
The Centralist Republic of Mexico, or in the anglophone scholarship, the Central Republic, was officially the Mexican Republic. It was a unitary political regime established in Mexico on October 23, 1835, under a new constitution known as the Seven Laws after conservatives repealed of the federalist Constitution of 1824. Mexican conservatives attributed the political chaos of the federal era to the empowerment of states over the federal government, participation of non-elite men in the political system through universal male suffrage, rebellions, and economic stagnation to the weakness of the federal government. Conservative elites saw the solution to the problem as abolishing the federal system and creating a centralized one, reminiscent of the colonial era. Federalism had conferred a range of powers to Mexican states, their legislatures and municipalities. It was favored by the states outside the center of Mexico. Those favoring a centralized state were the conservative urban elites. Mexican conservatives saw federalism as a failure because Mexico was not prepared for such a system. They considered the ideal form of government as a centralized, administrative republic, with the states losing power to the central government. Conservatives with the support of the Mexican army created the Central Republic, which lasted eleven years, 1835–46. The unitary regime was formally established on December 30, 1836, with the enactment of the Siete Leyes. However, the Seven Laws proved unworkable and were abandoned four and a half years later, and replaced by a military dictatorship under General Antonio López de Santa Anna. On August 22, 1846, acting President José Mariano Salas issued the decree that restored the Constitution of 1824 and, with this, the return to federalism.
The Conservative Party was a Mexican political party that sought to preserve the organization and colonial Spanish values, both in government and in society. Although as a party it was founded in 1849, after the defeat of Mexico in the war with the United States, most of the political ideology directly descended from the Jesuits expelled in the 18th century, and the establishment of a Criollism or Hispanism sentiment, which then emerged and were strongly influenced by conservative European thoughts. It also advocated the preservation and supremacy of the Criollos élite culture over those of mestizo or indigenous. It was a party of the élite, established by white landowners and aristocrats. The Conservative Party disappeared in 1867, after the fall of Maximilian I of Mexico.
The Regency of the Mexican Empire was a period of transition in the history of the Mexican monarchy in the absence of the Emperor of Mexico and presided by a president of the same during the First Mexican Empire (1821-1823) and the Second Mexican Empire (1863-1867). The regency is the government of a State during the minor age, absence or incapacity of its legitimate prince.
| President of Mexico |
5 August 1846 – 23 December 1846
Valentín Gómez Farías
Manuel Robles Pezuela
| Provisional President of Mexico |
21 January 1859 – 2 February 1859