José Mariano Salas

Last updated
José Mariano Salas
Photo of Mariano Salas.jpg
16th President of Mexico
In office
5 August 1846 23 December 1846
Preceded by Nicolás Bravo
Succeeded by Valentín Gómez Farías
Provisional President of Mexico
by the Plan of Tacubaya
In office
21 January 1859 2 February 1859
Preceded by Manuel Robles Pezuela
Succeeded by Miguel Miramón
Member of the Regency
of the Second Mexican Empire
In office
11 July 1863 10 April 1864
MonarchMaximilian I of Mexico
Succeeded by Maximilian I of Mexico
Personal details
Born(1797-05-11)11 May 1797
Mexico City, Mexico
Died24 December 1867(1867-12-24) (aged 70)
Mexico City, Mexico
NationalityMexican
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s)Josefa Cardeña
Awards Imperial Order of Our Lady of Guadalupe (Mexico) - ribbon bar.gif Order of Guadalupe

José Mariano de Salas (11 May 1797 24 December 1867) was a Mexican general and politician who served twice as interim president of Mexico (1846 and 1859). He was also a member of the executive triumvirate of the Second Mexican Empire that invited Maximilian of Habsburg to take the throne.

Contents

Biography

Early years

Salas entered the military in 1813 as an infantry cadet in the Regimiento de Infantes de Puebla, a Spanish royalist regiment. His first actions were against the insurgents in the Mexican War of Independence. He was with Antonio López de Santa Anna at the capture of Xalapa, Veracruz. In 1821 he accepted the Plan de Iguala for Mexican independence.

He was a defender of the government of President Guadalupe Victoria at the time of the revolt of Plan de Montaño in 1827. He fought in Tampico against the invasion of the Spaniard Isidro Barradas in 1829. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1832. He commanded one of the columns in the assault on the Alamo, and fought in the action at Llano Perdido. He covered the retreat of the Mexican forces to Matamoros.

On 15 July 1840, he took part the suppression of a revolt by soldiers at the National Palace. In 1844, he was exiled for his support of Santa Anna.

As president

On 4 August 1846 from the Ciudadela in Mexico City, he revolted against General Mariano Paredes, who had just temporarily turned over the presidency to Nicolás Bravo to take the field against other rebels. Salas proclaimed the reestablishment of the federalist régime. (Paredes was a centralist.)

Salas was president from 5 August 1846 to 23 December 1846. He immediately re-established the federalist Constitution of 1824 and convoked a new Congress. He worked hard to enlarge the militia and raise money for the upcoming war with the United States. In December he turned over power to Santa Anna (as president) and Valentín Gómez Farías (as vice-president and acting president).

In 1847, Salas was promoted to general of division. As second in command of the Ejército del Norte (Northern Army), he fought the Americans in the Mexican–American War. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Contreras (Padierna) on 20 August 1847. After the peace treaty, he was named military commander and governor of Querétaro.

The War of the Reform and the Second Empire

He served a second term as acting president during the War of the Reform, from 21 January 1859 to 2 February 1859, while awaiting the return of Miguel Miramón. Miramón (and Salas as his substitute) claimed the presidency for the Conservative cause.

As commander of the garrison of Mexico City, on 1 June 1863 he formed part of the Executive Power of the Conservative government in the War of the Reform. This lasted until 21 June 1863, when the Regency of the Second Mexican Empire was formed. Together with General Juan Nepomuceno Almonte and Archbishop Antonio de Labastida [1] he formed the triumvirate that exercised power during the Regency, under the protection of French arms (21 June 1863 to 12 June 1864). It was the Regency that sent representatives to Maximilian of Habsburg to offer him the imperial throne of Mexico. Maximilian assumed the throne on 12 June 1864. However, Benito Juárez remained as constitutional president throughout this period, and throughout the Empire.

See also

Related Research Articles

Miguel Miramón Mexican politician and general

Miguel Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo, known as Miguel Miramón, was a Mexican conservative general and politician. He opposed the liberal Constitution of 1857 and served as President of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president, Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party. He was one the youngest rulers and the first not born during Spanish colonial rule. He served in the imperial army during the French Intervention in Mexico and was executed with Emperor Maximilian and General Tomás Mejía by a republican army firing squad. He remains a controversial figure in Mexico, combining "military skill with political miscalculation."

Second Mexican Empire 1864–1867 monarchy in Central America

The Mexican Empire or Second Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico under a constitutional hereditary monarchy declared by a Mexican Assembly of Notables in accordance with the interests of the French Empire, during the Second French intervention in Mexico. Napoleon III of France wanted to establish a monarchist ally in the Americas as a restraint upon the growing power of the United States. Chosen as the Mexican emperor was Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. His wife and empress of Mexico was Belgian princess, Charlotte of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Félix María Zuloaga President of Mexico

Félix María Zuloaga Trillo was a Mexican general and a Conservative leader in the War of Reform. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, Zuloaga served as unconstitutional interim conservative president of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party.

Juan Álvarez President of Mexico

Juan Nepomuceno Álvarez Hurtado de Luna, generally known as Juan Álvarez, was a general, long-time caudillo in southern Mexico, and interim president of Mexico for two months in 1855, following the liberals ouster of Antonio López de Santa Anna. Álvarez had risen to power in the Tierra Caliente, in southern Mexico with the support of indigenous peasants whose lands he protected. He fought along with heroes of the insurgency, José María Morelos and Vicente Guerrero in the War of Independence, and went on to fight in all the major wars of his day, from the "Pastry War", to the Mexican–American War, and the War of the Reform to the war against the French Intervention. A liberal reformer, a republican and a federalist, he was the leader of a revolution in support of the Plan de Ayutla in 1854, which led to the deposition of Santa Anna from power and the beginning of the political era in Mexico's history known as the Liberal Reform. According to historian Peter Guardino: "Álvarez was most important as a champion of the incorporation of Mexico's peasant masses into the polity of [Mexico] ... advocating universal male suffrage and municipal autonomy."

Manuel María Lombardini President of Mexico (1853)

Manuel José María Ignacio Lombardini de la Torre was a Mexican general and politician who supported Antonio López de Santa Anna. From 8 February 1853 to 20 April 1853, he served as president of Mexico.

Juan Bautista Ceballos President of Mexico

Juan Bautista Ceballos was interim president of Mexico from 6 January to 8 February 1853. He was a moderate Liberal.

José Joaquín de Herrera President of Mexico

José Joaquín Antonio de Herrera was a moderate Mexican politician who served as president of Mexico three times, and as a general in the Mexican Army during the Mexican–American War of 1846-1848.

Mariano Paredes (President of Mexico) President of Mexico

Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was a Conservative Mexican general and president. He took power via a coup d'état in 1846. He was the president at the start of the Mexican–American War, and was himself overthrown on 28 July 1846. "Strongly proclerical, he believed that a liberal democracy and federal structure were inappropriate for Mexico in its then state of development, and that the country could be governed only by the army in alliance with the educated and affluent elite."

Valentín Canalizo President of Mexico

José Valentín Raimundo Canalizo Bocadillo, known as Valentín Canalizo, was a Mexican President, state governor, city mayor, army general, defense minister and conservative politician. He is as yet the only Mexican President from the city of Monterrey. He was a supporter of a centralist national government, and a confidante of President of Mexico General Antonio López de Santa Anna. Canalizo was President of Mexico two times, for a total of about one year in 1843 and 1844, during the complex Mexican historical times after the one decade-long Mexican War of Independence and before the Mexican–American War. Valentín Canalizo had previously been the Mayor of Mexico City, after being Governor of Puebla state, and years before, Mayor of the city of Cuernavaca.

Manuel Gómez Pedraza Mexican politician

Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez was a Mexican general and president of his country from 1832 to 1833.

Anastasio Bustamante 4th President of Mexico

Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera was a Mexican military general and politician who served as president of Mexico three times. He participated in the Mexican War of Independence initially as a royalist before siding with Agustín de Iturbide and supporting the Plan of Iguala.

Leonardo Márquez Mexican general

Leonardo Márquez Araujo was a conservative Mexican general. He fought against the United States in the Mexican–American War of 1846 to 1848 and was a prominent supporter of conservative General Antonio López de Santa Anna in the revolutionary movement of 1849. After the fall of Santa Anna in the 1854-55 Revolution of Ayutla that brought liberals to power, Márquez supported the conservative government in the Reform War (1858-60) against liberal government of Benito Juárez. With Miguel Miramón, the leading general of the conservatives, Márquez initially found success against the liberal army, but the tide turned in 1860, and the liberals won on the battle field. He was called "The Tiger of Tacubaya", alluding to the Battle of Tacubaya where he ordered executed liberal officers and some medical personnel. Márquez pursued guerrilla warfare in the Sierra Gorda after the defeat of the conservatives on the battlefield; he is blamed for the murders of prominent liberals, Melchor Ocampo and General Leandro Valle.

Gabriel Valencia President of Mexico

Gabriel Valencia (1799–1848) was a Mexican soldier in the early years of the Republic. From December 30, 1845 to January 2, 1846 he served as interim president of Mexico. He was the President of the Chamber of Deputies in 1843.

Pelagio Antonio de Labastida y Dávalos Catholic bishop

Pelagio Antonio de Labastida y Dávalos was a Mexican Roman Catholic prelate, lawyer and doctor of canon law, and politician. He was a member of the imperial regency that invited Maximilian of Austria to accept the throne of Mexico.

José Ignacio Pavón Mexican politician

José Ignacio Pavón was a Mexican lawyer, jurist and politician. From 13 August 1860 to 15 August 1860, he served as unconstitutional interim conservative president of Mexico in opposition to Benito Juárez, the constitutional president.

Second Federal Republic of Mexico 1846-1863 Country of North America

The Second Federal Republic of Mexico is the name given to the second attempt to achieve a federalist government in Mexico. Officially called the United Mexican States, a federal republic was implemented again on August 22, 1846 when interim president José Mariano Salas issued a decree restoring the 1824 constitution. Like the Mexican Empire, the First Federal Republic and the Centralist Republic it was a chaotic period, marked by political instability that resulted in several internal conflicts. Mexico's loss of the war with the United States saw half the territory Mexico claimed become part of the United States. Even though Antonio López de Santa Anna played a major role in much of this history, he returned to the presidency yet again, selling northern territory coveted by the United States contiguous to territory it just gained in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The sale of the Mesilla Valley was for many the final straw, and liberals promulgated of the Plan of Ayutla, calling for the overthrow of Santa Anna. Santa Anna went into exile and the liberals set about implementing their vision of Mexico.

Events in the year 1867 in Mexico.

Centralist Republic of Mexico unitary political regime established in Mexico in 1835

The Centralist Republic of Mexico, or in the anglophone scholarship, the Central Republic, was officially the Mexican Republic. It was a unitary political regime established in Mexico on October 23, 1835, under a new constitution known as the Seven Laws after conservatives repealed of the federalist Constitution of 1824. Mexican conservatives attributed the political chaos of the federal era to the empowerment of states over the federal government, participation of non-elite men in the political system through universal male suffrage, rebellions, and economic stagnation to the weakness of the federal government. Conservative elites saw the solution to the problem as abolishing the federal system and creating a centralized one, reminiscent of the colonial era. Federalism had conferred a range of powers to Mexican states, their legislatures and municipalities. It was favored by the states outside the center of Mexico. Those favoring a centralized state were the conservative urban elites. Mexican conservatives saw federalism as a failure because Mexico was not prepared for such a system. They considered the ideal form of government as a centralized, administrative republic, with the states losing power to the central government. Conservatives with the support of the Mexican army created the Central Republic, which lasted eleven years, 1835–46. The unitary regime was formally established on December 30, 1836, with the enactment of the Siete Leyes. However, the Seven Laws proved unworkable and were abandoned four and a half years later, and replaced by a military dictatorship under General Antonio López de Santa Anna. On August 22, 1846, acting President José Mariano Salas issued the decree that restored the Constitution of 1824 and, with this, the return to federalism.

The Conservative Party was a Mexican political party that sought to preserve the organization and colonial Spanish values, both in government and in society. Although as a party it was founded in 1849, after the defeat of Mexico in the war with the United States, most of the political ideology directly descended from the Jesuits expelled in the 18th century, and the establishment of a Criollism or Hispanism sentiment, which then emerged and were strongly influenced by conservative European thoughts. It also advocated the preservation and supremacy of the Criollos élite culture over those of mestizo or indigenous. It was a party of the élite, established by white landowners and aristocrats. The Conservative Party disappeared in 1867, after the fall of Maximilian I of Mexico.

Regency of the Mexican Empire Mexican Empire - Regency Period

The Regency of the Mexican Empire was a period of transition in the history of the Mexican monarchy in the absence of the Emperor of Mexico and presided by a president of the same during the First Mexican Empire (1821-1823) and the Second Mexican Empire (1863-1867). The regency is the government of a State during the minor age, absence or incapacity of its legitimate prince.

References

Footnotes

  1. Juan Bautista Ormaechea replaced Labastida on the council after the latter was removed on 17 November 1863.
Political offices
Preceded by
Nicolás Bravo
President of Mexico
5 August 1846 – 23 December 1846
Succeeded by
Valentín Gómez Farías
Preceded by
Manuel Robles Pezuela
Provisional President of Mexico
21 January 1859 – 2 February 1859
Succeeded by
Miguel Miramón