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The Baron of Rio Branco
The Baron of Rio Branco in 1898
|Minister of External Relations|
3 November 1902 –10 February 1912
|President|| Rodrigues Alves |
Hermes da Fonseca
|Preceded by||Olinto de Magalhães|
|Succeeded by||Lauro Müller|
|2nd Academic of the 34th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters|
1 October 1898 –10 February 1912
|Preceded by||Pereira da Silva|
|Succeeded by||Lauro Müller|
|Born||José Maria da Silva Paranhos Júnior |
20 April 1845
Rio de Janeiro, Empire of Brazil
|Died||10 February 1912 66) (aged|
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
|Political party|| Conservative Party (until 1889)|
Independent (from 1889)
|Spouse(s)||Marie Philomène Stevens|
|Father||José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco|
|Alma mater||Faculty of Law of Recife|
José Maria da Silva Paranhos Jr., Baron of Rio Branco (in Portuguese: Barão do Rio Branco) (April 20, 1845 – February 10, 1912) was a Brazilian diplomat, geographer, historian, monarchist, politician and professor, considered to be the "father of Brazilian diplomacy". He was the son of statesman José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco. The Baron of Rio Branco was a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, occupying its 34th chair from 1898 until his death in 1912. As a representative of Brazil, through his diplomacy, he managed to peacefully resolve all Brazil's border disputes with its South American neighbours
José Paranhos Júnior was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1845, as son of José Maria da Silva Paranhos Sr, Viscount of Rio Branco, future Prime Minister of Brazil and famous statesman and his wife, Teresa de Figueiredo Faria. He began his work in the letters in 1863, in the pages of the Popular magazine, with a biography on Luís Barroso Pereira, commander of the frigate Imperatriz. Later, in 1866, in the magazine L'Illustration, he drew and wrote about the Paraguayan War, defending the point of view of Brazil. In 1868, he replaced for three months Joaquim Manuel de Macedo as lecturer of Chorography and History of Brazil, in Colégio Pedro II.
He began his political career as a promoter and deputy, still in the Empire. In 1871 he was editor in the newspaper A Nação, having collaborated, from 1891, in Jornal do Brasil .
He became Consul General in Liverpool from 1876, was accredited minister in Germany in 1900, taking over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 3 December 1902 until his death in 1912. He held the position throughout the term of four presidents of the republic - the governments of Rodrigues Alves, Afonso Pena, Nilo Peçanha and Hermes da Fonseca - forming a national unanimity in their time.
He received the title of Baron of Rio Branco on the eve of the end of the imperial period, but continued to use the title in his signature even after the proclamation of the republic in 1889. This was due to being a convinced monarchist and to honor his late father, the senator and diplomat José Maria da Silva Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco.
In 1889, Emperor Pedro II of Brazil granted him the Brazilian nobility title Baron of Rio Branco (Barão do Rio Branco), a few days before the Proclamation of the Republic. Rio Branco continued to use the title throughout his life, despite governmental prohibition, because of his monarchist beliefs [ citation needed ]. Being a monarchist, however, was no impediment for his success as a diplomat: the Baron of Rio Branco reached the heights of his career during the Republic, when he acted as Minister of Foreign Affairs for 10 years and settled all of Brazil's remaining border disputes by peaceful means.
Suffering from kidney problems, he resigned his post, which was denied by President Hermes da Fonseca. In his last moments of life, he lamented the bombing of the capital of Bahia, Salvador, motivated by a political crisis and occurred on 10 January 1912.
His death, during the carnival of 1912, altered the calendar of the popular feast that year, given the official mourning and the intense tributes that honored him in the city of Rio de Janeiro. His body was buried in the grave of his father, in the Caju Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro.
Rio Branco is considered the patron of Brazilian diplomacy.
Rio Branco began his political career as a congressman in the House of Commons. From 1876 on, he was the Brazilian Consul General in Liverpool, England. He was also the Brazilian Ambassador in Berlin in the beginning of the 20th century.
Rio Branco's most important legacy to Brazil was his successful effort, as Minister of Foreign Affairs, in defining the country's borders with all of its neighbours. He was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1902 and retained office until 1912, under four different Presidents, a feat unequalled in Brazilian history.
Before and during his term, he negotiated territorial disputes between Brazil and some of its neighbours and consolidated the borders of modern Brazil. He is considered one of the most prominent Brazilian statesmen ever, as his proverbial work capacity, knowledge and skills were essential for the successful outcome of difficult boundary disputes, some of which submitted to international arbitration – such as with Argentina and France –, as well as for incorporating new territory (the state of Acre, originally Bolivian).
As a mediator he negotiated and settled disputes between the United States and many European countries. On those occasions, he never abandoned his belief in diplomacy as the means to handle international matters, thus helping establish Brazil's reputation as a peace-loving nation.
Rio Branco obtained a victory over France on the border of Amapá with French Guiana, cause won by Brazil in 1900 in an arbitration of the Swiss government. The border was defined in the river Oiapoque.
In 1903 Rio Branco signed the Treaty of Petrópolis with Bolivia, putting an end to the dispute involving the present Brazilian state of Acre. The region was settled mostly by native Brazilians, but the Bolivian government had come close to leasing this rubber-rich area to American private entrepreneurs. Today, the state's capital bears the name Rio Branco in his honor.
The representative of Brazil, Don José Maria da Silva Paranhos, who was Baron of Rio Branco met the representative of Ecuador, Dr. Carlos R. Tobar, in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, to peacefully discuss a final border between their countries. On May 6, 1904, an agreement was reached and the two representatives signed the Tobar-Rio Branco Treaty, in which Ecuador renounced its claims to the disputed area between the Caquetá River and the Amazon river in favour of Brazil, in return Brazil recognized Ecuador as its neighbour. The border would be a straight line that starts midpoint between the cities of Tabatinga, Brazil and Leticia, Colombia, on the Amazon River and runs north until it reaches the Caquetá River, also known as the Japurá River.
Rio Branco has negotiated with Uruguay the condominium on the Rio Jaguarão and Lagoon Mirim, essentially a voluntary concession from Brazil to a neighbor who needed those channels. For this reason, he was honored by the government of Uruguay, and his name was given to the old Pueblo Artigas, now the city of Río Branco, in the department of Cerro Largo, near the Brazilian Jaguarão.
The municipality of Paranhos, in Mato Grosso do Sul, located on the border with Paraguay was baptized in his honor. In 1908, then in Rio de Janeiro, he invited the engineer Augusto Ferreira Ramos to design a cable car system that would facilitate access to the summit of Morro da Urca, known worldwide as the Sugar Loaf. In 1909, his name was suggested for the presidential succession of the following year. Rio Branco preferred to decline any candidacy that was not of national unanimity.
He was president of the Brazilian Historic and Geographic Institute (1907-1912) and wrote two books.
His son, Paulo do Rio Branco, was a prominent French-born Brazilian rugby player.
In 1909, Rio Branco was encouraged to run for the Presidency, but he declined, as he could not envisage consensus around his name. He was very popular, however, among the people, at the time of his death, to the point of paralysing Carnival – another unparalleled feat in Brazilian history – on the day he died (February 10), when official mourning was declared. The first recorded instance of an official moment of silence dedicated to a person's death took place in Portugal on February 13, 1912. The Portuguese Senate dedicated 10 minutes of silence to the baron. This moment of silence was registered in the Senate's records of that day.
As a writer he wrote many books, dealing mostly with the history of Brazil, and was awarded prizes and occupied the 34th seat of the Brazilian Academy of Literature.
Brazil's diplomacy academy (Instituto Rio Branco) is named after the Baron. Rio Branco is portrayed on the fifty centavos coin of the Brazilian real currency.
Alfredo Maria Adriano d'Escragnolle Taunay, Viscount of Taunay, was a French Brazilian writer, musician, professor, military engineer, historian, politician, sociologist and nobleman. He is famous for the Regionalist novel Inocência, considered a major forerunner of Naturalism in Brazil, and for A Retirada da Laguna, an account of an episode in the war against Paraguay. The Brazilianist Leslie Bethell has described it as "the one undoubted literary masterpiece produced by the Paraguayan War".
The Treaty of Petrópolis, signed on November 11, 1903 in the Brazilian Imperial city of Petrópolis, near Rio de Janeiro, ended tensions between Bolivia and Brazil over the then-Bolivian territory of Acre, a desirable territory during the contemporary rubber boom.
Rio Branco or Río Branco may refer to:
Jaguarão is a municipality in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul located on the shores of the Jaguarão River, bordering Uruguay.
Lauro Severiano Müller was a Brazilian politician, diplomat, and military engineer. Responsible for the transition of Santa Catarina from a province to a state, he is also recognised as one of those who helped achieve the Brazilian diplomatic victory over Bolivia through the Treaty of Petrópolis, which allowed for the purchase of Acre and its incorporation into Brazil.
Belasgytto, Vela el Santo or Velasco was the legendary founder of the house of Ayala. He is said to be illegitimate son of Sancho Ramirez of Navarre in an Ayala history of the fourteenth century,. He is said to have been sent to the marches of Biscay, where he or his son became vassal of king Alfonso VI of Castile, receiving the Ayala lands. While a descent from the Kings of Aragon is unsupportable and the true origins of the Ayala in the region seem to predate the time of Sancho and Alfonso, it has been speculated that this may reflect a confused memory of feudal links to the similarly named King of Viguera, Sancho Ramírez of Viguera.
José Maria da Silva Paranhos, the Viscount of Rio Branco was a politician, monarchist, diplomat, teacher and journalist of the Empire of Brazil (1822–1889). Rio Branco was born in Salvador, in what was then the Captaincy of Bahia, to a wealthy family, but most of the fortune was lost after his parents' deaths early in his childhood.
Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, nicknamed "the diplomat", was a politician, diplomat, lawyer, monarchist and journalist of the Empire of Brazil. He is best known as the minister that authored and countersigned with Princess Isabel, then Princess Imperial Regent the law that ended slavery in Brazil. Rodrigo was born in São Paulo into a family of wealthy financiers. His father, the Baron of Tietê, was also a politician and leader of the conservative party in São Paulo.
Río Branco is a city in the Cerro Largo department of northeastern Uruguay, on the Brazilian border.
The Uruguayan War was fought between Uruguay's governing Blanco Party and an alliance consisting of the Empire of Brazil and the Uruguayan Colorado Party, covertly supported by Argentina. Since its independence, Uruguay had been ravaged by intermittent struggles between the Colorado and Blanco factions, each attempting to seize and maintain power in turn. The Colorado leader Venancio Flores launched the Liberating Crusade in 1863, an insurrection aimed at toppling Bernardo Berro, who presided over a Colorado–Blanco coalition (fusionist) government. Flores was aided by Argentina, whose president Bartolomé Mitre provided him with supplies, Argentine volunteers and river transport for troops.
Manuel Marques de Sousa, Count of Porto Alegre, nicknamed "the Gloved Centaur", was an army officer, politician, abolitionist and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. Born into a wealthy family of military background, Manuel Marques de Sousa joined the Portuguese Army in Brazil in 1817 when he was little more than a child. His military initiation occurred in the conquest of the Banda Oriental, which was annexed and became the southernmost Brazilian province of Cisplatina in 1821. For most of the 1820s, he was embroiled in the Brazilian effort to keep Cisplatina as part of its territory: first during the struggle for Brazilian independence and then in the Cisplatine War. It would ultimately prove a futile attempt, as Cisplatina successfully separated from Brazil to become the independent nation of Uruguay in 1828.
The Brazilian nobility refers to the titled aristocrats and fidalgo families recognized by the Kingdom of Brazil and later, by the Empire of Brazil dating back to the early 19th century, when it was a colony of the Kingdom of Portugal. It existed until 1889, when a military coup d'état overthrew the monarchy and established the First Brazilian Republic.
The Avenida Rio Branco, formerly Avenida Central, is a major road in Rio de Janeiro. It was built as the leading brand of the urban reform carried out by the mayor Pereira Passos in early 20th century.
João Guilherme Fischer, also known as Jango Fischer was a Brazilian diplomat and scientist.
The Order of Rio Branco is an honorific order of Brazil instituted by decree 51.697 of February 5, 1963. It is named in honor of the Brazilian diplomat José Paranhos, Baron of Rio Branco. The President of Brazil serves as the Grand Master of the Order while the Minister of Foreign Affairs is the order's Chancellor.
The Baron of Mauá International Bridge is a bridge that crosses the Jaguarão River, linking the cities of Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Río Branco, Uruguay.
Events in the year 1902 in Brazil.
Events in the year 1927 in Brazil.
The Rio Branco Palace is a palace and former seat of government in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. It is one of the oldest palaces in Brazil and dates to 1549. It is located within the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Historic Center of Salvador.
The Sacking of Asunción was the occupation of the Paraguyan capital carried out as of January 1, 1869 by Brazilian forces in the Triple Alliance led by General João de Souza da Fonseca Costa. Asunción was deserted, evacuated by all its inhabitants two days before. On January 5 Caxias entered the city with the rest of the army. Most of Caxias army settled in Asunción, where also 4000 Argentinian and 200 Uruguayan troops soon arrived together with about 800 soldiers and officers of the Paraguayan Legion. By this time Caxias was ill and tired. On January 17 he fainted during a mass, relinquished his command on 18th and left for Montevideo on 19th.
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João Manuel Pereira da Silva (founder)
| Brazilian Academy of Letters - Occupant of the 34th chair|
1898 — 1912
|Titles of nobility of the Brazilian Empire|
| Baron of Rio Branco |
None (title abolished)