José Vasconcelos

Last updated
José Vasconcelos Calderón
Jose Vasconcelos.jpg
José Vasconcelos in 1914
1st Secretary of Public Education
In office
28 September 1921 [1]  27 July 1924
President Álvaro Obregón
Succeeded by Bernardo J. Gastélum
Rector of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
In office
1920–1921
Preceded byBalbino Dávalos
Succeeded by Mariano Silva
Personal details
Born
José Vasconcelos Calderón

(1882-02-28)28 February 1882 [2]
Oaxaca, Mexico
Died30 June 1959(1959-06-30) (aged 77)
Mexico City, Mexico
NationalityMexican
Political partyNational Anti-Reelectionist Party
Spouse(s)Serafina Miranda (married in 1906, died 1942) [3] Esperanza Cruz (married 1942). [4]
ChildrenJosé and Carmen; [2] Héctor [4]
Alma mater National School of Jurisprudence (ENJ)
ProfessionWriter, philosopher and politician

José Vasconcelos Calderón (28 February 1882 – 30 June 1959), called the "cultural caudillo " of the Mexican Revolution [5] , was an important Mexican writer, philosopher, and politician. [6] He is one of the most influential and controversial personalities in the development of modern Mexico. His philosophy of the "cosmic race" affected all aspects of Mexican sociocultural, political, and economic policies.

Contents

Early life

Vasconcelos was born in Oaxaca, Oaxaca, on February 28, 1882, the son of a customs official. [7] José's mother, a pious Catholic, died when José was 16. The family moved to the border town of Piedras Negras, Coahuila, where he grew up attending school in Eagle Pass, Texas. [8] He became bilingual in English and Spanish, [9] which opened doors to the English-speaking world. The family also lived in Campeche while the northern border area was unstable. His time in living on the Texas border likely contributed to fostering his idea of the Mexican "cosmic race" and rejection of Anglo culture. [10]

Private life

At 24, he married Serafina Miranda of Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca, in 1906. Their children were José Ignacio and Carmen. He also had a long-term relationship with Elena Arizmendi Mejia and throughout his life many other shorter liaisons, including one with Berta Singerman. [11] His troubled relationship with Antonieta Rivas Mercado led to her suicide inside Paris's Notre Dame Cathedral in 1931. When his wife of forty years died in 1942, their daughter Carmen is reported to have said, "When the coffin was lowered into the ground, Vasconcelos sobbed bitterly. At that moment he must have known and felt who he really had as a wife; perhaps they were tears of belated repentance." [12] He remarried the pianist Esperanza Cruz and they had a child, Héctor. [13]

Mexican Revolution

Jose Vasconcelos Jose vasconcelos.jpg
José Vasconcelos

Although Vasconcelos was interested in studying philosophy, the Porfiriato's iniversities focused on the sciences, influenced by French positivism. Vasconcelos attended the National Preparatory School, an elite high school in Mexico City, and he went on to Escuela de Jurisprudencia in Mexico City (1905). In law school, he became involved with radical students organized as the Ateneo de la Juventud (Youth Atheneum). [14] The Ateneo de Juventud was led by a Dominican citizen, Pedro Henríquez Ureña, who had read Uruguayan essayist José Enrique Rodó's Ariel, an influential work published in 1900 that was opposed to Anglo cultural influence but also emphasized the redemptive power of education. [15] The Ateneo de la Juventud had a diverse membership, composed of university professors, artists, other professionals, and students. Some other members included Isidro Fabela and Diego Rivera. [16] Opposed to the Díaz regime, it formulated arguments against it and its emphasis on positivism by employing French spiritualism, which articulated "a new vision of the relationship between individual and society." [14]

After graduating from law school, he joined a law firm of Warner, John, and Galston in Washington, DC. Vasconcelos joined the local Anti-Re-election Club in Washington, D.C.. [14] It supported the democratic movement to oust the longtime Mexican President Porfirio Díaz in 1910 and was headed by Francisco I. Madero, the presidential candidate of the Anti-Re-election Party. Vasconcelos returned to Mexico City to participate more directly in the anti-re-election movement, became one of the party's secretaries, and edited its newspaper, El Antireelectionista. [14]

After Díaz was ousted by revolutionary violence that was followed by the election of Madero as elected president of Mexico, Vasconcelos led a structural change at the National Preparatory School. He changed the academic programs and broke with the past positivistic influence.

After Madero's assassination in February 1913, Vasconcelos joined the broad movement to defeat the military regime of Victoriano Huerta. Soon, Vasconcelos was forced into exile in Paris, where he met Julio Torri, Doctor Atl, Gabriele D'Annunzio, and other contemporaryintellectuals and artists. After Huerta was ousted in July 1914, Vasconcelos returned to Mexico.

The Convention of Aguascalientes in 1914, the failed attempt of anti-Huerta regime to find a political solution, which split the factions. The leader of the Constitutionalists, Venustiano Carranza, and General Álvaro Obregón split with more radical revolutionaries, especially Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. Vasconcelos chose the side of the Convention and served as Minister of Education during the brief presidential period of Eulalio Gutiérrez. Villa was defeated by the Constitutionalist Army under Obregón in the Battle of Celaya in 1915, and Vasconcelos went into exile again. Venustiano Carranza became president of Mexico (1915–1920), but he was ousted and killed by the Sonoran generals who had helped put him in power.

Rector of National University

Logo of the National University of Mexico that was designed by Vasconcelos as its rector Escudo-UNAM-escalable.svg
Logo of the National University of Mexico that was designed by Vasconcelos as its rector

Vasconcelos returned to Mexico during the interim presidency of Sonoran Adolfo de la Huerta and was named rector the National Autonomous University of Mexico (1920) [17] [18] As rector, he had a great deal of power, but he accrued even more by ignoring the standard structures, such as the University Council, to govern the institution. [19] Rather, he exercised personal power and began implementing his vision of the function of the university. He redesigned the logo of the university to show a map of Latin America, with the phrase "Por mi raza hablará el espíritu" (The spirit will speak for my race), an influence of Rodó's arielismo. [20] It also had an eagle and a condor and a background of the volcanic mountains in central Mexico. Vasconcelos is said to have declared, "I have not come to govern the University but to ask the University to work for the people." [21]

Secretary of Public Education

Statue of Jose Vasconcelos in Mexico City JoseVasconcelosStatueDF.JPG
Statue of José Vasconcelos in Mexico City

When Obregón became president in 1920, he created the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP) in 1921 and named Vasconcelos as its head. [22] Under Obregón, the national budget had two key expenditures; not surprisingly, the military was one, but the other was education. [23] Creating the Secretariat entailed changing the Constitution of 1917, and so Obregón's government had to muster support from lawmakers. Vasconcelos traveled throughour Mexico while he was rector of the university to seek that support. His effort succeeded, and Vasconcelos was named head of the new cabinet-level secretariat in July 1921. [24]

His tenure at the Secretariat gave him a powerful position to implement his vision of Mexico's history, especially the Mexican Revolution.

Vasconcelos printed huge numbers of texts for the expanded public school system, but in the 1920s, there was no agreement about how the Mexican Revolution should be portrayed and so earlier history texts by Justo Sierra, the head of the ministry of public education during the Díaz regime, continued to be used. [25]

Although Vasconcelos was no advocate of Mexican indigenous culture, as Secretary of Education, he sent Brazil a statue of the last Aztec emperor, Cuauhtemoc, for their centennial celebrations of independence in 1923 to the disdain and the amazement of the South American recipients. [26]

Later life

He resigned in 1924 because of his opposition to President Plutarco Elías Calles. He worked for the education of the masses and sought to make the nation's education on secular, civic, and Pan-American (americanista) lines. He ran for president in 1929 but lost to Pascual Ortiz Rubio in a controversial election and again left the country.

He later directed the National Library of Mexico (1940) and presided over the Mexican Institute of Hispanic Culture (1948).

Philosophical thought

Small statue (bust) of Jose Vasconcelos at the Instituto Campechano, Mexico. Vasconcelos en el Instituto Campechano - busto.jpg
Small statue (bust) of Jose Vasconcelos at the Instituto Campechano, Mexico.

Vasconcelos' first writings on philosophy are passionate reactions against the formal, positivistic education at the National Preparatory School, formerly under the influence of Porfirian thinkers like Justo Sierra and Gabino Barreda.

A second period of productivity was fed by a first disappointment in the political field, after Madero's murder. In 1919, he wrote a long essay on Pythagorism, as a dissertation on the links between harmony and rhythm and its eventual explanation into a frame of aesthetic monism. As he argued that only by the means of rhythm can humans able to know the world without any intermediation, he proposed that the minimal aspects of cognition are conditioned by a degree of sympathy with the natural "vibration" of things. In that manner, he thought that the auditive categories of knowledge were much higher than the visual ones.

Later, Vasconcelos developed an argument for the mixing of races, as a natural and desirable direction for humankind. That work, known as La raza cósmica ('The Cosmic Race'), would eventually contribute to further studies on ethnic values as an ethic and for the consideration of ethnic variety as an aesthetic source. Finally, between 1931 and 1940, he tried to consolidate his proposals by publishing his main topics organized in three main works: Metafísica ('Metaphysics'), Ética ('Ethics'), and Estética ('Aesthetics').

In the final part of his life, he gradually fell into a deeply Catholic political conservatism. Before the Second World War, he had begun writing sympathetically about Francisco Franco, and he retracted some of his earlier liberal positions. One of his last published works, Letanías del atardecer (1957) is a pessimistic tract that hinted that the use of nuclear weapons might be necessary because of the postwar order.

Influence

Jose Vasconcelos (left) with Jose Urquidi, Rafael Zubaran Capmany and Peredo. Jose Vasconcelos Jose Urquidi Rafael Zubiran Peredo.jpg
José Vasconcelos (left) with José Urquidi, Rafael Zubarán Capmany and Peredo.

Vasconcelos is often referred to as the father of the indigenismo philosophy. In recent times, it has come under criticism from Native Americans because of its negative implications concerning indigenous peoples. To an extent, his philosophy argued for a new, "modern" mestizo people, at the cost of cultural assimilation for all ethnic groups. His research on the nature of Mexican modern identity had a direct influence on the young writers, poets, anthropologists, and philosophers who wrote on this subject. He also influenced the point of view of Carlos Pellicer with respect to several aesthetic assumptions reflected in his books. Together, Pellicer and Vasconcelos made a trip through the Middle East (1928–1929) and were looking for the "spiritual basis" of Byzantine architecture.

Other works, particularly La raza cósmica and Metafísica, had a decisive influence in Octavio Paz's El laberinto de la soledad ('The Labyrinth of Solitude'), with anthropological and aesthetic implications. Paz wrote that Vasconcelos was "the teacher" who had educated hundreds of young Latin American intellectuals during his many trips to Central and South America. Vasconcelos was a guest lecturer at Columbia University and Princeton University, but his influence on new generations in the United States gradually decreased. Nevertheless, his work La raza cósmica has been used by Chicano and Mexican-American movements since the 1970s, which assert the reconquista ('retaking' or literally 'reconquest') of the American Southwest, based on their Mexican ancestry.

Contributions to and education

Vasconcelos caussd the National Symphonic Orchestra (1920) and the Symphonic Orchestra of Mexico (1928) to be officially endorsed. Muralists Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros were given the right to paint the inner walls of the most important public buildings in Mexico (such as the National Palace in Mexico City), creating the Mexican mural movement.

Quotations

Inside the "Jose Vasconcelos" library; Mexico City. Vasconcelos library.jpg
Inside the "Jose Vasconcelos" library; Mexico City.

"[T]he leaders of Latin American independence ... strove to free the slaves, declared the equality of all men by natural law; the social and civic equality of whites, blacks and Indians. In an instant of historical crisis, they formulated the transcendental mission assigned to that region of the Globe: the mission of fusing the peoples ethnically and spiritually." (La raza cósmica, 1948)

"Each of the great nations of History has believed itself to be the final and chosen one. ... The Hebrews founded the belief in their superiority on oracles and divine promises. The English found theirs on observations relative to domestic animals. From the observation of cross-breeding and hereditary varieties in such animals, Darwinism emerged. First, as a modest zoological theory, then as social biology that confers definitive preponderance to the English above all races. Every imperialism needs a justifying philosophy". (La raza cósmica, 1948)

"Hitler, although he disposes of absolute power, finds himself a thousand leagues from Caesarism. Power does not come to Hitler from the military base, but from the book that inspires the troops from the top. Hitler's power is not owed to the troops, nor the battalions, but to his own discussions... Hitler represents, ultimately, an idea, the German idea, so often humiliated previously by French militarism and English perfidy. Truthfully, we find civilian governed 'democracies' fighting against Hitler. But they are democracies in name only". ("La Inteligencia se impone", Timon 16; June 8, 1940)

Publications

Vasconcelos was a prolific author, writing in a variety of genres, especially philosophy, but also autobiography.

Philosophy

  • Pitágoras ('Pythagoras'), 1919
  • El monismo estético ('The Aesthetic Monism'), 1919
  • La raza cósmica ('The Cosmic Race'), 1925
  • Indología ('Indology'), 1926
  • Metafísica ('Metaphysics'), 1929
  • Pesimismo alegre ('Cheerful Pessimism'), 1931
  • Estética ('Aesthetics'), 1936
  • Ética ('Ethics'), 1939
  • Historia del pensamiento filosófico ('A History of Philosophical Thought'), 1937
  • Lógica orgánica ('Organic Logic'), 1945

Other publications

  • Teoría dinámica del derecho ('Dynamic Theory of Rights'), 1907
  • La intelectualidad mexicana ('The Intellectuality of Mexico'), 1916
  • Ulises criollo ('Creole Ulysses), 1935
  • La tormenta ('The Storm'), 1936
  • Breve historia de México ('A Brief History of Mexico'), 1937
  • El desastre ('The Disaster'), 1938
  • El proconsulado ('The Proconsulated'), 1939
  • El ocaso de mi vida ('The Sunset of My Life'), 1957
  • La Flama. Los de Arriba en la Revolución. Historia y Tragedia ('The Flame. Those of Above in the Revolution. History and Tragedy'), 1959
  • Las Cartas Políticas de José Vasconcelos ('The Political Letters of José Vasconcelos'), 1959 [27]
  • Obras completas ('Complete Works'), 1957–1961 [28]

Notes

    See also

    Related Research Articles

    Francisco I. Madero 19th and 20th-century Mexican revolutionary leader and president

    Francisco Ignacio Madero González was a Mexican revolutionary, writer and statesman who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until shortly before his assassination in 1913. A wealthy landowner, he was nonetheless an advocate for social justice and democracy. Madero was notable for challenging long-time President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.

    Emiliano Zapata Mexican revolutionary

    Emiliano Zapata Salazar was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the state of Morelos, and the inspiration of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo.

    Pancho Villa Mexican revolutionary

    Francisco "Pancho" Villa was a Mexican revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution.

    Mexican Revolution major nationwide armed struggle in Mexico between 1910 and 1920

    The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 31-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict broke out in northern Mexico and Díaz was forced out. In the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, Díaz resigned and went into exile, new elections were to occur in the fall, and an interim presidency under Francisco León de la Barra was installed. A new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

    Venustiano Carranza Mexican politician and president of Mexico

    José Venustiano Carranza de la Garza was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster. He secured power in Mexico, serving as head of state from 1915 to 1917. With the promulgation of a new revolutionary Mexican Constitution of 1917, he was elected president, serving from 1917 to 1920.

    Álvaro Obregón Mexican politician, president of Mexico

    Álvaro Obregón Salido was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. He supported Sonora's decision to follow Governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza as leader of a revolution against the Victoriano Huerta regime. Carranza appointed Obregón commander of the revolutionary forces in northwestern Mexico and in 1915 appointed him as his minister of war. In 1920, Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza, in which Carranza was assassinated. Obregón won the subsequent election with overwhelming support.

    Plutarco Elías Calles Mexican military general and politician

    Plutarco Elías Calles was a Mexican military general and politician. He was the powerful interior minister under President Álvaro Obregón, who chose Calles as his successor. The 1924 Calles presidential campaign was the first populist presidential campaign in Mexico's history, as he called for land redistribution and promised equal justice, more education, additional labour rights, and democratic governance.

    Bronze race is a term used since the early 20th century by Latin American writers of the indigenista and americanista schools to refer to the mestizo population that arose in the Americas with the arrival of Latin European colonists and their intermingling with the New World's Amerindian peoples.

    Eulalio Gutiérrez President of Mexico

    Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz was a general in the Mexican Revolution from state of Coahuila. He is most notable for his election as provisional president of Mexico during the Aguascalientes Convention and led the country for a few months between November 6, 1914, and January 16, 1915. The Convention was convened by revolutionaries who had successfully ousted the regime of Victoriano Huerta after more than a year of conflict. Gutiérrez rather than "First Chief" Venustiano Carranza was chosen president of Mexico and a new round of violence broke out as revolutionary factions previously united turned against each other. "The high point of Gutiérrez's career occurred when he moved with the Conventionist army to shoulder the responsibilities of his new office [of president]." Gutiérrez's government was weak and he could not control the two main generals of the Army of the Convention, Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. Gutiérrez moved the capital of his government from Mexico City to San Luis Potosí. He resigned as president and made peace with Carranza. He went into exile in the United States, but later returned to Mexico. He died in 1939, outliving many other major figures of the Mexican Revolution.

    Ramón López Velarde Mexican poet

    Ramón López Velarde was a Mexican poet. His work was a reaction against French-influenced modernismo which, as an expression of a purely Mexican subject matter and emotional experience, is unique. He achieved great fame in his native land, to the point of being considered Mexico's national poet.

    Enrique Krauze Mexican academic and writer

    Enrique Krauze Kleinbort, is a Mexican public intellectual, historian, essayist, critic, producer, and publisher. He has written numerous books about the Mexican Revolution and leading figures in Mexican history, as well as economic analysis of the nation's history.

    Published in 1925, La raza cósmica is an essay written by Mexican philosopher, secretary of education, and 1929 presidential candidate José Vasconcelos to express the ideology of a future "fifth race" in the Americas; an agglomeration of all the races in the world with no respect to color or number to erect a new civilization: Universópolis.

    Adolfo de la Huerta President of Mexico

    Felipe Adolfo de la Huerta Marcor, known as Adolfo de la Huerta, was a Mexican politician, the 45th President of Mexico from June 1 to November 30, 1920, following the overthrow of Mexican president Venustiano Carranza, with Sonoran generals Alvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles under the Plan of Agua Prieta. He is considered "an important figure among Constitutionalists during the Mexican Revolution."

    Pascual Ortiz Rubio President of Mexico

    Pascual Ortiz Rubio was a Mexican politician and the President of Mexico from 1930 to 1932. He was one of three Mexican presidents to serve out the six-year term (1928-1934) of assassinated president-elect Álvaro Obregón, while former president Plutarco Elías Calles retained power in a period known as the Maximato. Calles was so blatantly in control of the government that Ortiz Rubio resigned the presidency in protest in September 1932.

    Ten Tragic Days series of armed conflicts and controversies that took place in Mexico City during the Mexican Revolution

    The Ten Tragic Days was a series of events that took place in Mexico City between February 9 and February 19, 1913, during the Mexican Revolution. Armed conflict in the capital broke out, with rebels led by General Félix Díaz, nephew of the former president, and General Bernardo Reyes, seeking to overthrow democratically-elected President Francisco I. Madero, with the support of the U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, Henry Lane Wilson. Madero's key general Victoriano Huerta defected to the rebels. The coup d'état resulted in the arrest of Madero and his vice president, José María Pino Suárez, who then resigned. Although there was the possibility that they could go into exile, as had former President Porfirio Díaz in May 1911, Madero and Pino Suárez were murdered on 22 February 1913. General Huerta became President of Mexico, with the support of most state governors. But a broad-based revulsion against Huerta's coup and the murders led to civil war between Huerta's government and revolutionary forces in northern and southern Mexico.

    Juan Andreu Almazán Mexican general and politician

    Juan Andreu Almazán was a Mexican revolutionary general, politician and businessman. He held high posts in the Mexican Army in the 1920s and ran for the presidency of Mexico in 1940 in a highly disputed election, having accumulated great wealth from construction. General Almazán became one of Mexico's wealthiest citizens in the early 1940s.

    <i>Maximato</i>

    The Maximato was a transitional period in the historical and political development of Mexico from 1928 to 1934. Named after former president Plutarco Elías Calles's sobriquet el Jefe Máximo, the Maximato was the period that Calles continued to exercise power and exert influence without holding the presidency. The six-year period was the term that President-elect Alvaro Obregón would have served if he had not been assassinated immediately after the July 1928 elections. There needed to be some kind of political solution to the presidential succession crisis. Calles could not hold the presidency again because of restrictions on re-election without an interval out of power, but he remained the dominant figure in Mexico.

    The Bucareli Treaty, signed on 1923, was an agreement between the countries of México and United States. It was officially called "Convención Especial de Reclamaciones", for losses sustained by citizens or companies of the United States of America because of the Mexican Revolution.

    José Manuel Puig Casauranc was a Mexican politician, diplomat and journalist who served as Secretary of Public Education, Secretary of Industry, Commerce and Labor, Secretary of Foreign Affairs and federal legislator in both the Senate and Chamber of Deputies. As a key adviser to President Plutarco Elías Calles (1924–28), he is credited with drafting Calles's speech to Congress following the assassination of President-elect Alvaro Obregón declaring the end of the age of caudillos and the start of rule of institutions and laws.

    Elena Arizmendi Mejia Mexican feminist writer

    Elena Arizmendi Mejía was a Mexican feminist who established the Neutral White Cross organisation during the Mexican Revolution. She was a part of the first wave of Mexican feminism and established the "Mujeres de la raza" and the International League of Iberian and Latin American Women in co-operation with G. Sofía Villa de Buentello.

    References

    1. Morales Gómez, Daniel A.; Torres, Carlos A. (1990). "The State and Education in Mexico". The state, corporatist politics, and educational policy making in Mexico. Praeger. p. 82. ISBN   978-0-275-93484-2.
    2. 1 2 Martin, Percy Alvin, ed. (1935). Who's Who in Latin America: A Biographical Dictionary of the Outstanding Living Men and Women of Spanish America and Brazil. Stanford University Press. p. 417. ISBN   9780804723152 . Retrieved December 6, 2009.
    3. Fell, Claude (2000). "Notas explicativas". Ulises; Criollo. Colección Archivos (in Spanish). 3. Vasconcelos, José. Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica. pp. 526–573. ISBN   9782914273008 . Retrieved December 6, 2009.
    4. 1 2 Krauze, Enrique (2011). Redeemers: Ideas and Power in Latin America. Translated by Heifetz, Hank. New York: Harper Collins. p. 84.
    5. Krauze, Redeemers; chapter 3 is subtitled "José Vasconcelos, the Cultural Caudillo"
    6. "José Vasconcelos". Biografías y Vidas: La enciclopedia biográfica en línea.
    7. Krauze, Redeemers; p. 53
    8. Krauze, Redeemers, p. 53>
    9. Krauze, Redeemers, p. 53
    10. Vera Cuspinera, Margarita (1997). "José Vasconcelos". Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 1519.
    11. Krauze, Redeemers, pp. 55, 67.
    12. quoted in Krauze, Redeemers, p. 84.
    13. Krauze, Redeemers, p. 84.
    14. 1 2 3 4 Vera Cuspinera, "José Vasconcelos", p. 1519.
    15. Krauze, Redeemers, p. 54.
    16. Hart, John Mason (1987). Revolutionary Mexico: The Coming and Process of the Mexican Revolution . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p.  95.
    17. "José Vasconcelos". Texas Archival Resources Online. University of Texas Library.
    18. Krauze, Redeemers, p. 61
    19. Krauze, Redeemers, p. 62.
    20. Krauze, Redeemers, p. 62
    21. Quoted in Krauze, Redeemers, p. 62.
    22. José Vasconcelos. Encyclopaedia Britannica (online ed.).
    23. Dulles, John W. F. (1961). Yesterday in Mexico: A Chronicle of the Revolution, 1919-1936. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 118.
    24. Dulles, Yesterday in Mexico, p. 119.
    25. Benjamin, Thomas (2000). La Revolución: Mexico's Great Revolution as Memory, Myth, and History. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 141.
    26. Gillingham, Paul (2011). Cuauhtémoc's Bones: Forging National Identity in Modern Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. p. 173.
    27. Vasconcelos, José (1959). Taracena, Alfonso (ed.). Las Cartas Políticas de José Vasconcelos. Mexico City: Editoria Librería.
    28. Vasconcelos, José. Obras completas. Mexico City: Libreros Mexicanos Unidos.
    29. "Awards Education". ConsejoCulturalMundial.org. World Cultural Council. Archived from the original on June 7, 2015.

    Further reading