José de Espronceda

Last updated

José de Espronceda
Jose de Espronceda (detalle).jpg
Born
José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnación de Espronceda y Delgado

(1808-03-25)25 March 1808
Died23 May 1842(1842-05-23) (aged 34)
Madrid, Spain
Resting place Cementerio de San Justo
NationalitySpanish
Occupation Poet, writer and journalist
Movement Romanticism
ChildrenBlanca Espronceda de Escosura (1834–1900)
Parent(s)
  • Camilo de Espronceda (father)

José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnación de Espronceda y Delgado (25 March 1808 – 23 May 1842) [2] was a Romantic Spanish poet, one of the most representative authors of the 19th century. [3] He was influenced by Eugenio de Ochoa, Federico Madrazo, Alfred Tennyson, Richard Chenevix Trench and Diego de Alvear. [4]

Romanticism period of artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that started in 18th century Europe

Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.

Poet Person who writes and publishes poetry

A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience.

Eugenio de Ochoa Spanish translator and writer

Eugenio de Ochoa (1815–72) was a Spanish author, writer, and translator.

Contents

Life

House where Espronceda was born House where Espronceda was born.jpg
House where Espronceda was born

Espronceda was born in Almendralejo, at the Province of Badajoz. [5] As a youth, he studied at the Colegio San Mateo at Madrid, having Alberto Lista as a teacher. When he was 15 years old, he formed a secret society named "Los Numantinos" alongside his friends Ventura de la Vega and Patricio de la Escosura, conspiring against Ferdinand VII and intending to avenge the death of Rafael del Riego. For this, he was imprisoned in a monastery and exiled. [6] Afterward, he left Spain and lived in Lisbon, Belgium, France, England and Holland. On his return to Spain in 1833, he became active in the extreme left-wing of Spanish political culture. Espronceda is also known for his affair with Teresa Mancha, for whom he wrote "Canto a Teresa" (from El diablo mundo). He died of diphtheria in 1842.

Almendralejo Municipality in Extremadura, Spain

Almendralejo is a town in the Province of Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain. It is situated 45 km south-east of Badajoz, on the main road and rail route between Mérida and Seville. As of 2010, it has a population of 33,975. It was the site of a battle and massacre in 1936 during the Spanish Civil War.

Province of Badajoz Province of Spain

The province of Badajoz is a province of western Spain located in the autonomous community of Extremadura. It was formed in 1833. It is bordered by the provinces of Cáceres in the north, Toledo, Ciudad Real in the east, Córdoba in the south-east, Seville, and Huelva in the south and Portugal in the west.

Madrid Capital of Spain

Madrid is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union (EU), surpassed only by London and Berlin, and its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris. The municipality covers 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi).

In 1902, his body was moved to Panteón de Hombres Ilustres, Spain. [7]

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Literary production

Having been inspired to a literary career by his teacher Alberto Lista, Espronceda began to write the historical poem El Pelayo during his stay in the monastery. The poem was never completed. Later he wrote the novel Sancho Saldaña. His other important works include El estudiante de Salamanca , whose main character is Don Félix de Montemar, El mendigo , ¡Guerra! , Al dos de mayo and El diablo mundo , [3] long lyric poems, the latter remained unfinished. Also important were A Jarifa en una orgía, El verdugo, [3] El canto del cosaco, La canción del pirata [3] and Himno al sol. Many of his works display the tendencies of Romanticism, and along with José Zorrilla he is considered Spain's most important Romantic poet, as well as the most rebellious.[ citation needed ]

Alberto Lista Spanish poet

Alberto Rodríguez de Lista y Aragón, Spanish poet and educationalist, was born at Seville.

<i>El estudiante de Salamanca</i> Narrative poem by Jose de Espronceda

The Student of Salamanca is a work by Spanish Romantic poet José de Espronceda. It was published in fragments beginning in 1837; the complete poem was published in 1840 in the volume Poesías. Parts of it are poetry, other parts drama. It is a variation of the Don Juan legend, with its central character don Félix de Montemar playing the part of Don Juan.

José Zorrilla Spanish poet, writer, playwright

José Zorrilla y Moral was a Spanish poet and dramatist.

Related Research Articles

Martín Fernández de Navarrete Spanish sailor and historian

Martín Fernández de Navarrete y Ximénez de Tejada, was a Spanish noble, grand son of the Marquess of Ximenez de Tejada, knight of the Order of Malta, politician and historian. He was a spanish Senator and Director of the Spanish Royal Academy of History (1824-1844).

José Martínez Ruiz Essayist, dramaturgo,  novelista y crítico literario

José Augusto Trinidad Martínez Ruiz, better known by his pseudonym Azorín, was a Spanish novelist, essayist and literary critic. As a political radical in the 1890s, he moved steadily to the right. In literature he attempted to define the eternal qualities of Spanish life. His essays and criticism are written in a simple, compact style. Particularly notable are his impressionistic descriptions of Castilian towns and landscape.

José Manuel Caballero Spanish novelist, lecturer and poet

José Manuel Caballero Bonald is a Spanish novelist, lecturer and poet.

Ainavillo, Aynabillo, Aillavilu or Aillavilú, was the toqui of the Mapuche army from the provinces of "Ñuble, Itata, Renoguelen, Guachimavida, Marcande, Gualqui, Penco and Talcaguano." They tried to stop Pedro de Valdivia from invading their lands in 1550. He led about twenty thousand warriors in the surprise night attack on Valdivia's camp in the Battle of Andalien. After his defeat in that battle he gathered more warriors from the allied regions of Arauco and Tucapel, south of the Bio-Bio River, for an attack on Valdivia's newly constructed fort of Concepcion at what is now Penco. Leading an army of sixty thousand warriors in three divisions against the fort in the Battle of Penco. Ainavillo's command that had been previously defeated at Andalien, was recognized by the Spaniards and Valdivia picked it out for a vigorous charge by all their cavalry following a softening up by volleys of their firearms. It was broken at the first onslaught and fled with the Spanish in pursuit, followed by the retreat of the other two divisions of the Mapuche upon seeing the spectacle.

Peteroa is a small town west southwest of the town of Sagrada Familia, Chile.

The Battle of Millarapue that occurred November 30, 1557 was intended by the Toqui Caupolicán as a Mapuche ambush of the Spanish army of García Hurtado de Mendoza that resulted in a Spanish victory when the ambush failed.

Paineñamcu or Paynenancu or Alonso Diaz, was the Mapuche toqui from 1574 to 1584. Alonso Diaz was a mestizo Spanish soldier offended because the Governor of Chile did not promote him to the officer rank of alféres, who subsequently went over to the Mapuche in 1572. He took the Mapuche name of Paineñamcu and because of his military skills was elected toqui in 1574 following the death of Paillataru.

Battle of Quiapo in the Arauco War was the final battle in the campaign of García Hurtado de Mendoza against the Mapuche under the toqui known as Lemucaguin or Caupolicán the younger. It was fought in Quiapo, Arauco Province, Chile on the December 13, 1558.

Battle of Angol was a battle fought between the Mapuche and the Spanish in March 1564. In Los Infantes captain Lorenzo Bernal del Mercado had discovered that the rebels had constructed a pukara close by, establishing a blockade of the city, additionally natives under the toqui Illangulién had chosen an impregnable position in a marsh. a Mapuche detachment located themselves in a third position awaiting reinforcements from their main body at the old position. Seeing that this position was weak the Spanish engaged this position. In the battle the Spanish drove the Mapuche out of their pukara and pursued them down to the river bank and drove them into the river, where they were trapped and 1,000 Mapuches were killed including the toqui Illanguelén.

Pedro de Avendaño a Spanish soldier that had arrived in Chile with the army of García Hurtado de Mendoza in 1557. He distinguished himself in the Battle of Millarapue. He later served in the garrison of Cañete under captain Alonso de Reinoso. Reinoso eventually found an Indian who betrayed the location of the fugitive Mapuche toqui Caupolicán. Avendaño, with 50 men and the traitorous Indian as a guide, marched in stormy weather into the mountains to Pilmaiquén and captured Caupolicán as he was planning a new counter-offensive against the Spanish, near the modern Antihuala, on February 5, 1558. He brought the toqui back to Cañete where he was eventually executed by empalement at the order of corregidor Reinoso.

Llanganabal was a Moluche toqui who led the Mapuche army that defeated the Spanish led by Martín Ruiz de Gamboa in the Battle of Catirai in 1569. In 1560 Llanganabal is listed as one of the caciques heading an encomienda along the Bio Bio River. Shortly after began the outbreak of the 1561 Mapuche revolt. By 1569 Llanganabal had risen to command the Araucan army with Millalelmo and other captains as his subordinates. To resist the Spanish who had been burning the fields and houses on the south bank of the Bio Bio, Millalelmo had built a strong fortress on a hill in Catirai in a difficult position on steep wooded slopes. Despite the warnings of Lorenzo Bernal del Mercado who had reconnoitered the position, Spaniards new to Chile and the Arauco War prevailed on Governor Melchor Bravo de Saravia to order Martín Ruiz de Gamboa to take his command and attack the place. Meanwhile, Llanganabal had gathered all his army there to resist the attack. Gamboa's force was badly defeated while attempting to attack up the steep thickly wooded hill into Llanganabal's fortified position.

Pailacar or Paylacar was a leader of Purén, who led a force of 2000 warriors in the defeat of the Spanish army of Don Miguel Avendaño de Velasco in the Battle of Purén in September 1570.

San Sebastian Church, Madrid church in Madrid, Spain

The Saint Sebastian Church or Iglesia de San Sebastián is a 16th-century church in central Madrid, Spain. It is located on Atocha street, #39. The name arises from a devotional chapel (ermita) which was found along the route to the Basilica of Nuestra Señora de Atocha, founded in 1541. The first architect around 1550 was Antonio Sillero, who also finished the Chapel of the Sagrado Corazón. This church like that of San Luis conserved for years the rights of asylum for those escaping official persecution. More chapels and enlargements were added by Antonio de la Tijera, Juan de Bulga Valdelastras, and Juan de Obregón between 1595 and 1598. The tower was built in 1612 by Lucas Hernández. During the Spanish Civil War, the church was sacked by Republican forces, before it ended up being almost destroyed during a bombing raid by the Nationalists around November 20, 1936. This caused many of the works to be transferred to other sites. For example, the icon of San Blas was moved to the convent of San Jerónimo el Real). The church was rebuilt in a different orientation by Francisco Íñiguez Almech between 1943 and 1959. In 1969, it was declared a "Bien de Interés Cultural" in the category of monument.

Carmelo Elorduy, S.J. was a Spanish Sinologist. Elorduy was born in Mungia and his first trip to China was in 1926, where he worked at the Jesuit mission located in Wuhu City, Anhui. He returned to Spain in 1932 to finish his degree in Theology and Philosophy and to become a priest with the Society of Jesus. He returned to China in 1934 and remained there until 1951 when he moved to Macao and the following year to Taichung. For health reasons he moved back to Spain in 1959 and while resting in Oña and encouraged by his brother Eleuterio, he began translating some of the Chinese Classics. Most of his translations of the Chinese Classics became the first to be done directly from Classical Chinese into the Spanish language.

José Hierro Spanish poet

José Hierro del Real, sometimes colloquially called Pepe Hierro, was a Spanish poet. He belonged to the so-called postwar generation, within the rootless and existential poetry streams. He wrote for both Espadaña and Garcilaso magazines. In 1981, he received the Prince of Asturias Awards in Literature, in 1998 the Cervantes Prize and he received many more awards and honours.

Diego Martínez Torrón is a professor of Spanish Literature at the University of Córdoba, Spain, and a writer, author of essays, poetry and novels. He has been a speaker at many of the major universities in Europe and the United States. A specialist in nineteenth and twentieth century Spanish literature he has published numerous books on Spanish Romanticism, with interpretive contributions and unpublished texts. He has edited the most faithful edition of the complete works of authors such as José de Espronceda and the Duque de Rivas. He has also written about Lista and Quintana and the work of Spanish progressive liberals from the early nineteenth century to the end of the period of Romanticism. He has studied the poetic thought of Juan Ramón, Octavio Paz and José Bergamin. He has also dedicated numerous studies to the works of Cervantes. He has studied the narrative of Álvaro Cunqueiro, Juan Benet, Azorín and has a book pending publication about Valle-Inclán. His concept of literary methodology stems from a new, non-Marxist approach to the binomial ideology and literature.

Eduardo Saavedra Spanish historian, archaeologist, arabist, geographer, mathematician, engineer, architect and professor

Eduardo Saavedra, Spanish engineer, architect, archaeologist and Arabist, member of the Real Academia de la Historia, Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences, Real Academia Española and cofounder-president of the Real Sociedad Geográfica.

<i>Artistic and Monumental Spain</i> collection of lithographs by Jenaro Pérez Villaamil

Artistic and Monumental Spain is an illustrated travel book in 3 volumes, including significant structures and monuments in Spain. It was published in 1842 in Paris by Veith and Hauser. The illustrator was Jenaro Pérez Villaamil in collaboration with Patricio de la Escosura, who was responsible for the text. His patron or sponsor was the Gaspar Remisa.

References

  1. "El escritor José de Espronceda". Museo del Prado (in Spanish). Madrid. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  2. Navas-Ruiz, Ricardo. "José de Espronceda y Delgado". Diccionario biográfico España (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Espín Templado, María del Pilar. "Presentación". Cervantes Virtual (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  4. Espín Templado, María del Pilar. "Amistades de José de Espronceda". Cervantes Virtual (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  5. Cortón, Antonio (1906). Espronceda (PDF). Madrid: Casa Editorial Velásquez. p. 8.
  6. Schmidt, Jr., Frederick W. (2002). Littel, McDougal (ed.). Abriendo puertas: Antologia de literatura en espanol. 1. Houghton Mifflin School. ISBN   9780618272600.
  7. Espín Templado, María del Pilar. "Biografía de José de Espronceda". Cervantes Virtual (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 December 2017.

Bibliography

Project Gutenberg volunteer effort to digitize and archive books

Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It was founded in 1971 by American writer Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books. The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on almost any computer. As of 23 June 2018, Project Gutenberg reached 57,000 items in its collection of free eBooks.

Internet Archive US non-profit organization founded in 1996 providing free public access to archives of digital and digitized media and advocating for a free and open Internet

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco-based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of public-domain books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.

LibriVox Audiobook library

LibriVox is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet".