Joschka Fischer

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Joschka Fischer
Joschka Fischer 2014.jpg
Vice Chancellor of Germany
In office
27 October 1998 22 November 2005
Chancellor Gerhard Schröder
Preceded by Klaus Kinkel
Succeeded by Franz Müntefering
Federal Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
27 October 1998 22 November 2005
Chancellor Gerhard Schröder
Preceded by Klaus Kinkel
Succeeded by Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Deputy Minister President of Hesse
In office
5 April 1991 5 October 1994
Prime Minister Hans Eichel
Preceded by Wolfgang Gerhardt
Succeeded by Rupert von Plottnitz
Minister of the Environment and Energy of Hesse
In office
12 December 1985 9 February 1987
Prime Minister Holger Börner
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded by Armin Clauss (Acting)
In office
5 April 1991 5 October 1994
Prime Minister Hans Eichel
Preceded by Karlheinz Weimar
Succeeded by Rupert von Plottnitz
Minister of Federal Affairs of Hesse
In office
5 April 1991 5 October 1994
Prime Minister Hans Eichel
Preceded by Wolfgang Gerhardt (Agent of Federal Affairs)
Succeeded by Rupert von Plottnitz
Personal details
Joseph Martin Fischer

(1948-04-12) 12 April 1948 (age 70)
Gerabronn, Germany
Political party Alliance '90/The Greens
Spouse(s)Edeltraud Fischer (1967–1984)
Inge Peusquens (1984–1987)
Claudia Bohm (1987–1998)
Nicola Leske (1999–2003)
Minu Barati-Fischer (m 2005)

Joseph Martin "Joschka" Fischer (born 12 April 1948) is a German politician of the Alliance '90/The Greens. He served as Foreign Minister and as Vice Chancellor of Germany in the cabinet of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005. Fischer has been a leading figure in the West German Greens since the 1970s, and according to opinion polls, [1] he was the most popular politician in Germany for most of the government's duration. Following the September 2005 election, in which the Schröder government was defeated, he left office on 22 November 2005. In September 2010 he supported the creation of the Spinelli Group, a europarliamentarian initiative founded with a view to reinvigorate the strife for federalisation of the European Union.

Gerhard Schröder German politician (SPD)

Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010. As a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), he led a coalition government of the SPD and the Greens.

Spinelli Group

The Spinelli Group is an initiative founded with a view to reinvigorate the endeavour for federalisation of the European Union (EU), by creating a network of citizens, think tanks, NGOs, academics, writers and politicians who support the idea of a federal and united Europe. Among other goals, the Group aims to "find a federal majority [among members of the European Parliament] on important subjects." Founded on 15 September 2010 in the European Parliament (EP) in Brussels, the group is named after Altiero Spinelli (1907–1986), founder of the Union of European Federalists (UEF) and a founding father of the European integration.


Early life

Fischer was born in Gerabronn in Baden-Württemberg, the third child of a butcher, whose family had lived in Budakeszi, Hungary, for several generations. Fischer's family had to leave Hungary in 1946 after it was occupied by the Soviet Union, and ethnic Germans were persecuted and expelled by the authorities. His nickname Joschka is derived from the Hungarian Jóska, diminutive of Joseph (Hungarian József). He was brought up Catholic and served in his childhood as an altar boy in his parish in Oeffingen. [2] Fischer dropped out of high school in 1965, and started an apprenticeship as a photographer, which he quit in 1966. Because Fischer never gained a school-leaving certificate, he never attended a university or a college. He neither did compulsory military service nor the alternative civilian service for conscientious objectors, because he failed his physical examination due to poor eyesight. [3]

Gerabronn Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Gerabronn is a small town in the county of Schwäbisch Hall, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. In 2006 it had a population of about 4,547 and covered an area of 40.38 km².

Baden-Württemberg State in Germany

Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany’s third-largest state, with an area of 35,751 km2 (13,804 sq mi) and 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and partly sovereign, federated state which was formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Reutlingen and Ulm.

Budakeszi Town in Pest, Hungary

Budakeszi is a town in Pest County, in the Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary. It is located beyond the Jánoshegy hill at the western city limits of Budapest, about 12 km (7 mi) west of the Zero Kilometre Stone in the city centre. A popular recreational area, the landscape is characterized by forests, predominantly oaks, by vineyards and by orchards.

In 1967, he became active in the German student movement and left-wing movement (post-) 1968 (the so-called Spontis), first in Stuttgart and after 1968 in Frankfurt am Main. For his regular income, Fischer took several low-wage jobs, such as working in a left-wing bookstore in Frankfurt. During this period, he began attending university events, including lectures organized by left-wing revolutionary students by Theodor W. Adorno, Jürgen Habermas and Oskar Negt. [4] He studied the works of Marx, Mao and Hegel and became a member of the militant group, Revolutionärer Kampf (Revolutionary Struggle). Fischer was a leader in several street battles involving the radical Putzgruppe (literally "cleaning squad", with the first syllable being an acronym for Proletarische Union für Terror und Zerstörung, "Proletarian Union for Terror and Destruction"), which attacked a number of police officers. Photos of one such brawl in March 1973, which were later to haunt Fischer, show him clubbing policeman Rainer Marx, [5] to whom he later publicly apologized.

German student movement

The German student movement was a protest movement that took place during the late 1960s in West Germany. It was largely a reaction against the perceived authoritarianism and hypocrisy of the West German government and other Western governments, and the poor living conditions of students. A wave of protests—some violent—swept West Germany, fueled by violent over-reaction by the police and encouraged by contemporary protest movements across the world. Following more than a century of conservatism among German students, the German student movement also marked a significant major shift to the left and radicalization of student activism.

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy. It typically involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others (prioritarianism) as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished. The term left-wing can also refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system".

Stuttgart Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Stuttgart is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart is located on the Neckar river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron." It lies an hour from the Swabian Jura and the Black Forest. Its urban area has a population of 609,219, making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.7 million people live in the city's administrative region and another 5.3 million people in its metropolitan area, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Germany. The city and metropolitan area are consistently ranked among the top 20 European metropolitan areas by GDP; Mercer listed Stuttgart as 21st on its 2015 list of cities by quality of living, innovation agency 2thinknow ranked the city 24th globally out of 442 cities and the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked the city as a Beta-status world city in their 2014 survey.

Fischer is a close friend of Daniel Cohn-Bendit, whom he met during that time. In 1971, he began working for the car manufacturer Opel and attempted to organise his fellow workers for the coming communist revolution. (This was not organising on behalf of a regular labour union: the vast majority of Opel's workers had already been organised for decades by IG Metall, the German metalworkers' union.) This resulted in his dismissal from the company after six months. Fischer then continued making a living with unskilled work while continuing his activism. He worked as a taxi driver from 1976 to 1981 and later in a bookstore in Frankfurt.

Daniel Cohn-Bendit German journalist and politician

Daniel Marc Cohn-Bendit is a French-German politician. He was a student leader during the unrest of May 1968 in France and was also known during that time as Dany le Rouge. He was co-president of the group European Greens–European Free Alliance in the European Parliament. He co-chairs the Spinelli Group, a European parliament intergroup aiming at relaunching the federalist project in Europe. He was a recipient of the European Parliament's European Initiative Prize in 2016.

Opel German automotive brand, subsidiary of Groupe PSA

Opel is a German automobile manufacturer, a subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017. From 1929 until 2017, Opel was owned by American automaker General Motors. Opel vehicles are sold in the United Kingdom under the Vauxhall brand. Some Opel vehicles are badge-engineered in Australasia under the Holden brand, and in North America and China under the Buick brand.

IG Metall metalworkers union in Germany

IG Metall is the dominant metalworkers' union in Germany, making it the country's largest union as well as Europe’s largest industrial union. Analysts of German labor relations consider it a major trend-setter in national bargaining.

In the Deutscher Herbst (German autumn) of 1977, Germany was rattled by a series of left-wing terrorist attacks by the Red Army Faction (RAF) and Revolutionary Cells (RZ). According to Fischer's own account, witnessing these events, particularly the kidnapping and murder of Hanns-Martin Schleyer and the Entebbe hijacking, [6] [7] made him renounce violence as a means for political change. Instead, he became involved in the new social movements and later in the newly founded Green Party, mainly in the state of Hesse.

Terrorism use of violence and intimidation against civilians in order to further a political goal

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a religious or political aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants. The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001.

Red Army Faction militant group in West-Germany

The Red Army Faction, also known as the Baader–Meinhof Group or Baader–Meinhof Gang, was a West German far-left militant organization founded in 1970. Key early figures included Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Horst Mahler and Ulrike Meinhof, among others. Ulrike Meinhof was involved in Baader's escape from jail in 1970. The West German government as well as most Western media and literature considered the Red Army Faction to be a terrorist organization.

Operation Entebbe counter-terrorist hostage-rescue mission by the Israel Defense Forces at Entebbe Airport in Uganda on 4 July 1976

Operation Entebbe or Operation Thunderbolt was a successful counter-terrorist hostage-rescue mission carried out by commandos of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) at Entebbe Airport in Uganda on 4 July 1976.

In May 1981, the Hessian Secretary of Commerce Heinz-Herbert Karry was murdered with a firearm that in 1973 had been transported in Fischer's car, along with other weapons stolen from an American army base. [8] Fischer maintained he had given the car to the later terrorist Hans-Joachim Klein solely for the purpose of having Klein fit it with a new engine. Only later had Fischer learned that his car had been used to transport stolen weapons.[ citation needed ]

Hans-Joachim Klein is a former member of the German left-wing militant group Revolutionary Cells (RZ). His nom de guerre was "Angie". In 1975, Klein participated in an attack on OPEC headquarters in Vienna organized by the international terrorist "Carlos the Jackal", in which he was seriously injured. He publicly renounced political violence two years later. After decades in hiding, he was arrested in 1998, prosecuted for his role in the OPEC attack, and sentenced to nine years' imprisonment. He was paroled in 2003.

As Foreign Minister, Fischer apologised for the violence of his Putzgruppe days, without disassociating himself from the radical movement. Some critics continue to charge that Fischer was the leading figure of a 1976 discussion that led to the use of Molotov cocktails in an upcoming demonstration in support of RAF member Ulrike Meinhof. Fischer was arrested on 14 May 1976 as a suspect in the Molotov cocktail attacks on police, but was released after two days. Fischer stated that he never used Molotov cocktails against the police. The firebombing of policeman Jürgen Weber's police car left Weber with burns over 60% of his body. [5]

Green politician

Joschka Fischer in 1983 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F065084-0014, Bonn, Pressekonferenz der Grunen, Bundestagswahl.jpg
Joschka Fischer in 1983

From 1983 to 1985, Fischer was a member of the Bundestag for the Green party. His stint in federal parliament saw him frequently engage in a frank and confrontational debating style, exemplified by an incident on 18 October 1984, when he addressed Richard Stücklen, then vice president of the parliament, with the words: "If I may say so, Mr. President, you are an asshole" (German: "Mit Verlaub, Herr Präsident, Sie sind ein Arschloch."). In 1985, Fischer became Minister for the Environment in the Landtag of Hesse in the first governmental Red-Green coalition between the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Greens. Fischer caused a stir when he appeared at his oath of office ceremony wearing trainers. These sneakers are now part of the shoe collection at the German Leather and Shoe Museum in Offenbach, Hesse.

Fischer also expressed his thoughts very frankly in the periodical of the Hessian Green party "Stichwort Grün". In the edition of October 1989—one month before the fall of the Berlin Wall—he penned an article with the heading: "Der Wiedervereinigung die Schnauze verbieten!" (Shutting up the re-unification!)[ citation needed ]

Fischer was again environment minister in Hessen from 1991 to 1994 and then became co-chairman of the Greens' parliamentary faction in the Bundestag. Fischer was respected for his oratory skills, as well as for his charisma on the political stage. For a large part of the 1990s, with the social democrats languishing in the opinion polls, Fischer's admirers referred to him as the "real" leader of the opposition.[ citation needed ] He parlayed his clout into political success, as he moved the Greens to the centre ground of German politics, paving the way for their first participation in the nation's federal government.

Foreign Minister

Fischer with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2001 Vladimir Putin 13 February 2001-2.jpg
Fischer with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2001

In September 1998, the Social Democratic Party of Germany, led by Gerhard Schröder, defeated the Christian Democratic Union government of Helmut Kohl. The SPD's 41% and the Greens' 7% of the vote set the two parties on a possible path to government through a coalition. Schröder stated his preference for a red-green coalition, as did an overwhelming majority of SPD members.[ citation needed ] After several weeks of negotiations, a SPD-Green government took power on 27 October 1998, with Fischer appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs. By 2005, he was the second longest-serving foreign minister in German postwar history (after Hans-Dietrich Genscher).

In mid-April 1999, Germany came up with the first peace plan, when Fischer produced a proposal, notably including Russia, that would have rewarded the beginning of a Yugoslav pullout from Kosovo with a bombing pause. [9] In May 1999, however, an antiwar protester flung a bag of red paint at Fischer during a party convention debating NATO’s airstrikes on Yugoslavia in the war over Kosovo; Fischer suffered a perforated eardrum. [10]

In an effort to make it easier for antiwar critics to back Schröder’s decision to send German Bundeswehr troops to Afghanistan in 2001, Fischer and Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul announced a 256 million marks ($115 million) humanitarian-aid package for Afghan refugees. [11] In late 2001, Fischer hosted – under the auspices of the United Nations – a ten-day conference at the German government guesthouse above the Rhine River, where delegates from four Afghan factions signed the Bonn Agreement establishing a transitional government for the country to replace the deposed Taliban regime. [12] At the time, Germany's longstanding links to Afghanistan and its 2001 chairmanship of the Afghanistan Support Group of countries pledging humanitarian and reconstruction aid for the country, were the reasons it was picked to host the meeting. [13]

In September 2001, Fischer summoned Ahmad Azizi, the Iranian ambassador to Germany, for urgent talks after several reformist intellectuals – including Akbar Ganji, Mehrangiz Kar and Ezzatollah Sahabi – were given prison sentences of between four and 10 years for participating in a 2000 academic and cultural conference sponsored by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Berlin in late 2000. [14]

In 2005, critics charged that Fischer's relaxing of controls on visa regulations for Ukraine, would allow illegal immigrants to enter Germany with fake identities. [15] A parliamentary committee was established to examine the case, and unlike in other such committee hearings, Fischer's statement (and that of other top officials) was shown live on public television. Fischer's appearance before the committee lasted twelve hours. (See German Visa Affair 2005).

Fischer represented the German government at the funeral services for Foreign Minister Anna Lindh of Sweden on 19 September 2003 in Stockholm; Pope John Paul II on 8 April 2005 in Rome; and former UK Foreign Secretary Robin Cook on 12 August 2005 in Edinburgh. [16]

After the defeat of the coalition government in the 2005 election, Fischer announced that he would retire to the backbench. "After 20 years of power, now I want my freedom back", Fischer said. [17] On 13 October 2005, it was announced that Frank-Walter Steinmeier of the SPD would succeed Fischer as foreign minister.

Western Balkans policy

In 1999, Fischer supported German military participation in the Kosovo War. This proved to be a highly controversial position since Fischer's plan not only clashed with the largely pacifist philosophy of The Greens, but because it also supported for the first time since World War II active participation of German soldiers in combat. Fischer justified this military involvement with allegations that Serbia was planning to commit genocide against the Kosovo Albanians.

Fischer represented the German government at the funeral services for Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić of Serbia on 16 March 2003 (alongside Development Minister Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul) [18] and President Boris Trajkovski of Macedonia on 5 March 2004 in Skopje.

Transatlantic relations

On fundamental issues like the International Criminal Court, the Kyoto Protocol, and the crisis in the Middle East, Fischer was openly differing with the Bush administration. [19]

In 1999, both Fischer and Justice Minister Herta Däubler-Gmelin appealed for clemency for the LaGrand brothers, two German citizens sentenced to death in Arizona. According to the German government, the LaGrands had been denied their rights as German citizens because prosecutors did not inform the German consulate of the brothers' arrest in 1982 until a decade later. However, both were put to death in a cloud of cyanide gas. [20] In response, the European Union submitted an anti-death-penalty resolution to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. [21]

Although Fischer was in favour of stationing German troops in Afghanistan, he advised chancellor Schröder not to join the war in Iraq. Fischer famously confronted United States Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld at the 39th Munich Security Conference in 2003 on the secretary's purported evidence for Iraq's possession of weapons of mass destruction ("Excuse me, I am not convinced").

Middle East policy

Fischer has been criticized for attending a 1969 conference of the Palestine Liberation Organization, where Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat called for an all-out war on Israel "until the end". [22]

During their time in government, both Fischer and Chancellor Gerhard Schröder were widely considered sincerely, if not uncritically, pro-Israeli. [23] In 1999, Fischer led a delegation including European Commissioner Manuel Marín and the European Union’s Special Envoy to the Middle East Miguel Ángel Moratinos on a visit to Jerusalem and the Palestinian territories, but also to a range of other countries which have a crucial role in the peace process, including Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt. [24] By 2001, he emerged as a pivotal figure in the hopes for the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, in part because he helped bring about a lull in the violence after the Dolphinarium discotheque massacre in June 2001. His intervention led to an announced cease-fire arranged by George Tenet, the United States Director of Central Intelligence; Fischer had been in Tel Aviv at the time of the blast. [25] Fischer later brokered a meeting between Arafat and the Israeli foreign minister, Shimon Peres, to discuss how to implement the cease-fire. [26]

In July 2002, Fischer presented a proposal that calls for Arafat to appoint an interim prime minister. After the vote, the proposal said, elected officials could continue democratic reforms leading to a provisional Palestinian state by the end of 2003 and to final borders by 2005. [27] He represented the German government at the funeral services for Arafat on 12 November 2004 in Cairo and at the inauguration of the new Holocaust Memorial Museum at Yad Vashem in March 2005. [28]

European integration

In a direct challenge to nation states in Europe, Fischer in May 2000 proposed the creation of a European federation with a directly elected president and parliament sharing real executive and legislative powers. Fischer proposed the eventual enactment of a constitutional treaty that would set out which powers were to be shifted to the new European executive and parliament, and those that remained at national level. [29] In response, President Jacques Chirac of France urged Germany in June 2000 to join France in spearheading a core group of European Union countries that would move faster than others toward political and economic union. [30]

In October 2002, Fischer was appointed by the German government to the Convention on the Future of Europe, replacing Peter Glotz. Fischer had expressed a keen interest in taking part in the Convention during the coalition talks with Chancellor Gerhard Schröder following the 2002 elections. [31] In a paper jointly signed by Fischer and his French counterpart, Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin, in November 2002, Germany and France pushed for a mutual defence commitment to be part of the constitution. [32] In 2004, he was one of the signatories to the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe.

Relations with Russia

Fischer has long been critical of Russia, especially on human rights. [33] However, during his time as foreign minister, Germany’s relations with Russia were primarily guided by Chancellor Gerhard Schröder. In 2004, Fischer called on Ukraine to hold a recount of the presidential elections after Putin-backed candidate Viktor Yanukovich was the first to declare his victory despite mass protests in Kyiv. [34]

Life after politics

From September 2006 until 2007, Fischer was a senior fellow at the Liechtenstein Institute on Self-Determination, and as a visiting professor co-taught with Wolfgang F. Danspeckgruber at Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, both at Princeton University. He has also spoken at other American universities on various topics in foreign affairs and international relations.

In addition, Fischer joined various non-governmental organizations, including:

Since 2008, Fischer has been Senior Strategic Counsel at Albright Stonebridge Group, Washington, DC, consulting firm led by Madeleine Albright. [41] In this capacity, has in the past been advising Siemens, BMW and Deutsche Börse. [42] [43]

In 2009, Fischer took a post as adviser to the Nabucco pipeline project, in which the German RWE company is also involved. According to media reports, the "six-digit salary" consultancy contract has already been signed. [44]

On 15 September 2010 Fischer supported the new initiative Spinelli Group, which was founded to reinvigorate efforts towards federalisation of the European Union (EU). Other prominent supporters are: Jacques Delors, Daniel Cohn-Bendit, Guy Verhofstadt, Andrew Duff, Elmar Brok.


Personal life

Prior to the German Visa Affair 2005, Fischer was a popular politician, "loved by an entire nation." Writing in Der Spiegel , journalist Charles Hawley opined that since 1998, "Joschka Fischer's popularity has been virtually unassailable: The icon of the environmentally minded Green Party could, it seemed, do no wrong. Indeed, Fischer was so popular in 2002 that Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder largely based his early election campaign on the fact that Fischer would remain at his side at the helm of Germany's political leadership." [47] As Germany’s Foreign Minister, Fischer’s popularity soared when he opposed the Iraq War, and his very public struggle with his weight endeared him to many Germans.

Joska fischer wappen.png

Up until 1996, Fischer was a bon vivant, and often spoke openly about his love for good wines and food despite his "chunky" figure. [47] As he ascended to the Foreign Ministry, Fischer decided to lose weight, transforming his body almost overnight by refraining from alcohol and becoming a vegetarian. In 2000, he covered the topic of his weight loss by writing the book My Long Race Towards Myself on his experience, which became an immediate bestseller in Germany. Half a year before becoming foreign minister, he had his marathon debut at the 1998 Hamburg Marathon (clocking 3:41) [48] As minister, he finished New York in 1999 (3:55) [49] and Berlin in 2000 (3:55) [50] Afterwards, he reduced training and during the months preceding the Iraq War, Fischer began putting on weight again.

Fischer was married to German-Iranian film producer and screenwriter Minu Barati in 2005. It is his fifth marriage. His two children with his previous partner and eventual wife, Inge Vogel (to whom he was married from 1984-1987), were born in 1979 and 1983, respectively. At the time of his wedding with Barati in 2005, she was mother to a six-year-old daughter from a previous relationship, while Fischer's children were 23 and 26 of age at the time. The couple lives with Barati's daughter. [51]

In 2004, he commissioned German heraldist Dieter Krieger to produce a coat of arms, which was registered to the Rhein-Main Wappenrolle ( ). The arms are a type of a "Canting arms"; party per fesse silver and gules, in chief crossed axes with red blades and black handles, in base, a fish in the first. Crest of the red eagle's wings, mantling red doubled silver. [52] [53]

He describes himself as Catholic, but not very religious. [54]

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Thomas Ludwig Albert Oppermann is a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). Since October 2017 he has been Vice President of the Bundestag. He served as First Secretary (2007-2013) and later as chairman (2013-2017) of the SPD Parliamentary Group in the Bundestag.

History of Germany since 1990 aspect of history

The history of Germany since 1990 spans the period following the Reunification of Germany, when West Germany and East Germany were reunited after being divided during the Cold War. Germany after 1990 is referred to by historians as the Berlin Republic. This time period is also determined by the ongoing process of the "inner reunification" of the formerly divided country.


  1. "Weiterhin große Unzufriedenheit mit den Spitzenpolitikern" (in German). July 4, 2003. Archived from the original on 16 November 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
  2. M. Drobinski. "Vor dem Altar gestählt fürs Leben".
  3. Christoph Schult. "Zivildienst: Hat sich Joschka Fischer gedrückt?". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on November 16, 2006.
  4. Paul Hockenhos, Joschka Fischer and the Making of the Berlin Republic, Oxford University Press, 2007, p 86
  5. 1 2 Cohen, Roger (January 15, 2001). "Germany's Foreign Minister Is Pursued by His Early Firebrand Self". New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
  6. Hari, Johann (November 27, 2005). "The Red and the Green". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
  7. Kelly, Michael (14 February 200). "Who is Joschka Fischer?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011.Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. Karacs, Imre (3 August 1998). "Kohl turns his fire on the Greens". The Independent . Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved July 2012.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  9. Warren Hodge (June 4, 1999), Europeans Impressed By Their Own Unity New York Times .
  10. Tony Czuczka (September 23, 2010), German Greens’ Trittin Hit in Yoghurt Attack, Police Says Bloomberg News .
  11. William Boston (November 15, 2001), Germany's Schroeder Presses Coalition To Back Him With Vote of Confidence Wall Street Journal .
  12. Peter Finn (November 28, 2001), Afghan Delegates At U.N. Talks In Germany Urge Tolerance Orlando Sentinel .
  13. Afghan Conference Switched to Bonn for Security Concerns Voice of America , November 22, 2001.
  14. Germany's 'concern' at Iran verdicts BBC News , 14 January 2001.
  15. "Germany's Fischer preps Kyiv students for future". Kyiv Post . 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 22 April 2010.
  16. Cook funeral hears Blair's 'moral failure' criticised Irish Times , 12 August 2005.
  17. Yassin Musharbash, "Fischers bedingter Abschied: 'Ich will die Freiheit zurück'", Spiegel Online 2005-09-20.
  18. José Comas (March 16, 2003), Belgrado vive su mayor funeral desde Tito El País .
  19. Steven Erlanger (July 21, 2002), The World; America the Invulnerable? The World Looks Again New York Times .
  20. Roger Cohen (March 5, 1999), U.S. Execution of German Stirs Anger New York Times .
  21. Elizabeth Olson (March 28, 1999), U.S. Execution of German Stirs Anger New York Times .
  22. Paul Berman, Power and the Idealists (NY: Soft Skull Press, 2005), pp. 9-10, and Chapter 1, passim.
  23. Steven Erlanger (April 7, 2002), The World: The Jewish Question; Europe Knows Who's to Blame in the Middle East New York Times .
  24. EU strives to keep Middle East peace talks alive European Voice , February 3, 1999.
  25. Deborah Sontag (June 3, 2001), Arafat Calls for Cease-Fire, Deploring Tel Aviv Attack New York Times .
  26. Clyde Haberman (August 22, 2001), New Middle East Peace Bid Brokered by German Envoy New York Times .
  27. Todd S. Purdum (July 12, 2002), Bush's Mideast Consultations Proceed, Quietly New York Times .
  28. Steven Erlanger (March 16, 2005), New Museum, Putting a Human Face on the Holocaust, Opens in Israel New York Times .
  29. Roger Cohen (May 15, 2000), German Urges Europe Create Central Body For Governing New York Times .
  30. Suzanne Daley (June 28, 2000), French Leader, in Berlin, Urges A Fast Track to Unity in Europe New York Times .
  31. Martin Banks (October 23, 2002), Mixed reaction to Convention role for Fischer European Voice .
  32. Dana Spinant (March 12, 2003), Does EU need a mutual defence pact? European Voice .
  33. Joschka Fischer v Gerhard Schröder The Economist .
  34. Arkady Ostrovsky (November 24, 2004), Vote's outcome seen as defining moment for Moscow Financial Times .
  35. Victor Homola (July 28, 2006), Germany: Farewell to German Politics New York Times .
  36. About Us European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR).
  37. Presidium United Nations Association of Germany (DGVN).
  38. Supervisory Board Archived 2016-06-01 at the Wayback Machine Meridiam.
  39. Board of Patrons
  40. Member of the Awards Committee Roland Berger Foundation.
  41. "Albright Group". Archived from the original on November 16, 2006. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
  42. Für diese Firmen arbeitet Joschka Fischer Handelsblatt , March 4, 2011.
  43. Deutsche Börse kämpft weiter ARD , December 23, 2016.
  44. Ulrich Rippert. "Joschka Fischer takes post as Nabucco pipeline adviser". World Socialist Web Site. Archived from the original on November 16, 2006.
  45. Jacob Greber (May 4, 2004), Joschka Fischer wins Gottlieb Duttweiler Prize Swissinfo.
  46. Six to receive honorary degrees at Winter Commencement University of Michigan.
  47. 1 2 "Political Scandal: Joschka Fischer with His Back Against the Wall" Der Spiegel, February 22, 2005
  48. Herbert Seffrey. "Personal Trainer". Archived from the original on November 16, 2006. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  49. Gisela Oswald (August 11, 1999). "New York Marathon: Fischer im Ziel" [New York Marathon: Fisher in target]. Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on November 16, 2006. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  50. "Joschka Fischer auf Rang 8.919" (in German). RP Online. October 9, 2000. Archived from the original on November 16, 2006. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  51. "Fischer marries for fifth time". Gulf Daily News . Archived from the original on November 16, 2006.
  52. Franziska v. Mutius (July 27, 2004). "Joschka Fischer setzt auf Tradition und kauft ein Familienwappen". Die Welt . Archived from the original on November 16, 2006.
  53. Bundesaußenminister a. D. Joschka Fischer erhält Wappenbrief der Rhein-Main-Wappenrolle (with Picture) on Website of Schlosses Alsbach
  54. Dennis Kremer (October 10, 2007). "Joschka Fischer und die sieben Todsünden". Die Welt .

The following sources reflect the views of U.S. adversaries of Fischer and his policies, especially Germany's decision not to participate in the 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq.

Joschka Fischer writes a monthly commentary series, "The Rebel Realist", for Project Syndicate, a non-profit association of newspapers around the world.

Joschka Fisher speaks to Leadel.NET, an online Jewish media portal, in a video interview

Political offices
Preceded by
Klaus Kinkel
Vice Chancellor of Germany
Succeeded by
Franz Müntefering
Minister for Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Academic offices
Preceded by
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Speaker at the College of Europe Opening Ceremony
Succeeded by
José Manuel Barroso