Josef Terboven

Last updated
Josef Terboven
Terboven statsakten.jpg
Reichskommissar for the Occupied Norwegian Territories
In office
24 April 1940 7 May 1945
Prime Minister Vidkun Quisling (1942–1945)
Preceded byNone
Succeeded by Franz Böhme (acting, 1945)
Gauleiter of Essen
In office
1928 8 May 1945
Succeeded byFritz Schlessmann (acting, 1940–1945)
Oberpräsident of Rhine Province
In office
1940 8 May 1945
Preceded byHermann Freiherr von Lünick
Succeeded byNone
Personal details
Born23 May 1898
Essen, Rhine Province, Prussia, Germany
Died8 May 1945 (aged 46)
Asker, Akershus, Norway
Political party National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)

Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (23 May 1898 – 8 May 1945) was a Nazi leader, best known as the Reichskommissar for Norway during the German occupation of Norway and the Quisling regime.

Contents

Early life

Terboven (from the Dutch ter Boven) was born in Essen, Germany, as the son of minor landed gentry of Dutch descent. He served in the German field artillery and nascent air force in World War I and was awarded the Iron Cross, rising to the rank of lieutenant. He studied law and political science at the universities of Munich and Freiburg, where he first got involved in politics.

Nazi Party career

Dropping out of the university in 1923, Terboven joined the NSDAP with member number 25247 and participated in the abortive Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. When the NSDAP was subsequently outlawed, he found work at a bank for a few years before he was laid off in 1925.

He then went to work full-time for the Nazi party. Terboven helped establish the party in Essen and became Gauleiter there in 1928. From 1925 on he was part of the Sturmabteilung, in which he reached the rank of Obergruppenführer by 1936. On 29 June 1934, Terboven married Ilse Stahl, Joseph Goebbels' former secretary and mistress. Adolf Hitler was the guest of honour at the wedding. Terboven was made Oberpräsident der Rheinprovinz in 1935.

Rule of Norway

Terboven (seated 2nd from right) with Quisling, Himmler and von Falkenhorst. Bundesarchiv Bild 101III-Moebius-029-12, Norwegen, Besuch Himmler, Terboven und Quisling.jpg
Terboven (seated 2nd from right) with Quisling, Himmler and von Falkenhorst.

Terboven was made Reichskommissar for Norway on 24 April 1940, even before the military invasion was completed on 10 June 1940. He moved into Skaugum, the official residence of the Crown Prince of Norway, in September 1940 and made his headquarters in Stortinget (the Norwegian parliament buildings). Ilse and their daughter Inge did not accompany him to Norway, remaining in Germany.[ citation needed ]

Reichskommissar Terboven only had supervisory authority over the civilian administration in Norway. The German civilian administration did not rule Norway directly, however, and remained relatively small. Daily affairs were managed by the existing Norwegian state administration, headed by an acting cabinet and then by the Quisling cabinet. Terboven did not have authority over the 400,000 regular German Army forces stationed in Norway which were under the command of Generaloberst Nikolaus von Falkenhorst, but he did command a personal force of around 6,000 men, of whom 800 were part of the secret police.

In contrast to the military forces commanded by Falkenhorst, which aimed to reach an understanding with the Norwegian people and were under orders by Falkenhorst to treat Norwegians with courtesy, Terboven behaved in the same petty and ruthless way he did as governor of the Rheinprovinz, and was widely disliked, not only by the Norwegians, but also by many Germans. From 1941, he increasingly focused on crushing the irregular military resistance against the Germans, declaring martial law in Trondheim in 1942, and ordering the destruction of Telavåg. Goebbels expressed annoyance in his diary about what he called Terboven's "bullying tactics" against the Norwegians, as they alienated the population against the Germans. Terboven nevertheless remained in ultimate charge of Norway until the end of the war in 1945, even after the proclamation of a Norwegian puppet regime under Vidkun Quisling, the Quisling government. On 18 December 1944, Falkenhorst was dismissed from his command for opposing certain radical policies of Terboven.

As the tide of the war turned against Germany, Terboven's personal aspiration was to organise a "Fortress Norway" (Festung Norwegen) for the Nazi regime's last stand. Hitler's successor, Admiral Dönitz, dismissed Terboven from his post as Reichskommissar on 7 May, transferring his powers to General Böhme.

Impact of his rule on prison camps

Terboven also planned concentration camps in Norway, establishing Falstad concentration camp near Levanger and Bredtvet concentration camp in Oslo in late 1941.

On 18 July 1942 the Beisfjord massacre occurred. Terboven ordered the massacre a few days earlier.

In July 1942 at least one German guard employed by the Korgen prison camp was killed. The commandant ordered retribution: execution by gunfire for "39 prisoners at Korgen and 20 at Osen"; in the days that followed, Terboven also ordered retribution: around 400 prisoners shot and killed in various camps. [1]

Death

With the announcement of Germany's surrender, Terboven committed suicide on 8 May 1945 by detonating 50 kg of dynamite in a bunker [2] on the Skaugum compound. He died alongside the body of Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Rediess, SS and Police Leader and commander of all SS troops in Norway, who had shot himself earlier. His family survived him in West Germany, and Ilse died in 1972.[ citation needed ]

In the 1965 film The Heroes of Telemark , Josef Terboven was played by English actor Eric Porter.

He is portrayed in the 1996 film Hamsun by Edgar Selge.

A character resembling him appears in the single player campaign of Battlefield V and interrogates the player during a scene.

Sources and references

  1. "Da nordmenn myrdet fanger i Korgen | Tekster og slikt". Finnbakk.Wordpress.com. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017. Da to fanger i Korgen drepte en tysk vokter og rømte, ga kommandant Hesse ordre om at det som hevn skulle skytes 39 fanger i Korgen og 20 i Osen. Dette var 17. juli 1942. Hesse startet myrderiene med sjøl å skyte flere fanger. De nærmeste dagene ble det på Reichskommissar Terbovens personlige ordre skutt om lag 400 krigsfanger i forskjellige leire
  2. Goeschel, Christian (2009), Suicide in Nazi Germany, OUP Oxford, p. 152, ISBN   0191567566.

Related Research Articles

Vidkun Quisling Norwegian politician and Nazi collaborator

Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling was a Norwegian military officer and politician who nominally headed the government of Norway during the occupation of the country by Nazi Germany during World War II. He first came to international prominence as a close collaborator of explorer Fridtjof Nansen, organizing humanitarian relief during the Russian famine of 1921 in Povolzhye. He was posted as a Norwegian diplomat to the Soviet Union, and for some time also managed British diplomatic affairs there. He returned to Norway in 1929, and served as Minister of Defence in the governments of Peder Kolstad (1931–32) and Jens Hundseid (1932–33), representing the Farmers' Party.

Reichskommissar, in German history, was an official gubernatorial title used for various public offices during the period of the German Empire and the Third Reich.

Ragnar Skancke Norwegian politician

Ragnar Sigvald Skancke was the Norwegian Minister of Labour and Minister for Church and Educational Affairs in Vidkun Quisling's government of the Nasjonal Samling party during World War II.

Johan Bernhard Hjort Norwegian supreme court lawyer

Johan Bernhard Hjort was a Norwegian supreme court lawyer. Having joined the law firm of Harald Nørregaard in 1932, he continued the firm after World War II as Advokatfirmaet Hjort, which today is one of Norway's leading law firms. Hjort was also noted for his involvement with the fascist party, Nasjonal Samling, in the 1930s, but left the party in 1937 and became an active member of the anti-Nazi resistance during World War II. He was imprisoned by the Nazis and is credited with saving the lives of many prisoners through his involvement with the White Buses. After World War II, he rose to become one of Norway's preeminent lawyers, and was noted for his defence of gay rights and controversial artists, as chairman of the Riksmålsforbundet language society, and as a liberal public figure.

German occupation of Norway Nazi occupation of Norway during World War II

The German occupation of Norway during World War II began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway. Conventional armed resistance to the German invasion ended on 10 June 1940 and Nazi Germany controlled Norway until the capitulation of German forces in Europe on 8/9 May 1945. Throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht. Civil rule was effectively assumed by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, which acted in collaboration with a pro-German puppet government, the Quisling regime, while the Norwegian king Haakon VII and the prewar government escaped to London, where they acted as a government in exile. This period of military occupation is in Norway referred to as the "war years" or "occupation period".

Skaugum area and farm in Asker, Norway

Skaugum is an estate, manor house and the official residence of Crown Prince Haakon of Norway and his wife Crown Princess Mette-Marit. The estate is located in Asker municipality, 19 km (12 mi) southwest of Oslo, by the foot of the mountain Skaugumsåsen. The estate consists of 48 ha of agricultural lands and 50 ha of woodlands.

Kjeld Stub Irgens Norwegian politician

Kjeld Stub Irgens was a Norwegian politician during the German occupation of Norway.

Wilhelm Rediess German general

Friedrich Wilhelm Rediess was the SS and Police Leader during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War. He was also the commander of all SS troops stationed in occupied Norway, assuming command on 22 June 1940 until his death in 1945.

Nygaardsvolds Cabinet

Nygaardsvold's Cabinet was appointed on 20 March 1935, the second Labour cabinet in Norway. It brought to an end the non-socialist minority Governments that had been dominating politics since the introduction of the parliamentary system in 1884, and replaced it with stable Labour Governments that, with the exception of during World War II, would last until the coalition cabinet Lyng in 1963.

Reichskommissariat Norwegen Norway occupied by Germany during the Second World War

The Reichskommissariat Norwegen was the civilian occupation regime set up by Nazi Germany in German-occupied Norway during World War II. Its full title in German was the Reichskommissariat für die besetzten norwegischen Gebiete. It was governed by Reichskommissar Josef Terboven until his deposition on 7 May 1945. The German military forces in Norway, then under the command of general Franz Böhme, surrendered to the Allies on 9 May and the legal government was restored.

The Holocaust in Norway

The German occupation of Norway began on 9 April 1940. In 1942, there were at least 2,173 Jews in Norway. At least 775 of them were arrested, detained and/or deported. More than half of the Norwegians who died in camps in Germany were Jews. 742 Jews were murdered in the camps and 23 Jews died as a result of extrajudicial execution, murder and suicide during the war, bringing the total of Jewish Norwegian dead to at least 765 Jews, comprising 230 complete households. "Nearly two-thirds of the Jews in Norway fled from Norway". Of these, around 900 Jews were smuggled out of the country by the Norwegian resistance movement, mostly to Sweden but some also to the United Kingdom. Between 28 and 34 of those deported survived their continued imprisonment in camps —and around 25 returned to Norway after the war. About 800 Norwegian Jews who had fled to Sweden returned.

During the occupation of Norway by Germany, the occupying powers imposed martial law in Trondheim and surrounding areas effective October 6, 1942 through October 12, 1942. During this time, 34 Norwegians were killed by extrajudicial execution. This also served as a pretext for the arrest and detention of all male Jewish inhabitants of the area as part of the Holocaust in Norway.

Karl Marthinsen Norwegian police commander

Karl Alfred Nicolai Marthinsen was the Norwegian commander of Statspolitiet and Sikkerhetspolitiet in Norway during the Nazi occupation during World War II.

Quisling regime Vidkun Quislings incluence in Norway during the Second World War

The Quisling regime or Quisling government are common names used to refer to the fascist collaborationist government led by Vidkun Quisling in German-occupied Norway during the Second World War. The official name of the regime from 1 February 1942 until its dissolution in May 1945 was Den nasjonale regjering. Actual executive power was retained by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, headed by Josef Terboven.

The 1943 University of Oslo fire was a fire in the ceremony hall of the University of Oslo in 1943. Its direct consequences were the closing of the university, and the arrest of 1,166 people; these were chiefly male students. Of these, 644 were sent to German "readjustment" camps, where 17 people died. Initial beliefs that the fire was either a Reichstag fire or perpetrated by communists were wrong; members of the Norwegian resistance movement were responsible.

Paul Wegener (Gauleiter) German politician

Paul Wegener was a German Nazi Party official.

Beisfjord massacre

The Beisfjord massacre was a massacre on 18 July 1942 at Lager I Beisfjord in Beisfjord, Norway of 288 political prisoners. The massacre had been ordered a few days earlier by the Reichskommissar for Norway Josef Terboven.

Paul Christian Frank was a Norwegian barrister, politician, organizer and non-fiction writer.

Gau Essen administrative division of Nazi Germany

The Gau Essen was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the northern parts of the Prussian Rhine Province. Before that, from 1928 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.